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A, is the first letter, and first vowel of the

alphabet, in all the modern, and in most of the ancient languages.

B. Jonson observes, that all our vowels are sounded doubtfully: in quantity (which is time), long or short; or, in accent (which is tune), sharp or flat. A is long in debating; short in stomaching; sharp in háte; flat in hat. With us, he adds, A is pronounced less than the French à, as in art, act; but when it comes before 1, in the - end of a syllable, it obtaineth the French sound, and is uttered with the mouth and throat wide opened, the tongue bent from the teeth, as in all, small; and in salt, malt, balm, where a consonant followeth the L. For this latter mode of utterance, Wilkins adopts the Gr. a; and describes it to be framed by an emission of the breath betwixt the tongue and the palate, the tongue being put into a more concave posture, and removed further off from the palate. The former mode of utterance of a, as in bat, bate, he describes to be framed by an emission of the breath betwixt the tongue and concave of the palate; the upper superficies of the tongue being rendered less concave, and at a less distance from the palate. The adoption of the Greek character, as a mean of distinction, seems to be far preferable to any mark or figure of reference, a plan generally adopted by modern orthoepists.

A, the English article, means one; in A. S. an. In A. S. on means in; and has been corrupted in English to an before a vowel, and to a before a consonant; and in writing and speaking it has been connected with the subsequent word: hence a numerous race of adverbs. From On dæg, On niht, On lenge, On bræde, On bæc, On lande, On life, On middan, On wihte, On twa, On weg; we have Aday, Anight, Along, Abroad, Aback, Aland, Alive, Amid, Aright, Atwo, Away. Tooke.


A, in such expressions, as a-hunting, a-begging, a-going, admits of a similar explanation; i. e. on or in, the act of hunting, begging.

In the A. S. the prefix a to words also in use without it, is of constant occurrence. In some words, which have descended from that language, the word with this prefix is preserved; e. g. in Abide, Abut, Ashamed. In a far greater number


the prefix is dropped; e. g. in Abeodan, to bid;
Abitan, to bite; Acelan, to keel or cool.
A per se (A by itself), as denoting pre-emi-
nence, is not unusual in our old poets.

O faire Creseide, the floure and ▲ per se
Of Troye and Greece.

To band or bind, or put in bondage; to stay, or cause to stay, or remain in; to leave in, or give up to, a state of bondage or entire subjection." And then simply

To resign; to quit, to desert, to forsake; and consequently, to reject or cast away: to repel or

Chaucer. Testament of Creseide, v. 78. drive away: to banish.
Right as our first letter is now an A,

In beaute first so stode she makeles.-Id. Troilus, d. i.
A, B, C, the old English denomination of the
Gr. a, B. See ALPHABET.

Clerc he was god ynou, and gut, as me telleth me
He was more than ten ger old, ar he couthe ys Abece.
Robert of Gloucester, p. 266.
On back. Backwards. See BACK.


So that the white was aboue, as the folk y seye, And drof the rede al abak.-R. Gloucester, p. 131. Iesus seith to hem I am, and Iudas that betraiede him stood with hem, and whanne he seide to hem, I am, thei wenten abak and felden doun on the erthe. Wicliff. Ion, c. 18. Chaucer. Legend of Tisbe. But both the fruit from hand, and floud from mouth Did flie abak, and made him vainely swinke. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 7. "Away there! lower the mizen yard on deck," He calls, and "brace the foremost yards aback !" Falconer. Shipwreck. ABA'FT. On the aft or hind part; behind. See AFT. And the boteswaine of the galley walked abaft the maste, Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. p. 187. ABALIENATE, Į Lat. Abalienare: used in ABALIENATION.writers on civil law, but has given way to

And therewithall abacke she start.

and the mate afore the maste.


To alienate. ABA'ND, v. Fr. Abandonner; It. AbanABANDON, v. donare; Sp. Abandonar. VaABA'NDON, n. rious etymologies have been ABANDONER. suggested: - from the Fr. ABANDONING, N. Bandon, Liberty: from A. S. ABANDONMENT. Abannan, to denounce: from Ban to curse: from à ban donner, to give up to a proclamation, and others. See Menage and Wachter. See also BAN, BAND, and BANISH, infra. The A. S. Bannan, or Abannan, would give the past participle, Abanned, Aband (and so the word is written in the Mirror for Magistrates, and Spenser). Upon this past participle, the English Abandon, and also Fr. It. and Sp. appear to have been formed: and to Abandon is

Abandonment, n. is used by Cotgrave in v. Abandon. The authorities quoted are very modern: Abandoning appears also to have been a common noun; but the old noun was Abandon: applied to the act, the thing, or the person.

