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A, is the first letter, and first vowel of the
alphabet, in all the modern, and in most of the ancient languages.
B. Jonson observes, that all our vowels are sounded doubtfully: in quantity (which is time), long or short; or, in accent (which is tune), sharp or flat. A is long in debating; short in stomaching; sharp in háte; flat in hat. With us, he adds, A is pronounced less than the French à, as in art, act; but when it comes before 1, in the - end of a syllable, it obtaineth the French sound, and is uttered with the mouth and throat wide opened, the tongue bent from the teeth, as in all, small; and in salt, malt, balm, where a consonant followeth the L. For this latter mode of utterance, Wilkins adopts the Gr. a; and describes it to be framed by an emission of the breath betwixt the tongue and the palate, the tongue being put into a more concave posture, and removed further off from the palate. The former mode of utterance of a, as in bat, bate, he describes to be framed by an emission of the breath betwixt the tongue and concave of the palate; the upper superficies of the tongue being rendered less concave, and at a less distance from the palate. The adoption of the Greek character, as a mean of distinction, seems to be far preferable to any mark or figure of reference, a plan generally adopted by modern orthoepists.
A, the English article, means one; in A. S. an. In A. S. on means in; and has been corrupted in English to an before a vowel, and to a before a consonant; and in writing and speaking it has been connected with the subsequent word: hence a numerous race of adverbs. From On dæg, On niht, On lenge, On bræde, On bæc, On lande, On life, On middan, On wihte, On twa, On weg; we have Aday, Anight, Along, Abroad, Aback, Aland, Alive, Amid, Aright, Atwo, Away. Tooke.
A, in such expressions, as a-hunting, a-begging, a-going, admits of a similar explanation; i. e. on or in, the act of hunting, begging.
In the A. S. the prefix a to words also in use without it, is of constant occurrence. In some words, which have descended from that language, the word with this prefix is preserved; e. g. in Abide, Abut, Ashamed. In a far greater number
the prefix is dropped; e. g. in Abeodan, to bid;
O faire Creseide, the floure and ▲ per se
To band or bind, or put in bondage; to stay, or cause to stay, or remain in; to leave in, or give up to, a state of bondage or entire subjection." And then simply
To resign; to quit, to desert, to forsake; and consequently, to reject or cast away: to repel or
Chaucer. Testament of Creseide, v. 78. drive away: to banish.
In beaute first so stode she makeles.-Id. Troilus, d. i.
Clerc he was god ynou, and gut, as me telleth me
So that the white was aboue, as the folk y seye, And drof the rede al abak.-R. Gloucester, p. 131. Iesus seith to hem I am, and Iudas that betraiede him stood with hem, and whanne he seide to hem, I am, thei wenten abak and felden doun on the erthe. Wicliff. Ion, c. 18. Chaucer. Legend of Tisbe. But both the fruit from hand, and floud from mouth Did flie abak, and made him vainely swinke. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 7. "Away there! lower the mizen yard on deck," He calls, and "brace the foremost yards aback !" Falconer. Shipwreck. ABA'FT. On the aft or hind part; behind. See AFT. And the boteswaine of the galley walked abaft the maste, Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. p. 187. ABALIENATE, Į Lat. Abalienare: used in ABALIENATION.writers on civil law, but has given way to
And therewithall abacke she start.
and the mate afore the maste.
To alienate. ABA'ND, v. Fr. Abandonner; It. AbanABANDON, v. donare; Sp. Abandonar. VaABA'NDON, n. rious etymologies have been ABANDONER. suggested: - from the Fr. ABANDONING, N. Bandon, Liberty: from A. S. ABANDONMENT. Abannan, to denounce: from Ban to curse: from à ban donner, to give up to a proclamation, and others. See Menage and Wachter. See also BAN, BAND, and BANISH, infra. The A. S. Bannan, or Abannan, would give the past participle, Abanned, Aband (and so the word is written in the Mirror for Magistrates, and Spenser). Upon this past participle, the English Abandon, and also Fr. It. and Sp. appear to have been formed: and to Abandon is
Abandonment, n. is used by Cotgrave in v. Abandon. The authorities quoted are very modern: Abandoning appears also to have been a common noun; but the old noun was Abandon: applied to the act, the thing, or the person.
