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Now, hid beneath the flowery turf, they pass;
ERRAND. (Sometimes written Arrand, qv.) A. S. Erend-ian, to bear or carry tidings, to deliver a message, to declare or bring news.
Erend,-tidings, news, a message, an embassy. Godes arend-gast; an angel, a spiritual messenger or embassador, one going on God's errand. See Somner.
Tho me tolde him here ernde.-R. Gloucester, p. 147.
If thou thine honour mightest saue
Thider, for thy loue's sake
Ful faine thou woldest, but for drede
Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose. And who (amongst all the rest of his seven sonnes) shall be pickt out for this service, but his youngest sonne David, whose former and almost worne-out acquaintance in court, and employment under Saul seemed to fit him best for this errand. Bp. Hall. Cont. David & Goliah.
For remembring that he took no money with him when he came from his house, and that Cicero his brother also had very little for himself, he thought it best that Cicero should hold on his journey, whilest he himself made an errand home to fetch such things as he lacked, and so to make haste again to overtake his brother.
North. Plutarch, p. 729.
The examples explain the application of the word.
Likewise Lysimachia stancheth bloud either in drinke, liniment, or errhine put up into the nose.
Holland. Plinie, b. xxvi. c. 12. And we see sage or betony bruised, sneezing-powder, and other powders or liquors (which the physitians call errhines) put into the nose, draw flegme, and water from the head. Bacon. Naturall History, s. 38. ERUCTATE. Fr. Eructation; Sp. Eructar, ERUCTA'TION. Seructacion; It. Eruttare, eruttazione; Lat. Eructatio, from eructare; Gr. Epevyew, to throw out, to force out.
To throw up, (sc. wind;) to belch.
They would make us believe in Syracusa, now Messina, that Etna in times past hath eructated such huge boggets of fire, that the sparks of them have burnt houses in Malta, above fifty miles off, transported thither by a direct strong wind.-Howell, b. i. s. 1. Let. 27.
But, after all, cabbage ('tis confess'd) is greatly accused for lying undigested in the stomach, and provoking eructations; which makes me wonder at the veneration we read the ancients had for them, calling them divine, and swearing per brassicam.-Evelyn. Discourse of Salletts.
Though he should sign a hundred protests ir. a session, and daily eructate his invectives against the most respectable men, we will not be misled.-Knox, Ess. 9.
Never let him read with an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructations. Sir W. Jones. Economicks and Private Morals.
E/RUDITE, adj. Į Fr. Erudition; It. Erudito, ERUDITION. Seruditione; Sp. Erudito, erudicion; Lat. Eruditio, from erudire, (e, and rudis, from raudus, which is from the Gr. 'Paßdos, virga, sc. impolita,) extra ruditatem ponere,-to free from roughness, (Vossius.)
Polished or well wrought; and, (met.) well instructed, well taught, deeply learned.
The kinges highnes as a most erudite price and a most faithfull kinge in hys moste famouse boke ainōge many other great authorities & reasons, preced him, [Luther] sore with yt that the gloriouse apostle Saynet Paule calleth it a great sacrament himselfe.-Sir. T. More. Workes, p. 645.
Fame be thy tutor, and thy parts of nature
Shakespeare. Troil. & Cress. Act ii. sc. 3.
We have not all of us need of the skill in hunting, of military science, of the art of navigation, nor of the mechanicall handicrafts of artizans; but we all stand in need of learning and erudition.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 652.
But sure there is a middle way to be followed; the management of a young lady's person is not to be overlooked, but the erudition of her mind is much more to be regarded. Spectator, No. 66. ""Twere well," says one, sage, erudite, profound, Terribly arch'd, and aquiline his nose, And overbuilt with most impending brows, ""Twere well, could you permit the world to live As the world pleases: what's the world to you?" Cowper. Task, b. iii. He was not long satisfied with his Institution of a Christian man; he ordered a new book to be composed, called the Erudition of a Christian man. Hume. History of England, c. 32. ERUGINOUS. Lat. Eruginosus, from arugo, the rust of brass, (æs, æris.)
Fr. Erugineux, which Cotgrave says is, "of the colour of verdigrease; rusty, cankred or corrupted."
Now artificial copperose, and such as we commonly use, is a rough and acrimonious kind of salt drawn out of ferreous and eruginous earths, partaking chiefly of iron and copper.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. vi. c. 12.
Fr. Eruption; It. Eruzione; ERUPTIVE.} Sp. Erupcion, Lat. Eruptio,
from erumpere, eruptum, to break or burst forth, (e, and rumpere, to burst.)
A breaking or bursting out or forth; a bursting or rushing forth; a sallying forth; shouting or exclaiming.
Miserable losses and continual had the English by their frequent eruptions, from this time to the Norman Conquest. Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 1, Hor. In what particular thought to work I know not: But in the grosse and scope of my opinion This boades some strange eruption to our State. Shakespeare. Hamlet, Acti. sc. 1. For certain it is, that to his often mentioned secretary, Dr. Mason, whom he [the Duke of Buckingham] laid in a pallet near him, for natural ventilation of his thoughts, he would, in the absence of all other ears and eyes, break out into bitter and passionate eruptions.
Reliquia Wottonianæ, p. 227. All which is perverted in this eruptive generation. Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iii. c. 16. So when the Cyclops o'er their anvils sweat, And swelling sinews echoing blows repeat; From the volcanos gross eruptions rise, And curling sheets of smoke obscure the skies. Garth. The Dispensary, c. 1. The confusion of things, the eruptions of barbarians, the turn to account for him; and in confusion of things he did straits of emperours, the contentions of princes, &c. did all
snatch what he could to himself.
Barrow. Of the Pope's Supremacy.
'Tis listening fear and dumb amazement all:
Anon, with black eruption from its jaws
Mallet. The Excursion, c. 1.
It is in the nature of these eruptive diseases in the state to sink in by fits, and re-appear. Burke. On a Regicide Peace, Let. 1.
ES, our genitive and plural termination, may be the article As, in Ger. Es, equivalent in meaning to-taken.
E'SBAIED. BASE and BAW.