He that dredeth God, spareth not to do that him ought to do; and he that loveth God, he wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes, and abandon himself with all his might wel for to do.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale,

For he that

Yaue whole his hart, in will and thought,
And to himselfe kepeth right nought
After this swift it is good reason
He yeue his good in abandon.

Id. The Rom. of the Rose, fol. 127. Moris hir sonne was coroned, Whiche so ferforth was abandoned To Christes feith, that men hym calle Moris the christnest of all.-Gower. Conf. Am. b. il. Further John a man of perfecte holines, perceyuing the enuious affections of his disciples, to thintent that he might heale their weakness, and abandone them from him and deliver them to Jesus: he chose out of them two and sent them to Jesus.-Udall. Erasmus' Matthew, c. 10.

those forreiners, which came from farre, Grew great, and got large portions of land, That in the realme ere long they stronger arre, Then they which sought at first their helping hand, 'And Vortiger enforc't the kingdome to aband. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 10

'Tis better far the enemies t'aband
Quite from thy borders, to a forren soile,
Then he at home, thee and thy countrie spoile.
Mir. for Magistrates, p. 119.
What when Severus old did vnderstand,
All pleasures quite and ioyes he had aband,
Pursuing warre.-Id. p. 172.

Beg. Madame wife, they say that I haue dream'd
And slept aboue some fifteene yeare or more.
Lady. I, and the time seemes thirty vnto me,
Being all this time abandon'd from your bed.

Shakespeare. Tam. of S. Act i. sc. 1.
Meanwhile reviv'd
Abandon fear: to strength and counsel join'd
Think nothing hard, much less to be despair'd.
Milton. Par. Lost, b. vi.
See how he lies at random, carelessly diffused,
With languish'd head unpropt,
As one past hope, adandon'd,
And by himself given over.-Milton. Scmson Agonisten

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You form reasons,

Just ones, for your abandoning the storms
Which threaten your own ruin; but propose

No shelter for her honour.-Ford. Lady's Trial, Act i. sc. 1.
Emil. Oh sacred, shadowy, cold, and constant queen,
Abandoner of revels, mute, contemplative.

Bean. & Fletch. Two Noble Kinsmen, Act v. sc. 1. What is it that Sathan can despaire to perswade men unto, if he can draw them to an unnatural abandoning of life, and pursuit of death.-Hall. Occasionall Medit. 117.

Then thought hee it also time to send an ambassage unto Archduke Philip, into Flanders, for the abandoning and dismissing of Perkin.-Bacon. Henry VII. p 126. Ror. I see no crime in her whom I adore, Or if I do, her beauty makes it none: Look on me as a man abandon'd o'er To an eternal lethargy of love.

Dryden. Spanish Friar, Act iv. Nor let her tempt that deep, nor make the shore, Where our abandon'd youth she sees, Shipwreck'd in luxury, and lost in ease.-Prior. Ode (1692). He that abandons religion must act in such a contradiction to his own conscience and best judgment, that he abuses and spoils the faculty itself.-Watts. Sermons.

Cities then

Attract us, and neglected nature pines Abandon'd, as unworthy of our love.-Cowper. Task. b. ii. When thus the helm of justice is abandoned, an universal abandoning of all other posts will succeed.

Burke. On Reg. Peace. Let. 4.

They amount (says he) to the sacrifice of powers, that have been most nearly connected with us; the direct or indirect annexation to France of all the parts of the continent, from Dunkirk to Hamburgh; an immense accession of territory; and, in one word, the abandonment of the independence of Europe.-Id. ib. p. 81.

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To put or bring low, to lower, to depress; to degrade, to humble, to disgrace.

Our kynge hath do this thing amisse,

So to abesse his roialtee;

That euery man it might see,

And humbled him in such a wise

To them that were of none emprise.-Gower. Conf. Am. b.i. This example was shewed to teache vs, howe the teachers of Gods worde should not grutche to descend from their highnes or perfection, and abase themselues euen to the lowlines of the weake, thereby to wynne very many to theyr Lorde.-Udall. Erasmus, S. Marke, c. 2.