He that dredeth God, spareth not to do that him ought to do; and he that loveth God, he wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes, and abandon himself with all his might wel for to do.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale,
For he that
Yaue whole his hart, in will and thought,
Id. The Rom. of the Rose, fol. 127. Moris hir sonne was coroned, Whiche so ferforth was abandoned To Christes feith, that men hym calle Moris the christnest of all.-Gower. Conf. Am. b. il. Further John a man of perfecte holines, perceyuing the enuious affections of his disciples, to thintent that he might heale their weakness, and abandone them from him and deliver them to Jesus: he chose out of them two and sent them to Jesus.-Udall. Erasmus' Matthew, c. 10.
those forreiners, which came from farre, Grew great, and got large portions of land, That in the realme ere long they stronger arre, Then they which sought at first their helping hand, 'And Vortiger enforc't the kingdome to aband. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 10
'Tis better far the enemies t'aband
Beg. Madame wife, they say that I haue dream'd
Shakespeare. Tam. of S. Act i. sc. 1.
You form reasons,
Just ones, for your abandoning the storms
No shelter for her honour.-Ford. Lady's Trial, Act i. sc. 1.
Bean. & Fletch. Two Noble Kinsmen, Act v. sc. 1. What is it that Sathan can despaire to perswade men unto, if he can draw them to an unnatural abandoning of life, and pursuit of death.-Hall. Occasionall Medit. 117.
Then thought hee it also time to send an ambassage unto Archduke Philip, into Flanders, for the abandoning and dismissing of Perkin.-Bacon. Henry VII. p 126. Ror. I see no crime in her whom I adore, Or if I do, her beauty makes it none: Look on me as a man abandon'd o'er To an eternal lethargy of love.
Dryden. Spanish Friar, Act iv. Nor let her tempt that deep, nor make the shore, Where our abandon'd youth she sees, Shipwreck'd in luxury, and lost in ease.-Prior. Ode (1692). He that abandons religion must act in such a contradiction to his own conscience and best judgment, that he abuses and spoils the faculty itself.-Watts. Sermons.
Attract us, and neglected nature pines Abandon'd, as unworthy of our love.-Cowper. Task. b. ii. When thus the helm of justice is abandoned, an universal abandoning of all other posts will succeed.
Burke. On Reg. Peace. Let. 4.
They amount (says he) to the sacrifice of powers, that have been most nearly connected with us; the direct or indirect annexation to France of all the parts of the continent, from Dunkirk to Hamburgh; an immense accession of territory; and, in one word, the abandonment of the independence of Europe.-Id. ib. p. 81.
To put or bring low, to lower, to depress; to degrade, to humble, to disgrace.
Our kynge hath do this thing amisse,
So to abesse his roialtee;
That euery man it might see,
And humbled him in such a wise
To them that were of none emprise.-Gower. Conf. Am. b.i. This example was shewed to teache vs, howe the teachers of Gods worde should not grutche to descend from their highnes or perfection, and abase themselues euen to the lowlines of the weake, thereby to wynne very many to theyr Lorde.-Udall. Erasmus, S. Marke, c. 2.
At this tyme also, the kinges maiestie, with the aduice of his privy counsaile, did now purpose not onely the abacyng of the sayd copper moneys, but also ment wholly to reduce them to bollion, to the intent to deliuer fine and good monies for them. The peece of ix pence was abaced to sixpence.-Grafton. Chronicle. Ed. VI. an. 5.
And will she yet abase her eyes on me,
Shakespeare. Rich. III. Act i. sc. 2.
If he that abases the prince's coin deserves to die, what is his desert, that instead of the tried silver of God's word, stamps the name and character of God upon base brazen stuff of his own?-Hales. Remains, Ser. 1.
There is an abasement because of glory, and there is that lifteth up his head from a low estate.-Ecclus. XX. 2.
It is a point of cunning to wait upon him with whom you speak with your eye; as the Jesuits give it in precept; for there may be many wise men that have secret hearts and transparent countenances: yet this should be done with a demure abasing of your eye.-Bacon. Essay on Cunning. Let the example of our Lord's humility bring down the haughtiness of men; and when we consider how he abased himself, let us be vile in our own eyes, and abhor ourselves in dust and ashes.-Tillotson. Works, vol. iii. 217. Ser. 135.
Absorb'd in that immensity I see,
I shrink abas'd, & yet aspire to Thee.-Cowper. Retirement. Heaven was to be earned only by penance and mortification; by the austerities and abasement of a monk, not by the liberal, generous, and spirited conduct of a man.
Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. v. c. 1.
ABA'SH, v. The past tense and past part. ABA'SHMENT. of Abase was anciently written Abaisit, Abayschid; whence the word Abash appears to be formed: and is applied to
The feelings of those who are abased, depressed, disgraced, humbled.
In Wicliff it is applied to
The feelings which overpowered, subdued, the witnesses of the miraculous restoration of the damsel by Christ.
Abasshe is found in Gower, used as a substantive. See BASH.
Now is Berwick born doun, abaist is that cuntre.
And anoon the damysel roos and walkide: and sche was of twelve yeer, and thei weren abayschid with a great stoneying.- Wiclif. Mark, c. 5.