Fr. Esbahir, Abashed. See Chaucer writes, abawed. Wherewith [the Letter of Parmenio] he [Alexander] beynge nothynge esbaied, helde in his handes the letter, and receyuyng the medycyne that Philippe gaue hym, at oone tyme delyuered the letter open to Philyp, and dranke also the medycyne.-Sir T. Elyot. The Governour, b. iii. c. 18.
ESCALADE. From scala, a ladder, so called from the separations between step and step; from A. S. Scyl-an, to divide, to separate.
"Fr. Escalade, a scalado, a skaling; the taking or surprising of a place by skaling," (Cotgrave.) Fr. Eschelle, a ladder. Brunne uses eschele, generally, for a division of an army.
The third eschele fulle harde was bisted.
R. Brunne, p. 190. And for the escaladaes, they had so bad successe, as the rebels were driuen from the walles with the losse of two hundred men.-Bacon. Hen. VII. p. 181.
ESCA'LOP. "I believe (says Skinner) from the A. S. Scala, a shell:" and shell is from the A. S. Scyl-an, to divide, to separate. The scollop is particularly so called, because the edges of the shell are unequal and jagged.
With such ornament and decoration as best becomes them; as to Nymphs, Tritons, Sea-Gods, escalop-shells, &c. Evelyn. An Account of Architects.
How can we imagine that any laws of motion can determine the figure of the leaves, that they should be divided into so many jags or escallops, and curiously indented round the edges.-Ray. On the Creation, pt. i. ESCA'PE, v. ESCA'PE, n. ESCA'PER. ESCA'PING, n.
Menage (Orig. Della Lingua. Ital.) considers the It. Scapare and Scampare to be the same words, and derives them from the Lat. Campus, q.d. ex campo exire. And Kilian (in v. Schampen, abire) says, Gall. Eschapper; It. Scampare; Sp. Escapar; Ang. Escape. See SCAPE.
To go away, (sc.) out of the reach of danger, out of difficulty, out of sight, out of notice. And as the di
"Fr. Eschapper,-to flie, evade, avoid; shift away; to scape, come or pass through, safely; to free himself, or get rid from; to slip, creep or winde out of," (Cotgrave.)
Escaper,-occurs in the margin, 2 Kings ix. 15.
His praier did him bryng out of his hard cas,
He suld not escape, thorgh bisshop granted fre,
Chaucer. The Monkes Tale, v. 14,650.
Id. The Clerkes Tale, v. 7999.
Yet not escaped from the dew reward Of his bad deedes, which daily he increast. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 5. Bos. Hee is filed, he is fled, and dares not sit it out. Bri. What has he made an escape, which way? follow, neighbour Haggise.-B. Jonson. Barthol. Faire, Act iv. sc.6. Which my father's servants had so well concealed, at the first breaking out of the war, in a private part of my house, that they escaped the search of the enemy, who had plundered all they could find, broken all the windows, taken away the leads, and pulled up the boards in most parts of the house. Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 186.
No sooner was the king's escape taken notice of by the guards, but Col. Whalley hastened to the parliament with the letter which the king had left upon his table, shewing the reasons of his withdrawing, and his resolution not to desert the interest of the army. Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 191. The greater the evil is, the more reason is there to venture the loss of a less good, or the suffering of a less evil for the escaping of it.—Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. i. c. 2.
But soon the victor must his conquest mourn:
Hoole. Orlando Furioso, b. iii.
E'SCHAR. Gr. Eoxapa; Fr. Eschare; a skar or hard scab upon a hurt, sore, wound; also, the crust which ariseth upon an actual or potential cautery, (Cotgrave,) from A. S. Scir-an, to shear, to separate. See SCAR.
The ashes of certain locusts without wings, called by the Greeks Tryxalides, cause the thick roufes and escarres that grow about the brims of ulcers to fall off.
Holland. Plinie, b. xxx. c. 13.
At length nature seem'd to make a separation between the cancerated and sound breast, such as you often see where a caustic hath been applied, the eschar divides between the living and the dead.-Boyle. Works, vol. vi. p. 647.
Fr. Eschet, which Cotgrave properly calls, a thing fallen to; from escheoir, to ESCHE ATOR. fall; and cheoir is from the Lat. Cadere, to fall. In Legibus Neapolitanis et Sicanis, Excadentia dicitur. (See Spelman, Gloss. Archæologicum. ) See the quotations from Fuller
and Blackstone; and also TO CHEAT.
To fall to, (sc.) to the lord or other superior power.
Lenlyn & Dauid haf born grete honour,
And Snowdon com to grith, ilk castelle and toure
R. Brunne, p. 244.
Thorge goure awe ich leyve. ich lese meyne eschyles. Piers Plouhman, p. 72. Now is steward for his achates, now is eschetour for his wrongs, now is losel for his songs.
Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. ii.
With that the kynge right in his place
An erledome, whiche then of eschete
Was late falle into his honde,
Unto this knight, with rent and londe,
But surely my guise is not to laye the fautes of the noughtye, to the charge of my whole companye, vppon shyryffes and call them rauenous, nor to rayle vppon eschetours and call theym extorcionours.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 868.
But being now prevented so by persecucion, that he cannot bestow them in that other good waie that he wold, yet while he parteth fro them, because he wil not parte fro the faith, thoughe the Diuel's escheatour violently take them from him, yet willinglie geueth he them to God.
Id. Ib. p. 1227.
So this, breath'd on by no full influence,
Cartwright. On Christ-Church Buildings.
And therefore composing and framing himselfe on purpose to counterfeit a noddie and a verie innocent, as suffering himselfe and all that he had to fall into the king's hands as an escheat, [prædæ,] he refused not to be misnamed Brutus, a name appropriate to unreasonable creatures.
Holland. Livivs, p. 39. For the name escheator cometh from the French word escheoir, which signifieth to happen, or fall out; and he by his place is to search into any profit accrewing to the crown by casualty, by the condemnation of malefactors, persons dying without an heir, or leaving him in minority, &c.
Fuller. Worthies. Somersetshire.