At this tyme also, the kinges maiestie, with the aduice of his privy counsaile, did now purpose not onely the abacyng of the sayd copper moneys, but also ment wholly to reduce them to bollion, to the intent to deliuer fine and good monies for them. The peece of ix pence was abaced to sixpence.-Grafton. Chronicle. Ed. VI. an. 5.

And will she yet abase her eyes on me,
That cropt the golden prime of this sweet prince,
And made her widdow to a wofull bed?

Shakespeare. Rich. III. Act i. sc. 2.

If he that abases the prince's coin deserves to die, what is his desert, that instead of the tried silver of God's word, stamps the name and character of God upon base brazen stuff of his own?-Hales. Remains, Ser. 1.

There is an abasement because of glory, and there is that lifteth up his head from a low estate.-Ecclus. XX. 2.

It is a point of cunning to wait upon him with whom you speak with your eye; as the Jesuits give it in precept; for there may be many wise men that have secret hearts and transparent countenances: yet this should be done with a demure abasing of your eye.-Bacon. Essay on Cunning. Let the example of our Lord's humility bring down the haughtiness of men; and when we consider how he abased himself, let us be vile in our own eyes, and abhor ourselves in dust and ashes.-Tillotson. Works, vol. iii. 217. Ser. 135.

Absorb'd in that immensity I see,

I shrink abas'd, & yet aspire to Thee.-Cowper. Retirement. Heaven was to be earned only by penance and mortification; by the austerities and abasement of a monk, not by the liberal, generous, and spirited conduct of a man.

Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. v. c. 1.

ABA'SH, v. The past tense and past part. ABA'SHMENT. of Abase was anciently written Abaisit, Abayschid; whence the word Abash appears to be formed: and is applied to

The feelings of those who are abased, depressed, disgraced, humbled.

In Wicliff it is applied to

The feelings which overpowered, subdued, the witnesses of the miraculous restoration of the damsel by Christ.

Abasshe is found in Gower, used as a substantive. See BASH.

Now is Berwick born doun, abaist is that cuntre.
R. Brunne, p. 272.
For thi beo nat a baihsshed. to bydde and to be neody
Sithe he that wrouhte al the worlde, was wilfulliche neody.
Piers Plouhman, p. 394.

And anoon the damysel roos and walkide: and sche was of twelve yeer, and thei weren abayschid with a great stoneying.- Wiclif. Mark, c. 5.

And as the new abashed Nightingale,
That stinteth first, whan she beginneth sing
Whan that she heareth any heerdes tale,
Or in the hedges any wight stearing,

And after siker doeth her voice out ring.

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Choucer. Troilus, b. iii. fol. 173. Certes (quod she) that were great a maruayle and an abashinge, without ende.-Chaucer. Boecius, b. iv. p. 1.

The kynges doughter, whiche this sigh,
For pure abasshe drew hir adrigh,
And helde her close vnder the bough,

And let hem still ride enough.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.
The town restlesse with furie as I sought,
Th' unlucky figure of Creusaes ghost,

of stature more than wont, stood fore mine eyen. Abashed then I waxe: therewith my heare Gan start right up: my voice stuck in my throte. Surrey. Virgile, b. ii. But the water kepte his course, and wette, at length the kynges [Canute] thyes; wherwith ye kynge abasshed, sterte backe and sayde, all erthly kynges may knowe that theyr powers be vayne, and that none is worthy to have the name of a kynge, but he that has all thynges subiecte to his hestes.-Fabyan, c. 206.

I saie to the, thou hast put me in a more greatte abasshement, than the feare of myne enemies.-Golden Boke, Let. 15. Why, then, (you princes)

Do you with cheekes abash'd behold our workes,
And thinke them shame, which are (indeed) nought else,
But the protractiue trials of great Ioue,
To finde persistiue constancie in men.

Shakespeare. Tro. & Cres. Act i. sc. 3.
Yet all that could not from affright her hold,
Ne to recomfort her at all prevail'd,

For her faint heart was with the frozen cold
Benumb'd so inly, that her wits nigh fail'd,
And all her senses with abashment quite were quail'd.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 8.