And as the new abashed Nightingale,
And after siker doeth her voice out ring.
Choucer. Troilus, b. iii. fol. 173. Certes (quod she) that were great a maruayle and an abashinge, without ende.-Chaucer. Boecius, b. iv. p. 1.
The kynges doughter, whiche this sigh,
And let hem still ride enough.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.
of stature more than wont, stood fore mine eyen. Abashed then I waxe: therewith my heare Gan start right up: my voice stuck in my throte. Surrey. Virgile, b. ii. But the water kepte his course, and wette, at length the kynges [Canute] thyes; wherwith ye kynge abasshed, sterte backe and sayde, all erthly kynges may knowe that theyr powers be vayne, and that none is worthy to have the name of a kynge, but he that has all thynges subiecte to his hestes.-Fabyan, c. 206.
I saie to the, thou hast put me in a more greatte abasshement, than the feare of myne enemies.-Golden Boke, Let. 15. Why, then, (you princes)
Do you with cheekes abash'd behold our workes,
Shakespeare. Tro. & Cres. Act i. sc. 3.
For her faint heart was with the frozen cold
Basenesse of birth is a great disparagement to some men, especially if they be wealthy, bear office, and come to promotion in a common-wealth: then, if their birth be not answerable to their calling, and to their fellows, they are much abashed and ashamed of themselves.
Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 310. But when he Venus view'd without disguise, Her shining neck beheld, and radiant eyes; Awed and abash'd he turn'd his head aside, Attempting with his robe his face to hide.
Congreve. Homer. Hymn to Venus. And harsh austerity, from whose rebuke Young love and smiling wonder shrink away Abash'd and chill of heart, with sager frowns Condemns the fair enchantment. Akenside. Pleasures of Imagination, d. iii. ABA'TE, v. Fr. Abbatre; It. Abbatere; Sp. ABA'TE, n. Abatir; A. S. Beatan, to beat. ABATEMENT. The word exists also without the ABA'TER. prefix A; though more limited See BATE. by modern usage in its application. To beat or press down; to cast down; to lower, to depress; to lessen; to diminish; to reduce. The kyng did samen his men, to abate Gryffyn's pride.
R. Brunne, p. 63.
For that abatement he chalenges thorgh right.-Id. p. 278. As God saith, the horrible divels shul gon and comen upon the hedes of dampned folk: and this is, for as moche as the higher that they were in this present lif, the more shul they be abated and defouled in helle.
Chaucer. Personnes Tales, vol. ii. p. 291. The kynge of Scottes wyth all hys hoste and power entered into England:-and planted hys siege before the castell of Norham, and sore abated the walles.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 5. He [the horsse] breaketh the groude wyth the hoffes of his fete chearfully in his strength, and runneth to mete the harnest men. He layeth asyde all feare, hys stomack is not abated, neither starteth he abacke for any swerde. Bible, London, 1539. Job, c. 39.
O happie Cato Censorine, who with suche as haue folowed his waies, are now sure fro the abatementes of fortune. The Golden Boke, ch. xxv. Hel. O weary night, O! long and tedious night, Abate thy houres, shine comforts from the East, That I may backe to Athens by day-light, From these, that my poore companie detest.
Shakespeare. Mid. Night's Dream, Act iii. sc. 2.
A sixt, a tenth, letting them thrive againe
Knight. My lord, I know not what the matter is, but to my judgement, your Highnesse is not entertained with that ceremonious affection as you were wont; there's a great abatement of kindnesse appeares as well in the generall dependants, as in the duke himselfe also, and your daughter. Shakespeare. Lear, Act i. sc. 4. A day
Will come (hear this, and quake, ye potent great ones)
Beaumont and Fletcher. Laws of Candy, Act. ▼
Impiety of times, chastity's abator,
Falsehood, wherein thyself thyself deniest;
Daniel. Complaint of Rosamond.
If we could arrest time, and strike off the nimble wheels of his chariot, and like Joshua, bid the sun stand still, and make opportunity tarry as long as he had occasion for it; this were something to excuse our delay, or at least to mitigate or abate the folly and unreasonableness of it. Tillotson. Works, vol. i. Ser. 14.
The triall hereof (whether men weigh heavier dead than alive) cannot so well be made on the body of a man, nor will the difference be sensible in the abate of scruples or dracms. Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 7.
The greatest tyrants have been those, whose titles were the most unquestioned. Whenever the opinion of right becomes too predominant and superstitious, it is abated by breaking the custom: thus the revolution broke the custom of succession.-Paley. Moral Philosophy, b. vi. c. 2. ABA'WED, i. e. Abashed. Fr. Esbahi.