And when the order of the Knights Templars was dis solved, it was then judged in favour of the lord by escheat. Burnet. Reformation, vol. i. b. iii. In those times were established the ridiculous rights of escheatage and shipwrecks.
Montesquieu. The Spirit of the Laws, b. xxi. c. 13. Escheat, we may remember, was one of the fruits and consequences of foedal tenure, the word itself is originally French or Norman, in which language it signifies chance or accident; and with us it denotes an obstruction of the course of descent, and a consequent determination of the tenure by some unforeseen contingency.
Blackstone. Commentaries, b. ii. c. 15.
ESCHECKED, i. e. Checked or checkered,
Diuerse also were slain on the Earle of Richmond's part at this last encounter, and among other an English knight, that bare armes, eschecked siluer and gules. Holinshed. Edw. III. an. 1340.
ESCHE W. Fr. Eschever; Dut. Schouwen, schuwen; Ger. Scheuen; Sw. Sky; and perhaps the A. S. Scun-ian, to shun. Menage (in v. Echever) derives from D'excavere.
To shun, to avoid, to fly from.
Piers Plouhman, p. 130. But eschewe thou unhooli and veyne spechis, for whi tho profited mych to unfaithfulnesse.-Wiclif. 2 Tym. c. 2.
Now shul ye understonde, that al be it so that non erthly man may eschewe al venial sinnes, yet may he refreine him, by the brenning love that he hath to our Lord Jesu Crist, and by prayer and confession, and other good werkes, so that it shal but litel grieve.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale. For thy my sonne if thou wolt liue
In vertue, thou must vice eschewe.-Gower. Con. A. b. i.
A tale thou shalt vnderstond,
How that a knight shall armes sewe,
And for the while his ease eschewe.-Id. Ib. b. iv.
Whylis the kynge was in his feastinge (the hande of God
wryteth his destruccion) let them lerne therefore to estiew
excesse dronkenes and blasphemies in banketinge and festing.-Joye. The Exposicion of Daniel, c. 5.
These curious doubts which good men doe eschew,
Stirling. Doomes-day. The Ninth Houre.
Page. Well, what remedy? Fenton, heauen giue thee ioy, what cannot be eschew'd must be embrac'd.
Shakespeare. Merry Wives of Windsor, Act v. sc. 5.
Many little neglects I [King Charles] will not take the pains to set down: as her eschewing to be in my company, when I have any thing to speak to her [the Queen], I must manage her servants first, else I am sure to be denied.
Ludlow. Memoirs. Letters & Papers, vol. iii. p. 250.
I suppose there are but few of you but know some such among your acquaintance, and none but may be very serviceable both to God and them, by putting them in mind, as ye have occasion, that they must not only eschew evil but do good in the world. That it is not enough for them to avoid what God hath forbidden, but they must do also what he hath commanded, as ever they expect and hope for his love and favour.-Bp. Beveridge, vol. ii. Ser. 83.
ESCORT, v. I "Fr. Escorte; a guide, con-
or safeguard for the way," (Cotgrave.) The word does not appear to be of any long standing in English.
Fr. Escorte; It. Scorta, formed from scorgere, and this from excorrigere, that is, dirigere, to guide or direct, (Menage.)
To day shut out, still onward press,
Francis. Horace. Satires, b. i. Having contrived, by making forced stages while the troops of my escort marched at the ordinary rate, to make a stay of five days at Benares, I was thereby furnished with the means of acquiring some knowledge of the state of the province, which I am anxious to communicate to you.
Burke. Works, vol. ii. Letter from W. Hastings. ESCO'T. Fr. Escotter; every one, says Cotgrave, to pay his shot. His shot, is his cast; that which (the money which) he is to cast or throw down. "How are they escotted ?" how is their scot or share of the reckoning paid? i. e. how are they paid for or supported? See Scor.
Ham. What are thy children? Who maintains 'em? How are they escotted?-Shakes. Hamlet, Act ii. sc. 2. ESCROW. A scrowl, (qv.) as it is explained in the example.
A delivery may be either absolute, that is to the party or grantee himself; or to a third person, to hold till some conditions be performed on the part of the grantee: in which last case it is not delivered as a deed, but as an escrow; that is, as a scrowl or writing, which is not to take effect as a deed till the conditions be performed; and then it is deed to all intents and purposes.-Blackstone. Com. b. ii. c. 20.
ESCRY'. To detect or discover. See DESCRY, and ASCRY.
At the same time the Spanish fleete was escried by an English pinasse, captaine whereof was M. Thomas Fleming, after they had bene aduertised of the Spaniards' expedition by their scoutes and espials.-Hackluyt. Voy. vol. i. p. 596.
The very next day, being the 20th of July, about high noon, was the Spanish fleete escried by the English, which with the south-west wind came sailing along, and passed by Plimmouth.-Id. Ib.
ESCUAGE. Fr. Escu, scutum; "Qui silicet clypeos in bello gestare obligantur; those who were bound to carry shields in war," (Skinner.)
The pecuniary satisfaction of which Blackstone speaks, was a compensation for actual service; money paid in lieu of shields or shield-bearers; i. e. of soldiers.
The cheefe cause that mooued the lords to this conspiracie, rose by reason the king demanded escuage of them that refused to go with him into Poictow. Holinshed. King John, an. 1215.
The next was a duty reserved anciently out of every knight's fee: which, at first, was constantly paid as a quitrent, but being very small, came, in time, to be neglected by the kings, that contented themselves with the military attendance of the knights in their wars; and with levying sometimes a greater duty, upon great or urgent occasions, under the name of escuage, which was burthensome and odious, till the proportions and occasions came to be ascertained. Sir W. Temple. Introd. to the History of England.
This pecuniary satisfaction at last came to be levied by assessments, at so much for every knight's fee; and therefore this kind of tenure was called scutagium in Latin, or servitium seuti; scutum being then a well known denomination for money: and, in like manner, it was called in our northern French, escuage; being indeed a pecuniary, instead of a military service.-Blackstone. Commentaries, b. ii. c. 5.