Basenesse of birth is a great disparagement to some men, especially if they be wealthy, bear office, and come to promotion in a common-wealth: then, if their birth be not answerable to their calling, and to their fellows, they are much abashed and ashamed of themselves.

Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 310. But when he Venus view'd without disguise, Her shining neck beheld, and radiant eyes; Awed and abash'd he turn'd his head aside, Attempting with his robe his face to hide.

Congreve. Homer. Hymn to Venus. And harsh austerity, from whose rebuke Young love and smiling wonder shrink away Abash'd and chill of heart, with sager frowns Condemns the fair enchantment. Akenside. Pleasures of Imagination, d. iii. ABA'TE, v. Fr. Abbatre; It. Abbatere; Sp. ABA'TE, n. Abatir; A. S. Beatan, to beat. ABATEMENT. The word exists also without the ABA'TER. prefix A; though more limited See BATE. by modern usage in its application. To beat or press down; to cast down; to lower, to depress; to lessen; to diminish; to reduce. The kyng did samen his men, to abate Gryffyn's pride.

R. Brunne, p. 63.

For that abatement he chalenges thorgh right.-Id. p. 278. As God saith, the horrible divels shul gon and comen upon the hedes of dampned folk: and this is, for as moche as the higher that they were in this present lif, the more shul they be abated and defouled in helle.

Chaucer. Personnes Tales, vol. ii. p. 291. The kynge of Scottes wyth all hys hoste and power entered into England:-and planted hys siege before the castell of Norham, and sore abated the walles.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 5. He [the horsse] breaketh the groude wyth the hoffes of his fete chearfully in his strength, and runneth to mete the harnest men. He layeth asyde all feare, hys stomack is not abated, neither starteth he abacke for any swerde. Bible, London, 1539. Job, c. 39.

O happie Cato Censorine, who with suche as haue folowed his waies, are now sure fro the abatementes of fortune. The Golden Boke, ch. xxv. Hel. O weary night, O! long and tedious night, Abate thy houres, shine comforts from the East, That I may backe to Athens by day-light, From these, that my poore companie detest.

Shakespeare. Mid. Night's Dream, Act iii. sc. 2.
Post. I know you are more clement than vilde men,
Who of their broken debtors take a third,

A sixt, a tenth, letting them thrive againe
On their abatement.-Id. Cymbeline, Act v. 8c. 4.

Knight. My lord, I know not what the matter is, but to my judgement, your Highnesse is not entertained with that ceremonious affection as you were wont; there's a great abatement of kindnesse appeares as well in the generall dependants, as in the duke himselfe also, and your daughter. Shakespeare. Lear, Act i. sc. 4. A day

Will come (hear this, and quake, ye potent great ones)
When you yourselves shall stand before a judge,
Who in a pair of scales will weigh your actions,
Without abatement of one grain.

Beaumont and Fletcher. Laws of Candy, Act. ▼

Impiety of times, chastity's abator,

Falsehood, wherein thyself thyself deniest;
Treason to counterfeit the seal of nature,
The stamp of heaven, impressed by the highest.

Daniel. Complaint of Rosamond.

If we could arrest time, and strike off the nimble wheels of his chariot, and like Joshua, bid the sun stand still, and make opportunity tarry as long as he had occasion for it; this were something to excuse our delay, or at least to mitigate or abate the folly and unreasonableness of it. Tillotson. Works, vol. i. Ser. 14.

The triall hereof (whether men weigh heavier dead than alive) cannot so well be made on the body of a man, nor will the difference be sensible in the abate of scruples or dracms. Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 7.

The greatest tyrants have been those, whose titles were the most unquestioned. Whenever the opinion of right becomes too predominant and superstitious, it is abated by breaking the custom: thus the revolution broke the custom of succession.-Paley. Moral Philosophy, b. vi. c. 2. ABA'WED, i. e. Abashed. Fr. Esbahi.

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Abbas was introduced (says Skinner) into Europe from Syria with the Christian religion. It is derived from the Syriac Abba, Father. The application of this name to persons in monasteries was resisted by St. Jerome, as an call no man infringement of the command to " Father, upon the earth." An abbot; the chief or head of a religious order, house, monastery.

Doztren he adde al so, Cecyly het that on
The eldeste, that was at Carne nonne and abbesse.
R. Gloucester, p. 370
To chyrche and to pouere men he zef vorst, as he ssolde,
To abbeyes and to prioryes largylyche of hys golde.
Ib. p. 383.
For the abbot of Englond, and the abbesse ys nece,
Shullen have a knok on here crownes, and incurable the
wonde.-Piers Ploukman, p. 84.