Abbas was introduced (says Skinner) into Europe from Syria with the Christian religion. It is derived from the Syriac Abba, Father. The application of this name to persons in monasteries was resisted by St. Jerome, as an call no man infringement of the command to " Father, upon the earth." An abbot; the chief or head of a religious order, house, monastery.
Doztren he adde al so, Cecyly het that on
And in this time was geuen vnto the kyng by the consent of the great and fatte abbottes, all religious houses that were of the value of three hundred marke and vnder, in hope, that their great monasteryes should haue continued still: but euen at that tyme one sayde in the parliament house, that these were as thornes, but the great abbottes were putrifyed old okes, and they must needes folowe. Grafton. Chron. Hen. VIII. an. 26. The abbot was elected by the monks of the monastery, at least in the greater part of abbacies. Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. v. c. 1. It. Abbreviare; Sp. Abreviar:-from Lat. Brevis ; the Gr. Bpaxus; A. S. Bracan, to break. See ABRIDGE.
ABBREVIATE, v. ABBREVIATE, n. ABBREVIATION.
To break or make short, concise; to shorten, to abridge; to bring or reduce to a smaller space or compass by breaking off, or removing parts.
In all theyr wrytynge, [the Frenshe] when they come to any mater that soundyth any thynge to theyr honour, it is wrytten in the longest and mooste shewynge manoure to theyr honour and worshyp. But if it sounde any thynge to theyr dishonoure, than shall it be abreuyatyd or hyd, that the trouthe shall not be knowen.-Fabyan. Hen. III. an. 26.
The epistles do conteyne counsayles and aduertisementes in the fourme of orations, recytynge diuers places, as wel out of the olde testament, as the gospels, as it were an abbreuiate, called of the Grekes and Latines, Epitoma. Elyot. The Governor, b. iii. c. 23.
Of this Joseph, Trogus Pompeius, and also his abreuiator Justine do write in this manner: Joseph was the yongest among the brethren, whose excellent wit they fearing, solde him vnto straynge marchauntes, by whome he was brought into Egypt.-Grafton. Chron. The Third Age.
The Egyptians indeed did teach religion by symbolical figures, and in the eastern empire their laws were written with characters and abbreviatures.
Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. ui. o 4.
As the creation the original of mankind was in two persons, but after the flood, their propagation issued at least from six; against this we might very well set the length of their lives before the flood, which were abbreviated after, and in half this space contracted into hundreds and threescores.
Brown. Vulgar Errours, b.vi. c. 6.
This book was composed after two old examples of the same kind, in the times of Ethelbert and Alfred, and was laid up as sacred in the church of Winchester; and for that reason, as graver authors say, was called Liber Domus Dei, and by abbreviation, Domesday Book.
Sir Wm. Temple. An Introduction to the Hist. of Eng. A'BCEDARY, ABCEDARIAN, or Abbecedarian, a term applied to those compositions whose parts are disposed in alphabetical order; also to a teacher of the rudiments of learning.
This [communication] is pretended from the sympathy of two needles touched with the same loadstone, and placed in the center of two abecedary circles or rings with letters described round about them, one friend keeping one and another the other, and agreeing upon the hour wherein they will communicate.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c. 3.
Moses received the first alphabetarie letters in the table of the Decalogue: and from the Hebrues the Phoenicians. Purchas. Pilgrimage, b. i. c. 17. When he [Thomas Farnabie] landed in Cornwall, his distresses made him stoop so low, as to be abcedarian, and several were taught their horn-books by him.
ABDICATE, v. ABDICATION.
Wood. Athena Oxonienses.
Fr. Abdiquer; It. Abdicare; Sp. Abdicar; Lat. Abdicare, (Ab-dicare, Gr.
Sun, right,) to go from a right.
To go from, quit or leave, put away from, or deprive of, that which has been possessed by law or right.
To resign, to disclaim, to renounce, to dispossess. O Saviour, it was ever thy manner to call all men unto thee; when didst thou ever drive any one from thee? neither had it been so now, but to draw them closer unto thee, whom thou seemest for the time to abdicate.
Bishop Hall. Contemp. Walke upon the Waters.
28th Jan. 1688-1689.-At length the house came to this grand resolution :---Resolved, That king James the second, having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits, and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is thereby become vacant. Parliamentary History. An. 1688-9.
Grotius himself, and all the authors that treat of this matter, and the nature of it, do agree, that if there be any word or action, that doth sufficiently manifest the intention of the mind and will to part with his office, that will amount to an abdication or renouncing.-Id.
It may be farther observed, that parents were allowed to he reconciled to their children, but after that could never abdicate them again.---Potter. Antiq. of Greece, b. iv. c. 15. Great Pan, who wont to chase the fair, And lov'd the spreading oak, was there; Old Saturn too, with upcast eyes, Beheld his abdicated skies.