E'SCULENT, adj. } Lat. Esculentus, that E'SCULENT, n. food, and esca from edere, es-um, to eat. may be eaten; from esca, Any thing eatable, or that can or may be eaten. Thou never hadst in thy house, to stay men's stomachs, A piece of Suffolk cheese or gammon of bacon, Or any esculent, as the learned call it.
Massinger. A New Way to Pay Old Debts, Act iv. sc. 2,
Of hearbs and plants some are good to eat raw, others only after they are boyled or have passed the fire, but a number of hearbs are not esculent at all.
Bacon. Naturall History, § 630.
So generally those knowledges relish best, that have an infusion somewhat more esculent of flesh in them; such as are civile history, morality, policy, about the which men's affections, praises, fortunes, doe turne, and are conversant. Id. On Learning, by G. Wats, b. x. c. 1.
His various esculents, from glowing beds
Dodsley. Agriculture, c. 2. Take therefore all kinds of medicinal herbs and esculent
grain for food, and together with the seven holy men, your respective wives, and pairs of all animals, enter the ark without fear.-Sir W. Jones. Chron. of the Hindus.
ESCUTCHEON. Scutcheon, from the Lat. ESCUTCHEONED. Scutum, a shield. "Fr. Escusson, a small target or shield.”
Escussoner, - to defend or cover with a scutcheon or shield," (Cotgrave.)
But this preferment of one before another does not consist in giving secular advantages before the other, temporal honours and precedences in processions, in escutcheons and atchievments, but in doing the duty of that which is incum
bent, and making the other minister to that which is more necessary.—Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. iii. c. 3.
This folly and profusion so far provoked the people, that they threw dirt in the night on his [Richard Cromwell] escutcheon that was placed over the great gate of Somerset
House.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 155.
For what, gay friend, is this escutcheon'd world,
Hence without blushing (say whate'er we can)
Cawthorn. Nobility. A Moral Essay, (1752.)
The addition of the escocheon of Edward the Confessor to his own, [Surrey's] although used by the family of Norfolk for many years, and justified by the authority of the heralds. was a sufficient foundation for an impeachment of high treason. Warton. History of English Poetry, vol. iii.
The first example explains the usage.
The philosophy of the Pythagoreans, like that of the other sects. was divided into the exoteric and esoteric; the open, taught to all; and the secret, taught to a select number.
Warburton. The Divine Legation, b. ii. Note [BB.]
The first observation I shall make on this long passage is, that the same subject, namely, the nature of superior beings, was handled in a two-fold manner; exoterically; and then the discourse was of the national Gods: esoterically; and then it was of the first cause of all things. 2. That the ex
oteric teaching admitted fable and falsehood, fabulosa vel
From yon old walnut-tree a shower shall fall;
Pope. Horace, Sat. 2.
Here, shelter'd from the north his ripening fruits
Fr. Espèce, a kind or sort. Especiel; par especial, especially, particularly, peculiarly. Lat. Specialis, from species. See SPECIAL. Particular, peculiar, principal or chief, distinguished.
And then shuln ye kepe this for a general reule. First ye shuln clepe to youre conseil a few of youre frendes that ben especial.-Chaucer. The Tale of Melibeus.
But now wold I fain that ye wold condescend in especial, and telle me how liketh you or what seemeth you by oure conseillours that we han chosen in oure present nede.
There was together wyth others, Dumnorix the Heduan, of whom we haue spoken before, him in especiallye Cesar determined to haue with him, bicause he knew him to be a man desyrous of alteration, and desyrous of souereinty, of great courage, and of great authority, amonge the Galles. Golding. Cæsar, fol. 111.
But I being somewhat acquainted with the world, haue found out another sort of men, whom of all others I would be loth should reade any of my doinges, especially such things as either touched Christ, or any good doctrine.
Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorique, Prol. to the Reader. For plaine it is, that the state allowed and gave rings only to certain especiall lieutenants when they were to go in embassage to forraine nations.-Holland. Plinie, b. xxxiii. c. 1.
Lat. But wondrous strange, that any difference,
• Massinger. The Parliament of Love, Act v. sc. 1.
Your precious diamond in especialness.
Loc. Blisse of Brightest Beautie, a Sermon, (1614,) p. 25. And therefore that which Saint Paul thought of so great importance, as to give especial orders to Timothy, to press upon the Ephesian citizens, will always be very fit to be seriously recommended to you in this place; and more especially at this time, since it is the proper work of the day. Sharp. Works, vol. i. Abraham, the father of the faithful, and especial friend of God, was called out of his country, and from his kindred, to wander in a strange land, and lodge in tents, without any fixed habitation.-Barrow, vol. iii. Ser. S.
In the character of Destroyer also we may look upon this
Indian Deity as corresponding with the Stygian Jove or Pluto; especially since Cali, or Time in the feminine gender, is a name of his consort, who will appear hereafter to be Proserpine.-Sir W. Jones. Gods of Greece, Italy, & India.
E/SPERANCE. "Fr. Espérance,-hope, trust, confidence, affiance," (Cotgrave.) From Espérer, to hope; Lat. Sper-are.
O jeste, vnto thy very foes
for whether may haue more,
(If Fortune frowne and grefes grow on) esperance to his store?-Drant. Horace, b. ii. Sat. 2.
And heere I draw a sword,
Whose worthy temper I intend to staine
Shakespeare. 1 Pt. Hen. IV. Act v. sc. 2.
So faire it was, that trusteth well
It semed a place espirituell.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose. ESPOUSE, v. Fr. Espouser; It. Sposare; ESPOUSAL, n. Lat. Spondere, sponsum ; ESPOUSAL, adj. which Vossius says, ex eo est, ESPO'USER. quia sponderent in σrovdy, quo libatio, vel libamen, item fœdus notatur. Nam in fœdere libabant, quod σTevdew, Græcis; to make libations, (sc.) by way of pledge, treaty, or engagement.
Fr. Espouser,-to wed, to marry; also, to defend, embrace, undertake, entertain as his own; take wholly upon him, (Cotgrave.)