And in this time was geuen vnto the kyng by the consent of the great and fatte abbottes, all religious houses that were of the value of three hundred marke and vnder, in hope, that their great monasteryes should haue continued still: but euen at that tyme one sayde in the parliament house, that these were as thornes, but the great abbottes were putrifyed old okes, and they must needes folowe. Grafton. Chron. Hen. VIII. an. 26. The abbot was elected by the monks of the monastery, at least in the greater part of abbacies. Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. v. c. 1. It. Abbreviare; Sp. Abreviar:-from Lat. Brevis ; the Gr. Bpaxus; A. S. Bracan, to break. See ABRIDGE.




To break or make short, concise; to shorten, to abridge; to bring or reduce to a smaller space or compass by breaking off, or removing parts.

In all theyr wrytynge, [the Frenshe] when they come to any mater that soundyth any thynge to theyr honour, it is wrytten in the longest and mooste shewynge manoure to theyr honour and worshyp. But if it sounde any thynge to theyr dishonoure, than shall it be abreuyatyd or hyd, that the trouthe shall not be knowen.-Fabyan. Hen. III. an. 26.

The epistles do conteyne counsayles and aduertisementes in the fourme of orations, recytynge diuers places, as wel out of the olde testament, as the gospels, as it were an abbreuiate, called of the Grekes and Latines, Epitoma. Elyot. The Governor, b. iii. c. 23.

Of this Joseph, Trogus Pompeius, and also his abreuiator Justine do write in this manner: Joseph was the yongest among the brethren, whose excellent wit they fearing, solde him vnto straynge marchauntes, by whome he was brought into Egypt.-Grafton. Chron. The Third Age.

The Egyptians indeed did teach religion by symbolical figures, and in the eastern empire their laws were written with characters and abbreviatures.

Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. ui. o 4.

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As the creation the original of mankind was in two persons, but after the flood, their propagation issued at least from six; against this we might very well set the length of their lives before the flood, which were abbreviated after, and in half this space contracted into hundreds and threescores.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b.vi. c. 6.

This book was composed after two old examples of the same kind, in the times of Ethelbert and Alfred, and was laid up as sacred in the church of Winchester; and for that reason, as graver authors say, was called Liber Domus Dei, and by abbreviation, Domesday Book.

Sir Wm. Temple. An Introduction to the Hist. of Eng. A'BCEDARY, ABCEDARIAN, or Abbecedarian, a term applied to those compositions whose parts are disposed in alphabetical order; also to a teacher of the rudiments of learning.

This [communication] is pretended from the sympathy of two needles touched with the same loadstone, and placed in the center of two abecedary circles or rings with letters described round about them, one friend keeping one and another the other, and agreeing upon the hour wherein they will communicate.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c. 3.

Moses received the first alphabetarie letters in the table of the Decalogue: and from the Hebrues the Phoenicians. Purchas. Pilgrimage, b. i. c. 17. When he [Thomas Farnabie] landed in Cornwall, his distresses made him stoop so low, as to be abcedarian, and several were taught their horn-books by him.



Wood. Athena Oxonienses.

Fr. Abdiquer; It. Abdicare; Sp. Abdicar; Lat. Abdicare, (Ab-dicare, Gr.

Sun, right,) to go from a right.

To go from, quit or leave, put away from, or deprive of, that which has been possessed by law or right.

To resign, to disclaim, to renounce, to dispossess. O Saviour, it was ever thy manner to call all men unto thee; when didst thou ever drive any one from thee? neither had it been so now, but to draw them closer unto thee, whom thou seemest for the time to abdicate.

Bishop Hall. Contemp. Walke upon the Waters.

28th Jan. 1688-1689.-At length the house came to this grand resolution :---Resolved, That king James the second, having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits, and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is thereby become vacant. Parliamentary History. An. 1688-9.

Grotius himself, and all the authors that treat of this matter, and the nature of it, do agree, that if there be any word or action, that doth sufficiently manifest the intention of the mind and will to part with his office, that will amount to an abdication or renouncing.-Id.