Addison. To Sir Godfrey Kneller.
The mortification of unreasonable desires, the suppression of irregular passions, the loving and blessing our enemies, the renouncing worldly vanities and pleasures, the rejoicing in afflictions, the voluntary abdication of our estates in some cases, yea, exposing life itself to inevitable hazard and loss, are not chimerical propositions of impossible performances; but duties really practicable.
The consequences drawn from these facts (namely, that they amounted to an abdication of the government; which abdication did not affect only the person of the king himself, but also of all his heirs, and rendered the throne absolutely and completely vacant) it belonged to our ancestors to determine.-Blackstone. Com. b. i. c. 3. ABDO'MINOUS.
Lat. Abdomen: the part of the body covered (Abditum, Vossius).
Daniel eat pulse by choice---example rare!
Cowper. Progress of Error.
ABDU'CE, v. I Lat. Abducere, (Ab-ducere,) ABDUCTION. Sto lead from.
To draw, bring, or take away from; to withdraw. The noun is much used by writers on English
law, and is applied to the forcible taking away of a wife or child; and to common kidnapping.
If beholding a candle, we protrude either upward or downward the pupil of one eye, and behold it with one, it will then appear but single; and if we abduce the eye unto either corner, the object will not duplicate.
Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iii. c. 20. The other remaining offence, that of kidnapping, being the forcible abduction or stealing away of a man, woman, or child, from their own country, and sending them into another, was capital by the Jewish law. Blackstone. Com. b. iv. c. 15.
ABE'AR, v. See BEAR. Applied toABEARYNG. The bearing or carriage, deportment, conduct, or behaviour.
The noun Abearyng has been succeeded in modern writers on English law by Abearance. See Blackstone, b. iv. c. 18.
Vpon assurance takyn of the said Hunyldus, that there after he shulde be of good aberynge to warde the kyng, he clerely forgaue vnto hym all his former offence. Fabyan. Cronycles, c. 154.
So did the Faery Knight himself abeare,
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. v. c. 12. ABE'CHED. Abeched (says Skinner), seems (from the context) to be-satisfied: from the French Abbecher, to feed (from Bec, the Beak), as birds feed their young by inserting their beak. "Abdecher. To feed as birds do their young; to put into the mouth of." Cotgrave.
But might I getten as ye tolde,
And for the tyme well refresshed.--Gower. Con. A. b. v.
Some radde, that hii ssoide wende in at on hepe,
Hir kyrtell, and hir mantell eke.
And thus thei slepen both a bedde.-Gower. Con. A. b. v.
Drayton. Barons' Wars, b. iii.
Delight is layd abedd; and pleasure, past;
Spenser. Shepherd's Calendar. Howbeit he [Lycurgus] advised her to go her full time, and to be brought abed in good order, and then he would find means enough to make away the child that should be born.--North. Plutarch, p. 34.
ABERRANCE. ABERRA'TION. ABE'RRING.
Lat. Ab-errare, to stray or wander from. A wandering from. See To ERR. Applied to the errors or mistakes of the mind; Words neither much used, nor much wanted.
For though there were a fatality in this year, [" the great climactrical year, that is, sixty-three"] yet divers were, and others might be out in their account, aberring several wayes from the true and just compute, and calling that one year, which perhaps might be another.
Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 12.
And therefore they not only swarm with errors, but vices depending thereon. Thus they commonly affect no man any further than he deserts his reason, or complies with their aberrancies.-Id. Ib. b. i. c. 3.
So, then we draw near to God, when, repenting us of our former aberrations from him, we renew our covenants with him.-Bishop Hall. Sermon. James iv. 8.
D. Boeten, betteren; Ger. Besseren; A. S. Betan, (meliorare, melius reddere, says Skinner.) To better, to make better. Applied to the encouraging, inciting, assisting, supporting, aiding, causing to beat, or become better. And thus
To better, to aid, assist, support—the designs of.
But in this kind, to come in brauing armes,
Shakespeare. Rich. II. Act ii. sc. 3.
I am not ignorant that Cicero, in defence of his own nation, tells vs, our people, by defending their associates, became masters of the world; but I would willingly be informed, whether or no, they did not often set their associates to complaine without a cause, or abet them in vnjust quar rels.-Hakewill. Apologie, p. 452.
I would represent unto his Majesty, that when the principal reason of their excuse should cease, namely, these fresh stirrings so near them, which seemed to require their abetment, then they would give us more particular satisfaction.-Reliquia Wottonian, p. 542.