And eke vpon hir lorde she thought,
She maketh a uowe it shall be wroke.-Gower. Con. A. b. v. And in ye moneth of January next ensuynge, and ix. daye of the same kynge, Phylip spoused his second wyfe Blaunche, sometyme the doughter of the Quene of Navarn, lately dissesid, which was suster vnto the Erle of Foyz; which espousayles were secretly done in the manour of Robt. Erle of Bray.-Fabyan. Philippi, an. 349.
We love our friends, because they are our image, and we love our God, because we are his. So then, the beloved
opinion being thus wedded to the intellect; the case of our espoused self becomes our own.
Glanvill. Vanity of Dogmatizing, c. 13.
In the interim the earl was commanded not to deliver the aforesaid proxy of the prince for the disposorios or espousal, until Christmas.-Howell, b. i. s. 3. Let. 27.
After she was layd, there came in Maximilian's ambassadour with letters of procuration, and in the presence of sundry noble personages, men and women, put his legge (strip't naked to the knee) betweene the espousall sheets. Bacon. Hen. VII. p. 80. Thereupon, hoping that a parliament would espouse his quarrel, and furnish him with money for the carrying on of his design, he summoned one to meet at Westminster, on the 3d of April 1640.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 7.
A due expression of asperity against the enemies of God, the king and the publick peace, is not the reviling mentioned or intended in the text, the scene of which is properly private revenge, not a zealous espousal of the publick injuries.-South, vol. viii. Ser. 7.
In Rome had you espous'd the vanquish'd cause, Inflam'd her senate and upheld her laws, Your manly scenes had liberty restor'd, And given the just success to Cato's sword. Philips. To Mr. Addison, on Cato. The espousers of that unauthorized and detestable scheme have been weak enough to assert, that there is a knowledge in the elect, peculiar to those chosen vessels.
Allen. Ser. p. 11. July 19, 1761. Great, gracious master, whose unbounded sway, Felt thro' ten thousand worlds, those worlds obey; Wilt thou for once thy awfull glories shade, And deign t' espouse the creature thou hast made. Langhorne. The Duchess of Mazarine.
ESPY', v. ESPY', n. ESPIAL.
(Anciently also written Aspy, Fr. Espier; It. Spiare; Sp. Espiar; Dut. Spien, speuren, ESPIER. spieden; Ger. Spacher, spueren, spuehren; A. S. Spyrian, which Somner interprets, vestigare, investigare, indagare, exquirere, scrutari, explorare; to search out by the track or trace, to inquire, and make diligent search.
To look out, to observe or behold, to see; to seek or search after, to watch, to detect, discover.
And thei aspieden and senten aspieris that fayneden hem just.-Wiclif. Luk, c. 20.
But whan thou hast for hire, and thee, and me,
Ygeten us these kneding tubbes thre,
Chaucer. The Milleres Tale, v. 3966
The mother of the Soudan, well of vices,
Id. The Man of Lawes Tale, v. 4744.
Id. The Pardoneres Tale, v. 12,689. Wherfore, Melibeus, this is oure sentence; we conseille you aboven alle thing, that right anon thou do thy diligence in keeping of thy propre persone, in swiche a wise that thou ne want non espie, ne watche, thy body for to save. Id. Tale of Melibeus.
He had a sompnour redy to his hond,
Id. The Freres Tale, v. 6905.
For espyall and mystrowynges Thei did than such thynges That euery man might other know.-Gower. Con. A. b. vi. He had knowlege by his espialles, that the Freche army intended to land in the Isle of Wight, wherefore he repaired to that cost, to se his realmine defeded.
Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 37. Likewise the huntesman, in hunting the foxe, will sone espie, when he seeth a hole, whether it be the foxe borough or not. Wilson. The Arte of Logike, fol. 37.
But still when him at hand she did espy,
Which well I proue, as shall appeare by triall,
Id. Ib. b. v. c. 4.
When the Romans were come first by great journies to revenge the losse of their countrimen, and to recover the colonie, their espials and vaunt-couriours whome they had sent out dispersed along the high waies, brought word, that the legions of the Samnites followed. Holland. Livivs, p. 329.
At length two monsters of unequal size,
Waller. The Battle of the Summer Islands, c. 2.
Hoole. Orlando Furioso, b. xvi.
Secure, unnoted, Conrad's prow pass'd by,
ESQUIRE. Escudero; Lat. Scutum, a shield. shed.
Byron. The Corsair, c. I. Fr. Escuyer; It. Scudiero; Sp. Scutiger or scutifer, from the Lat. See the quotation from Holin
Which Alexäder not only graunted, but willed a weapo to be deliuered to hys hads, as other esquiers vsed. Brende. Quintus Curtius, fol. 172.
After his esquire or armour-bearer that stucke close to his side was wounded, himselfe covered with a roufe of shields couched close together, escaped this great danger and departed.-Holland. Ammianus, p. 253.
Esquire (which we call commonly Squire) is a French word, and so much in Latine as scutiger vel armiger, and such are all those that bear armes, or armoires, testimonies of their race from whence they be descended. They were at the first costerels or bearers of the armes of barons or knights, and thereby being instructed in martiall knowledge, had that name for a dignity giuen to distinguish them from common souldiers, called Gregarii milites, when they were together in the field.-Holinshed. Desc. of England, b. ii. c. 5. But his wife and his children are dear to him [the incumbent] and have an equal right, by all the laws of God and man, to be fed and clothed with those of the esquire or farmer, who litigates his claim.-Knox, Ess. 10. ESSAY, V. E'SSAY, n. E'SSAYER.
See ASSAY. Fr. Essayer; Sp. Ensayar It. Assaggiare all (as Skinner thinksy from the Lat. Sapere. Menage, from ad, and sapor. But the A. S. Sage is testis, and saga, testimonium. "The Gemot sohton lease saga;" the Council sought false witness. "Othre sage;" other witnesses, (Matt. xxvi. 59 and 65.) The German
Sager is also testimonium dicere, to declare testimony, to give evidence. The A. S. adjective sag-ol is veridicus, one who gives a verdict (veredictum) or true saying. And thus the word is traced to the A. S. Secgan, asecgan, to say.