It may be farther observed, that parents were allowed to he reconciled to their children, but after that could never abdicate them again.---Potter. Antiq. of Greece, b. iv. c. 15. Great Pan, who wont to chase the fair, And lov'd the spreading oak, was there; Old Saturn too, with upcast eyes, Beheld his abdicated skies.

Addison. To Sir Godfrey Kneller.

The mortification of unreasonable desires, the suppression of irregular passions, the loving and blessing our enemies, the renouncing worldly vanities and pleasures, the rejoicing in afflictions, the voluntary abdication of our estates in some cases, yea, exposing life itself to inevitable hazard and loss, are not chimerical propositions of impossible performances; but duties really practicable.

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The consequences drawn from these facts (namely, that they amounted to an abdication of the government; which abdication did not affect only the person of the king himself, but also of all his heirs, and rendered the throne absolutely and completely vacant) it belonged to our ancestors to determine.-Blackstone. Com. b. i. c. 3. ABDO'MINOUS.

Lat. Abdomen: the part of the body covered (Abditum, Vossius).

Daniel eat pulse by choice---example rare!
Heav'n bless'd the youth, and made him fresh and fair.
Gorgonius sits, abdominous and wan,
Like a fat squab upon a Chinese fan.

Cowper. Progress of Error.

ABDU'CE, v. I Lat. Abducere, (Ab-ducere,) ABDUCTION. Sto lead from.

To draw, bring, or take away from; to withdraw. The noun is much used by writers on English

law, and is applied to the forcible taking away of a wife or child; and to common kidnapping.

If beholding a candle, we protrude either upward or downward the pupil of one eye, and behold it with one, it will then appear but single; and if we abduce the eye unto either corner, the object will not duplicate.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iii. c. 20. The other remaining offence, that of kidnapping, being the forcible abduction or stealing away of a man, woman, or child, from their own country, and sending them into another, was capital by the Jewish law. Blackstone. Com. b. iv. c. 15.

ABE'AR, v. See BEAR. Applied toABEARYNG. The bearing or carriage, deportment, conduct, or behaviour.

The noun Abearyng has been succeeded in modern writers on English law by Abearance. See Blackstone, b. iv. c. 18.

Vpon assurance takyn of the said Hunyldus, that there after he shulde be of good aberynge to warde the kyng, he clerely forgaue vnto hym all his former offence. Fabyan. Cronycles, c. 154.

So did the Faery Knight himself abeare,
And stouped oft, his head from shame to shield:
No shame to stoupe, ones head more high to reare,
And much to gaine, a little for to yield:
So stoutest knights doen oftentimes in field.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. v. c. 12. ABE'CHED. Abeched (says Skinner), seems (from the context) to be-satisfied: from the French Abbecher, to feed (from Bec, the Beak), as birds feed their young by inserting their beak. "Abdecher. To feed as birds do their young; to put into the mouth of." Cotgrave.

But might I getten as ye tolde,
So mochel, that my lady wolde
Me fede with hir gladde semblaunt,
Though me lacke all the remenaunt:
Yet shoulde I somdele ben abeched,

And for the tyme well refresshed.--Gower. Con. A. b. v.
ABE'D, a. On bed. (See BED.)

Some radde, that hii ssoide wende in at on hepe,
To habbe inome hom vnarmed, and some abedde aslepe.
R. Gloucester, p. 547.

Hir kyrtell, and hir mantell eke.
Abrode vpon his bedde he spredde;

And thus thei slepen both a bedde.-Gower. Con. A. b. v.
The sullen night had her black curtain spread,
Low'ring that day had tarried up so long,
And that the morrow might lie long abed,
She all the heav'n with dusky clouds had hung.

Drayton. Barons' Wars, b. iii.

Delight is layd abedd; and pleasure, past;
No sunne now shines; clouds han all overcast.

Spenser. Shepherd's Calendar. Howbeit he [Lycurgus] advised her to go her full time, and to be brought abed in good order, and then he would find means enough to make away the child that should be born.--North. Plutarch, p. 34.


Lat. Ab-errare, to stray or wander from. A wandering from. See To ERR. Applied to the errors or mistakes of the mind; Words neither much used, nor much wanted.

For though there were a fatality in this year, [" the great climactrical year, that is, sixty-three"] yet divers were, and others might be out in their account, aberring several wayes from the true and just compute, and calling that one year, which perhaps might be another.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 12.