Yet Christian laws allow not such redress;
Dryden. Hind and the Panther, pt. 3. That which demands to be next considered is happiness; as being in itself most considerable; as abetting the cause of truth; and as being indeed so nearly allied to it, that they cannot well be parted. Wollaston. Religion of Nature, sec. 2.
Would you, when thieves are known abroad,
ABHO'R, v. ABHO'RRENCE, ABHO'RRENT. ABHO'RRER.
Gay. Fables, pt. ii. Fab. 12. Fr. Abhorrer; It. Abborrire; Sp. Abhorecer; Lat. Ab-horrere. See HORROur. Met.
To dislike or detest, to loath,
King. I may perceiue
These cardinals trifle with me: I abhorre
Shakespeare. Henry VIII. Act if,
Be gentle graue vnto me, rather on Nylus mudde
Id. Ant. and Cleo. Act v. sc. 2.
He who wilfully abstains from marriage, not being supernaturally gifted; and he who, by making the yoke of marriage unjust and intolerable, causes men to abhor it, are both in a diabolical sin, equal to that of Antichrist, who forbids to marry.-Milton. Tetrachordon.
We see in many cases, that time and calmer consideratlons, together with different customs, which, (like the tide or flood) insensibly prevail over both manners and minds of men; do oft take off the edge and keenness of men's spirits against those things, whereof they sometimes were great abhorrers.-Bp. Taylor. Artif. Hands. p. 134.
Then wanton fulness vain oblivion brought,
Parnell. Gift of Poetry.
That which constitutes an object of contempt to the malevolent, becomes the object of other passions to a worthy and good-natured man; for, in such a person, wickedness and vice must raise hatred and abhorrence.
Fielding. Covent Garden Journal, No. 61.
Yet from Leonidas, thou wretch, inur'd
I spurn abhorrent. In a spotless heart
This legal, and, as it should seem, injudicious profanation, so abhorrent to our stricter principles, was received with a very faint murmur, by the easy nature of polytheism. Gibbon." Roman Empire, c. 3.
Wherever the church and court party prevailed, addresses were framed, containing expressions of the highest regard to his Majesty, the most entire acquiescence in his wisdom, the most dutiful submission to his prerogative, and the deepest abhorrence of those who endeavoured to encroach. upon it, by prescribing to him any time for assembling the parliament. Thus the nation came to be distinguished into Chaucer. Troilus, b. ii. fol. 159. petitioners and abhorrers.-Hume. England. An. 1680.
I am thine Eme, the shame were to me
A. S. Abidan, Bidan; D. Bey-
tarry, to dwell, to continue, to wait,
And the othir day he entride into Cesarie, and Cornelie
For men schulen were drio for drede, and abidynge that
Do grete diligence (saith Salomon), in keping of thy
He [Giovanni Pietro Pugliano] said, "Soldiers were the
Sidney. Defence of Poesy, p. 1.
The pacient abyding of the righteous shall be turned to
Udal. St. Marke, c. 1.
Aut. I cannot tell, good Sir, for which of his vertues it
Clo. His vices you would say: there's no vertue whipt
Shakespeare. Winter's Tale, Act iv. sc. 2.
Lor. Sweete friends; your patience for my long abode;-
When all the earth shall melt into nothing, and the seas
Abating all the rueful consequences of abiding in sin,
When he, whom e'en our joys provoke,
And rush'd in wrath to make our isle his prey,
ABI'E, is very variously written. By Chaucer,
In all the examples following, "buy or pay for,
Bar. Fool-hardy knight, full soon thou shalt aby
turned her whele, herynge hym to be repudiate and abiected
John the apostle, was now of late in a certaine yle of Licia
The audacite and bolde speche of Daniel signifyeth the
Jesus calleth the home frō this affeccion, to ye contem-
Christ for the time of his pilgrimage here was a most
The damzell straght went, as she was directed
Oh noble Lord, bethinke thee of thy birth;
Shakespeare. Tam. of Sh. Act i. sc. 3.
But is it credible, that the very acknowledgment of our
It abjected his [Wolsey's] spirit to that degree, that he fell
of his mind had upon his body.
To go away from, or leave: to disown, to dis-
But now was he so obstinate, that he woulde not abiure of
In this season were banished out of Southwarke XII
I put my selfe to thy direction, and
Shakespeare. Mac. Act iv. sc. 3.
him, than not be quit of thee? Did not another of them
La. When a clerk heretofore was convicted of felony, he
And thereupon [he] took the oath in that case provided,
A Jacobite, who is persuaded of the pretender's right to
ABLACTATION. Lat. (of the lower age,)
when the stock you would graft on, and the tree from which
Now is the time for ablaqueation, and laying bare the
Fr. Ablation; Lat. Ablatio:
A taking away, or depriving.