And to say, assay, or essay, is, consequentiaily,-To prove, to take proof, to make triai, to try; and further, to make trial or experiment, to attempt.
Then to the stream, when neither friends, nor force,
Denham. Cooper's Hill.
He also, by his fingers, directed the standers-by to fetch him a great hollow stone for a font, which sundry of his father's servants essayed in vain, as much above their strength, till the two priests (his designed godfathers) did goe and fetch it easily at his appointment
Fuller. Worthies. Buckinghamshire.
To write just treatises, requireth leisure in the writer, and leisure in the reader, and therefore are not so fit, neither in regard of your highness's princely affairs, nor in regard of my continual service, which is the cause that hath made me choose to write certain brief notes set down rather significantly than curiously, which I have called Essays. The word is late, but the thing is ancient; for Seneca's epistles to Lucilius, if you mark them well, are but Essays, that is, dispersed meditations, though conveyed in the form of epistles.-Bacon. To Prince Henry.
Such are all the essayists, even their master Montaigne.
Is there any equity or the least colour of reason in this; for a man to take an essay of the nature of any species of things from such particular instances, as in their kinds are monstrous?-Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. i. c 4.
[Saith Tully] the essay (specimen) of any kind is rather to be taken from the best and most usual, than from the worst and most depraved part of it.-Id. Ib.
Tully was the first who observed that friendship improves happiness and abates misery, by the doubling of our joy and dividing of our grief; a thought in which he hath been followed by all the essayers upon friendship that have written since his time.-Spectator, No. 68.
Yet such a tongue alike in vain essays
He hath atchieu'd a maid
That paragons description, and wilde fame.
Do's tyre the ingeniuer.-Shakes. Othello, Act ii. sc. 1
Milton. Paradise Lost, b. ii.
It can imply to us nothing but this, that our whole faith
And the reason of this is not only that the substantialness
For howsoe'er disgraced she [Wisdom] doth seem
Drayton. Pastorals, Ecl. 8.
Carl. 'Tis an axiome in naturall philosophy, what comes nearest the nature of that it feeds, converts quicker to nourishment, and doth sooner essentiate.
B. Jonson. Every Man out of his Humour, Act v. sc. 5.
If it were granted, that if it were simply necessary to the essentialing of a church, to be able to demonstrate in all times, both the visible number of professours of the truth, as also a visible succession of pastours, we are able to demonstrate both these, for our defence, to be as unquestionable in our church as in the church of Rome.
Hammond. Works, vol. ii. p. 701.
Essence may be taken for the very being of any thing, whereby it is, what it is. And thus, the real, internal, but generally in substances, unknown constitution of things,
Hoole. Orlando Furioso, b. xxxviii, wherein their discoverable qualities depend, may be called
Thus the fond swain his Doric oat essay'd,
Mason. A Monody to the Memory of Mr. Pope.
"If then," said the gentleman, mustering up all his courage," if I am not to have admittance as an essayist, I hope I shall not be repulsed as an historian; the last volume of my history met with applause."-Goldsmith. A Reverie.
Fr. n. Essence; It. Essentia or essenza; Sp. Essencia; Lat. Essentia, corrupted from Existentia,(see EXIST,) standing out, (sc.) from the even, level or smooth surface; and thus causing a ESSENTIATING, n. (new or fresh) sensation. And thus essence in its general application is equivalent to (see To BE) the English word
Being; and it is also applied to certain supposed causes, qualities or states of being. The word becomes very puzzling in the hands of metaphysicians. (See Locke, b. iii. c. 3, and seq.;) and It is in popular see the quotations from him. language applied to—
The smell, scent, odour, perfume; the principal, constituent, concentered qualities.
And yet minde I not that euerie merit should hereby be vnderstanded, but onelye that whiche is recompensed by essentiall rewarde (as they call it) in heauen.
Fisher. On Prayer.
What wonder though the soul of man
The heavenly essence, heaven would know.
Spenser. Hymne to Heavenly Beautie.
their essence. This is the proper original signification of
Painted for sight, and essenc'd for the smell,
Pope. Satires of Donne, Sat. 4.
Stillingfleet, vol. ii. Ser. 6.
For what can be more ridiculous, than to imagine that
We prosecuted the experiment so long without seeing any
For these as for essentials we engage
In wars and massacres with holy rage;
Jenyns. On the Immortality of the Soul.
If the human race then be, as we may confidently assume, of one natural species, they must all have proceeded from one pair; and if perfect justice be, as it is most indubitably, an essential attribute of God, that pair must have been gifted with sufficient wisdom and strength to be virtuous, and, as far as their nature admitted, happy, but intrusted with freedom of will to be vicious, and consequently degraded.-Sir W. Jones. Origin of Families and Ñations.
The literature of Asia will not, perhaps, be essentially use-
ESSO IN. Fr. Essoine or Exoine, (from the
Withouten any essoyne, vengeance salle falle the not lite,
He gaf a thousand mark, withouten essoyne.-Id. p. 136.
He might make non essonie,
That he ne mote algates plie
To go to bed of comparie.-Gower. Con. A. b. i.
But, with rejoinders or replies,
Swift. Cadenus & Vanessa. And thereon the Court sits to take essoigns or excuses for such as do not appear according to the summons of the writ; wherefore this is usually called the essoign day of the term. Blackstone. Commentaries, b. ii. c. 18. EST. The termination of our superlative adj. and second pers. sing. of the verb :-Es-ed, es'd, est.
Fr. Establir; It. Stabilire; Sp. Establecer; Lat. Stabilire, to make stead
fast, stabilis, from stare, to stand.
To make steadfast or able to stand; strong to stand; to cause to stand firmly, or to hold fast and firmly together; to set up firmly; to confirm, to fix, to settle.
For as, sayth Solomon; whoso that had the science to know the peins that ben established and ordeined for sinne, he wold forsake sinne.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale.
I not no prelate may done so
Now is not this a propre thing ?-Id. Rom. of the Rose.