And therefore they not only swarm with errors, but vices depending thereon. Thus they commonly affect no man any further than he deserts his reason, or complies with their aberrancies.-Id. Ib. b. i. c. 3.

So, then we draw near to God, when, repenting us of our former aberrations from him, we renew our covenants with him.-Bishop Hall. Sermon. James iv. 8.

ABE'T, v.
ABE'T, n.


D. Boeten, betteren; Ger. Besseren; A. S. Betan, (meliorare, melius reddere, says Skinner.) To better, to make better. Applied to the encouraging, inciting, assisting, supporting, aiding, causing to beat, or become better. And thus

To better, to aid, assist, support—the designs of.

But in this kind, to come in brauing armes,
Be his owne carver, and cut out his way,
To find out right with wrongs-it may not be
And you that doe abett him in this kind
Cherish rebellion, and are rebels all.

Shakespeare. Rich. II. Act ii. sc. 3.

I am not ignorant that Cicero, in defence of his own nation, tells vs, our people, by defending their associates, became masters of the world; but I would willingly be informed, whether or no, they did not often set their associates to complaine without a cause, or abet them in vnjust quar rels.-Hakewill. Apologie, p. 452.

I would represent unto his Majesty, that when the principal reason of their excuse should cease, namely, these fresh stirrings so near them, which seemed to require their abetment, then they would give us more particular satisfaction.-Reliquia Wottonian, p. 542.

Yet Christian laws allow not such redress;
Then let the greater supersede the less.
But let th' abetters of the panther's crime
Learn to make fairer wars another time.

Dryden. Hind and the Panther, pt. 3. That which demands to be next considered is happiness; as being in itself most considerable; as abetting the cause of truth; and as being indeed so nearly allied to it, that they cannot well be parted. Wollaston. Religion of Nature, sec. 2.

Would you, when thieves are known abroad,
Bring forth your treasures in the road?
Would not the fool abet the stealth,
Who rashly thus exposed his wealth?


Gay. Fables, pt. ii. Fab. 12. Fr. Abhorrer; It. Abborrire; Sp. Abhorecer; Lat. Ab-horrere. See HORROur. Met.

To dislike or detest, to loath,

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King. I may perceiue

These cardinals trifle with me: I abhorre
This dilatory sloth, and trickes of Rome.

Shakespeare. Henry VIII. Act if,

Be gentle graue vnto me, rather on Nylus mudde
Lay me starke-nak'd, and let the water-flies
Blow me into abhorring; rather make
My countries high pyramides my gibbet,
And hang me vp in chaines.

Id. Ant. and Cleo. Act v. sc. 2.

He who wilfully abstains from marriage, not being supernaturally gifted; and he who, by making the yoke of marriage unjust and intolerable, causes men to abhor it, are both in a diabolical sin, equal to that of Antichrist, who forbids to marry.-Milton. Tetrachordon.

We see in many cases, that time and calmer consideratlons, together with different customs, which, (like the tide or flood) insensibly prevail over both manners and minds of men; do oft take off the edge and keenness of men's spirits against those things, whereof they sometimes were great abhorrers.-Bp. Taylor. Artif. Hands. p. 134.

Then wanton fulness vain oblivion brought,
And God, that made and sav'd thee, was forgot:
While gods of foreign lands, and rites abhorr'd,
To jealousies and anger mov'd the Lord.

Parnell. Gift of Poetry.

That which constitutes an object of contempt to the malevolent, becomes the object of other passions to a worthy and good-natured man; for, in such a person, wickedness and vice must raise hatred and abhorrence.

Fielding. Covent Garden Journal, No. 61.

Yet from Leonidas, thou wretch, inur'd
To vassalage and baseness, hear. The pomp,
The arts of pleasure in despotic courts

I spurn abhorrent. In a spotless heart
I look for pleasure.-Glover. Leonidas, b. x.

This legal, and, as it should seem, injudicious profanation, so abhorrent to our stricter principles, was received with a very faint murmur, by the easy nature of polytheism. Gibbon." Roman Empire, c. 3.

Wherever the church and court party prevailed, addresses were framed, containing expressions of the highest regard to his Majesty, the most entire acquiescence in his wisdom, the most dutiful submission to his prerogative, and the deepest abhorrence of those who endeavoured to encroach. upon it, by prescribing to him any time for assembling the parliament. Thus the nation came to be distinguished into Chaucer. Troilus, b. ii. fol. 159. petitioners and abhorrers.-Hume. England. An. 1680.