Ablative, that can or may take away.
Prohibition extends to all injustice, whether done by
Bp. Taylor. Great Exemplar, p. 2, § 37.
Wraththe able into deeth, to schewe the richessis of his glorie into vessels of merci whiche he made redi into glorie. Wiclif. Romayns, c. 9. For no doute to dreade to offende God, and to loue to please him in all thing quyckeneth and sharpeneth all the wittes of Christes chosen people: and ableth them so to grace, that they joye greatly to withdrawe their eares, and all their wittes and membres frome all worldly delyte, and from all fleschly solace.
State Trials. 8 Hen. IV. 1407. William Thorpe. God tokeneth and assigneth the times abling hem to her proper offices.-Chaucer. Boecius, b. i. fol. 215.
And ye my ladies that ben trew and stable,
Id. The Complaint of Mars, fol. 326. All our abilitie or sufficiencie commeth of God. And so consequently, it commeth not purely by the ministery of his vicarship, that he is enabled; but the ablenesse or enablenesse of him, being the vicar of Christ, commeth to him another way from aboue.
State Trials. 6 Rich. II. 1883. John Wickliffe. Vnto one he gaue v. talentes, to another ii. and to another one; to euery ma after his abilitie, and streight way departed.-Bible, 1551. S. Matthew, c. 25.
Let no man blame our nature for being weake and faint, nor laie against the goddes that they be cruell: for we haue no lesse ablenes to doe wel, than readines to doe euil. The Golden Booke, c. 3.
A noble crew about them waited round
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. can. 12.
I can produce a man,
Of female seed, far abler to resist
All his solicitations, and at length
All his vast force, and drive him back to Hell;
By fallacy surpris'd.-Milton. Paradise Regained, b. 1.
Whom shall we choose
As the most apt and abled instrument To minister it [poison] to him [Drusus]? B. Jonson. Sejanus, Act ii. sc. 1. Cres. They say all louers sweare more performance than they are able, and yet reserue an ability that they neuer performe; vowing more than the perfection of ten, and discharging lesse then the tenth part of one.
Shakespeare. Troi. and Cres. Act iii. sc. 2.
Never liv'd gentleman of greater merit,
Ford. The Broken Heart, Act v. sc. 2. Natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study.-Bacon. Of Studies, Ess. 50.
Certainly the force of imagination is wonderfull, either to beget in vs an ability for the doing of that which wee apprehend we can do, or a disability for the not doing of that which wee concieue wee cannot do. Hakewill. Apologie, p. 19. Henry the second reigned in France; Philip the second,
In Spain: princes in the vigour of their age, of great ambition, of great talents, and seconded by the ablest ministers and generals in Europe.
Bolingbroke. Remarks on the Hist. of England.
The mind, relaxing into needful sport,
Dort, call the decree of God, whereby he hath appointed, in and by Christ to save those that repent, believe and persevere, Decretum annunciativum, &c.-Id. Via Media.
ABLU'TION, n. Fr. Ablution; It. Abluzione:
Sp. Ablucion; Lat. Ablutio: from abluere, (Ab-where-of at present there is no visible appearance.
A washing off or away from; cleansing, purifying.
There is a natural analogy between the ablution of the body and the purification of the soul.
Bp. Taylor. Worthy Communicant.
So because the common way of making a people holy, was to adopt them into the protection of a tutelary God; and of rendering particulars clear, was by ablutions and other cathartic rites; the Almighty was pleased to assume the titles of their [the Jews] national God, and regal Governor.-Warburton, Ser. 5.
Hearts may be found, that harbour at this hour
With us, the man of no complaint demands
A'BNEGATE, v. ABNEGA'TION.
Armstrong. Art of Health, b. iii.
What strange ominous abodings and fears do many times on a sudden seize upon men, of certain approaching evils, Bp. Bull. Works, ii. 489. Fr. Abolir; It. Abolire Sp. Aboler; Lat. Abolere; Gr. Ολεω, ολλυμι, to hurt, to destroy. See Vossius,
ABOLISH, v. ABO LISHMENT. ABOLITION. ABOLITIONIST, n. Perizonius, on Sanctius.
To destroy, to deprive of power; to annul, to abrogate; to annihilate.
Abolitionist is modern word, lately of frequent
The inhabitauntes of the north partes being by the meanes of certayne abbottes and ignorant priestes not a little stirred and prouoked for the suppression of certain monasteries, and for the extirpacion and abholishyng of the byshoppe of Rome, saiyng, see frendes nowe is taken from vs fower of the vii. sacramentes, and shortly ye shall lese the other thre also; and thus the fayth of holy churche shall vtterly be suppressed and abholished.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 28.