And this was chefely to occupy their ydell heades, whyles they were practysinge and bryngynge to passe other matters for the full establyshmente of Antychristes reygne. Bale. English Votaries, pt. ii.
And thus of that charge of scepticism, with which he begins as the occasion of his writing; having premised which, he endeavours to lay the sure foundations of science, and to establish certainty in knowledge.-Glanvill, Ess. 2.
Some allow them as the first founders and establishers of them; which crime toucheth none but their popes, and councels; the people are cleere and free from this.
Hooker. A Learned Discourse of Justification, &c.
There he with Belge did awhile remaine,
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. v. c. 11.
Sharp, vol. i. Ser. 6.
It was therefore most agreeable to the infinite wisdom of God for providing for a constant establishment of the faith of his church in all ages, neither to permit the Gospels to be written till the churches were planted, nor to be put off to another generation.-Stillingfleet, vol. iv. Ser. 2.
If such the operations of his power,
Smart. On the Power of the Supreme Being. The authority, therefore, of a church-establishment is founded in its utility; and whenever, upon this principle, we deliberate concerning the form, propriety, or comparative excellency of different establishments, the single view under which we ought to consider any of them, is that of a "scheme of instruction;" the single end we ought to propose to them is, "the preservation and commmunication of religious knowledge."-Paley. Political Philosophy, vol. ii. c. 10.
Fr. n. Estat; It. Stato; Sp. ESTATE, n. Estado, from the Lat. Status, ESTATELY. past part. of Stare, to stand. Estate or State (qv.) is applied to
All the categorical circumstances under which any thing stands, or exists, or by which it may be affected; more especially to the rank or condition, the possessions or property; also, to the general establishment of Government.
To estate (not a common verb) is to fix in a particular estate or condition; to settle an estate or property; to condition.
Thanked be Fortune, and hire false whele,
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 928.
And while she was dwelling in that cite
And when he perceaued that he must needs dye, he [Alexander] called for his noble estates (whiche had bene brought vp with hym of chyldren) and parted his kyngdom amonge them, whyle he was yet aliue.
Bible, 1551. The Machabees, b. i. c. 1.
It is our faith that must raise our thoughts to a due estimation of our greatness, and must show us how highly we are descended, how royally we are allied, how gloriously estated.-Bp. Hall. Holy Raptures, &c.
This puppy, being left well estated, comes to Florence, that the world may take notice, how impossible it is for experience to alter the course of nature.
Beaum. & Fletch. The Fair Maid of the Inn, Act iii. sc. 1. Till on a day, as through that wood he rode,
He chanc't to come where those two ladies late, Aemilia and Amoret abode,
Both in full sad and sorrowfull estate.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 8.
We are not only not obliged to part with the propriety of our estate, and to live in common, as the first persecuted Christians did, but we should be highly indiscreet, not to say injurious, both to ourselves and the public, if we did. Sharp, vol. i. Ser. 4.
What glorious motives urge our authors on,
ESTEEM, v. ESTE'EM, n. ESTE EMABLE. ESTE EMER. ESTE EMING, N. ESTIMABLE, adj. E'STIMABLE, n. E'STIMATE, U. E'STIMATE, n. ESTIMATION. E'STIMATIVE.
Young. To Mr. Pope, Ep. 1. Fr. Estimer; It. Estimare; Sp. Estimar; Lat. Estimare; from Tuav; and Tu-av, from Ti-ew, to fix a price or value.
To fix or set a price or value upon; to prize, to value; to think or deem, to repute or consider, valuable; to hold dear; worthy, of consequence, of importance.
Lady (qd. I) sometime yet if a man be in disease, the estimacion of the enuious people, ne looketh nothing to the desertes of men, ne to the merites of their doinges, but onely to the auenture of fortune, and thereafter they yeuen their sentence.-Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. i.
If he halowe hys felde immediatly frome that yere of fubely, it shall be worth accordinge as it is estemed. Bible. 1551. Leuiticus, c. 27. What an hinderaunce is it, to haue a good garment hurt, any iewell appaired, or any esteemed thing to be decayed? Sir J. Cheeke. The Hurt of Sedition.
For I say (thorowe the grace that vnto me geuen is) to euerie man amonge you, that no man esteme of hymselfe more then it becometh him to esteme, but that he discretlye judge of himselfe, accordynge as God hath dealt to euerye man the measure of fayth.-Bible, 1551. Romaynes, c. 20.
Thou shouldest (gentle reader) esteme his censure and auctoritye to bee of the more weightie credence, in as much as the matter was not rashlie, and at al aduentures, but wyth judgemente (as thou seest) and with wisdom examined and discussed.
Bp. Gardner. Of True Obedience. A Preface of Dr. Boner.
Loke how much mony the men do receiue wyth their wyues in name of their dowrie, they make an estimate of their own goods and lay so muche in valew therevnto. Golding. Cæsar, fol. 158.
Ther went such a report and estimatio of thys warre among other barbarous people, that from such natios as inhabited beyond the Rhine were sent ambassadors vnto Cesar, profering to geue him hostages and do whatsoeuer he shuld commaund them.-Id. Ib. fol. 64.
They magnifye it, prayee it, and haue it in moste hyghe estimacion, yea, they haue it in muche more pryce than any thynge that is of God.-Bale. Image, pt. ii.
But such, me seeme, should be satisfide with the use of those days, seeing all things accounted by their shows, and nothing esteemed of, that is not delightfull and pleasing to commune sence.-Spenser. To Sir Walter Raleigh.
Nay, let a man look into the government of the Bishop of Rome, as by name, into the government of Pius Quinctus, or Sextus Quinctus in our times, who were both at their entrance estimed but as pedanticall friars.
Bacon. On Learning, by G. Wats, b. i. c. 2. s. 3.
Which is the reason that to hold a place
Massinger. The Bondman, Act i. sc. 3.
If we would be prevalent and esteemable, we ought with all our care to preserve that interest, which never can, but by our own neglect, be lost.-Feltham, pt. ii. Resolve 55.
A pound of man's flesh taken from a man,
Shakespeare. Merchant of Venice, Act i. sc. 3.