Thus, M. Hardinge, it is plaine by the judgment of your owne doctors, that were your auriculare confession quite abolish'd, yet might the people notwithstandinge haue ful remission of theire sinnes. Jewel. Defence of the Apologie, p. 143.
He hath given it them moreouer to doe these thinges to his glory, throgh the agreement of faith that they haue in the vnitie of his godly truth, to the abolishment of all Bale. Image of bothe Churches, pt. ii. sects, false prophets, and coniurers of Egipt. Rather so farre are we from thabolishement or thappayby Dr. Johnson under the v. abjure, as synony- ryng of the authoritie of the lawe, that we muche more mous with it.
Let the princes be of what religion they please, that is all one to the most part of men; so that with abnegation of God, of his honour, and religion, they may retain the friendship of the court.
Knox. Letter to the Queen Regent of Scotland.
A serpentine generation wholly made of fraud, policies,
ABOARD, n. ABO'RD, v. or Bo'RD. ABO'RD, n. and, then, to address.
And afterwards, a great wynde and tepest arisyng in ye sea,
Resolv'd he said: and rigg'd with speedy care,
Dryden. Cymon and Iph.
I would at the same time penetrate into their thoughts, in order to know whether your first abord made that advantageous impression upon their fancies, which a certain address, air, and manners, never fail doing.
ABO'DE, v. ABO'DANCE. ABO DEMENT. ABO'DING, n.
I appeal to any free judge, how likely these liquid particles are to approve themselves of that nature and power as to be able, by erecting and knitting themselves together for a moment of time, to bear themselves so as with one joynt contention of strength to cause an arbitrarious ablegation of the spirits into this or that determinate part of the body. Hen. More. An Antidote against Atheism, b. i. c. 11. s. 7. ABLUDE, v. Ab-ludere, to play from. To play from, or out of tune; and, thus, to infer good or ill. differ; to be unlike.
Whereas we ought, according to the wise advise of our Seneca (not much abluding from the counsell of that blessed apostle, with whom he is said to have intercharged letters) so to possesse them, as those that make account to forego them; and so forego them as if we possessed them still Bp. Hall. The Balm of Gilead. So Ambrose interprets that place of 1 Tim. ii. 4. would have all to be saved," saith he, if themselves will: for he hath given his law to all; and excepts no man, in respect of his law and will revealed, from salvation. Neither doth it much ablude from this, that our English divines at
Nay, such abodes ben nat worth an haw.
Chaucer. Troilus, b. iii. fol. 171.
Shakespeare. 3 Part Hen. VI. Act v. sc. 6.
maintaine and establishe it.-Udal. Rom. c. 3.
Now to thentent that ye may yet farther percieue and se, that they by the distruccion of the elergy, meane the clere abolycion of Christes faith: it may like you to conferre, and compare together ii places of hys beggars bill. Sir T. More. Works, p. 311.
But my saluation shal be for euer, and my righteousnes shall not be abolished.--Bible. Isaiah, li. 6.
But is nowe made manifest by the appearing of our
With silly weake old woman thus to fight;---
Mol. That vow perform'd, fasting shall be abolish'd:
Dryden. Don Sebastian, Act i. sc. 1. Though he [the Church of England man] will not determine whether episcopacy be of divine right, he is sure it is most agreeable to primitive institution, fittest of all others for preserving order and purity, and under its present regulations best calculated for our civil state: he should therefore think the abolishment of that order among us, would prove a mighty scandal and corruption to our faith. Swift. Sentiments of a Church of England Man. The abolition of Spiritual Courts (as they are called) would shake the very foundation on which the establishment is erected. Warburton. Alliance between Church and State. Fr. Abominer; It. Abominare; Sp. Abominar; Lat. Abominari. (Ab-ominari, omen velut oremen. Festus,) to turn from, as a bad omen. Malum omen
ABO'MINATE, v. ABO'MINABLE. ABO'MINABLENESS. ABOMINABLY. ABOMINATION. ABO'MINER. deprecari. Junius.
To turn from as ill omened. To loath or abhor, hate or detest, to accurse or execrate.
Thei knowlochen that thei knowen god, but bi dedis thei denyen whanne the ben abomynable and unbileefful and repreuable to al good werk.---Wiclif. Tyte, c. 1.
And he seide to hem, ye it ben that justifyen you bifore men; but God hath knowen youre hertis, for that that is Ib. Luke, c. 16. high to men: is abhomynacioun bifore God
Al whom therfore by the whole thousande on an heape (for no fewer he nombreth them) dothe thys dyuelyshe dronken soule abominablye blaspheme, and calleth them then draffe.--Sir T. More. Works, p. 679. lyars and falsefiers of scripture, and maketh them no better