He reformed not the senate, mustered not the men of war, nor took any view or estimate of the people's goods, although Luctatius Catulus was his colleague and fellow censor, as gentle a person as any of that time that lived in Rome. North. Plutarch, p. 472.
Or as a wrongfull title, or foul crime
Beaumont. Against Abused Loue. The estimative faculty, which is indeed no other than the last operation or composition of the phantasie before mentioned, whereby it concludes that this is a sensible good or a sensible evil, that it is attainable or feasible, or not attainable; that though it be good, yet sometimes it is not safe to be attempted by reason of the impendence of a greater sensible evil.-Hale. Origin. of Mankind, p. 46.
Phantasie, or imagination, which some call æstimative, or cogitative, (confirmed saith Fernelius by frequent meditation,) is an inner sense which doth more fully examine the species perceived by common sense, of things present or absent, and keeps them longer, recalling them to mind againe, or making new of his owne.
Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 23.
And every one who will act rationally, not miscalling good evil, and evil good, must proportion his esteem of things, according to the real value of them.
Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. ii. c. 6.
The Queen of Sheba, among presents unto Solomon, brought some plants of the balsam tree, as one of the peculiar estimables of her country.-Brown. Miscellaneous, p.50.
The measure of punishments being to be estimated as well by the length of their duration, as the intenseness of their degrees, 'tis fit we take a view also of your scheme in this part.-Locke. A third Letter of Toleration, c. 5.
He that walketh uprightly is secure as to his honour and credit, he is sure not to come off disgracefully, either at home in his own apprehensions, or abroad in the estimations of men.-Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 5.
Yet if other learned men, that are competent estimators, and are accustomed to bring much patience and attention to the discernment of difficult and important truths, profess themselves satisfied with them, the probations may yet be cogent, notwithstanding the difficulty to have their strength apprehended.-Boyle. Works, vol. iv. p. 175.
By love, I mean an esteeming of him [God] and a seeking after him as our only happiness. Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. i. c. 12.
It is remarkable, that Homer does not paint him [Paris] and Helen (as some other poets would have done) like monsters, odious to Gods and men, but allows their characters such estimable qualifications [in some ed. esteemable qualities] as could consist, and in truth generally do, with tender frailties.-Pope. Homer. Iliad, b. vi. N.
Thus may we entertain an esteem for persons of merit, although they are at a remote distance from our intimacy; we esteem the character of a person merely from the report of his good qualities.-Cogan. On the Passions, c. 2.
Esteem is the value we place upon some degree of warti It is higher than simple approbation, which is a decision of judgment. Esteem is the commencement of affection.
Cogan. On the Passions, c. 2. Class 2.
It is enough that your lordship sees I have my eye upon some, the more estimable, nay the most accomplished characters, that have been formed among ourselves; and that even so envied a thing, as a fine gentleman, has been fashioned on this side the water.-Hurd, Dial. 8.
In a comparative estimate of genius, according to its kinds and degrees, I should not hesitate to place Erasmus in the same class with Lucian.-Knox, Ess. 132.
No, dear as freedom is, and in my heart's
I had much rather be myself the slave,
And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him.
Cowper. Task, b. il. From Lat. Estas, from æstus, heat. Cockeram writes, æsti
vate, to summer in a place; and æstival, of or belonging to summer.
Besides vernal, estival, and autumnal, made of flowers, the ancients had also hyemal garlands. Brown. Miscellaneous, p. 92.
On the under story, toward the garden, let it be turned into a grotto, or place of shade, or estivation. Bacon. Ess. Of Building. ESTOPPED. i. e. stopped, (qv.) or stayed. For the legal application, see the quotation from Blackstone.
Perceauyng that all succours were clerely estopped and propulsed from them, and so brought into vtter despaire of aide or comforte: after longe consultacion had emongest them, [they] determined to rendre the selues and their citie, to the sayde kyng.-Hall. Hen. VII. an. 5.
And therefore a man shall always be estopped by his own deed, or not permitted to aver or prove any thing in contradiction to what he has once so solemnly and deliberately avowed.-Blackstone. Commentaries, b. ii. c. 20.
E'STOVERS. From the Fr. Estoffer, as Blackstone says, after Spelman. "Fr. Estoffer;
to stuff, to furnish or store with all necessaries,"
(Cotgrave.) See STUFF. Besides the legal application contained in the quotation from Blackstone, it is sometimes used for the alimony given to a wife divorced a mensâ et toro.
Common of estovers, or estoviers, that is, necessaries, (from estoffer, to furnish,) is a liberty of taking necessary wood, for the use or furniture of a house or farm, from off another's estate.-Blackstone. Commentaries, b. ii. c. 3.
Fr. Estranger; It. Straniare, stranare, from the Lat. Extraneus, (q.d.) extraneare, (Skinner.) Extraneus, an outlander, a
To alienate, to keep foreign, away, apart or aloof from; to separate or divide; to shun or avoid; to withdraw or withhold from.
And hauinge with them souldyars estraungers, whiche Pissuthnes and the Arcadians had sent them, they accorded with the that were in the castell.-Nicolls. Thucid. fol. 78.
But this distresse one vantage doth unfold,
Though out of time, when it can help no more, They heare the truth, and all their faults are told, Which had been still estrang'd from them before.
Stirling. Doomes-day. Tenth Houre. Ken. Will you not dance? How came you thus estranged! Shakespeare. Love's Labour Lost, Act v. sc. 2. Sir, as we like of your preaching, so we dislike not our libertie. You tell vs of manie gugawes and estrange dreames. Holinshed. Discovery of Ireland, c. 4.
Though they differed in many notions, yet these difand exercise of reasoning: they begot no estrangements or ferences did nothing but serve the pleasure of conversation. distasts, no noise or trouble abroad.-Glanvill, Ess. 7.
Thus, if excommunication be incurred, ipso facto, he that is guilty of the fact deserving it, and is fallen into the sentence, is bound to submit to those estrangements and separations, those alienations of society and avoidings which he finds from the duty of others.
Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. iii. c 2
So shall my truth to latest times be read,