I am thine Eme, the shame were to me
As wel as the, if that I should assent
Through mine abet yt he thine honour shent.


A. S. Abidan, Bidan; D. Bey-

den, to bide.

To stay, or remain; to delay, to

tarry, to dwell, to continue, to wait,
to expect. To stay under, or sup-

port; to bear up against, or endure,-with forti

tude, good temper, kindness, hope, or the reverse.

He fley in to the yle of Tenet, he no dorste abide no ner.

R. Gloucester, p. 122.

The other were of hem y war, and garkede hem in here


And lette arme here ost wel, batail forto abyde.

Id. p. 153.

And the othir day he entride into Cesarie, and Cornelie
abood hem with his cosyns and necessarie frendis that
weren clepid togidre.-Wiclif. The Dedis of Apostlis, c. 10.
Lyue sobreli and iustli and piteuousli in this world,
abidynge the blessid hope and the comyng of the greet
God, and of our Sauyour less rist.-I. Tyte, c. 2.

For men schulen were drio for drede, and abidynge that
schulen come to al the world.-Id. Luk. c. 21.

Do grete diligence (saith Salomon), in keping of thy

frendes, and of thy good name, for it shal lenger abide with

thee, than any tresor, be it never so precious.

Chaucer. The Tale of Milebeus.

He [Giovanni Pietro Pugliano] said, "Soldiers were the
noblest estate of mankind, and horsemen the noblest of
soldiers." He said, "They were the masters of war, and
ornaments of peace, speedy goers, and strong abiders."

Sidney. Defence of Poesy, p. 1.

The pacient abyding of the righteous shall be turned to
gladnesse, but the hope of the vngodly shall perish.
Bible. Lond. 1539. Prov. c. 10.
There he made his abode fortye dayes and as many
nightes, still continuing in prayer and fastyng.

Udal. St. Marke, c. 1.

Aut. I cannot tell, good Sir, for which of his vertues it
was, but hee was certainly whipt out of the court.

Clo. His vices you would say: there's no vertue whipt
out of the court: they cherish it to make it stay there; and
yet it will no more but abide.

Shakespeare. Winter's Tale, Act iv. sc. 2.

Lor. Sweete friends; your patience for my long abode;-

Not I, but my affaires haue made you wait.

Id. Merchant of Venice, Act ii. sc. 6.

When all the earth shall melt into nothing, and the seas
scald their finny labourers; so long is his abidance [in pur-
gatory].-The Puritan, Act ii. sc. 1.

Abating all the rueful consequences of abiding in sin,
abstracting from the desperate hazards it exposeth us to in
regard to the future life, it is most reasonable to abandon it.
Barrow. Ser. vol. iii. s. 17.

When he, whom e'en our joys provoke,
The fiend of nature, join'd his yoke,

And rush'd in wrath to make our isle his prey,
Thy form, from out thy sweet abode,
O'ertook him on his blasted road,

And stopp'd his wheels, and look'd his rage away.

Collins. Ode to Mercy.

ABI'E, is very variously written. By Chaucer,
Abegge, Abeye, Abie, which Tyrwhitt says is Saxon,
and means "To suffer for." In Piers Plouhman,
Abegge. In Gower, Abeie, Abedge, Abidge. In
Chaucer, are found the participles Abying, Abien,
Abought. And in Gower, also, Abought. Skinner
adopts the verb, To buy (in preference to the
A. S. Abid-an, to abide), as the more simple etymo-
logy. In Shakespeare (infra), Abide, thus, should
be Aby.

In all the examples following, "buy or pay for,

dearly, cruelly, sorely," appears to be the meaning.

Turne we thiderward, and delyuer our prisons,

And so it may betide, thei salle dere abie

My [mine] that thei hide, my men in prison lie.

R. Brunne, p. 159.

Ac for the lesynge that thow Lucifer, lowe til Eve

Thow shalt abygge bitere quath God, and bond hym with

cheynes.-Piers Plouhman, p. 363.

Ther dorste no wight hond upon him legge,

That he ne swore he shald anon abegge.

Quene of the regne of Pluto, derke and lowe,

Goddesse of maydens, that min herte hast knowe

Ful many a yere, and wost what I desire,

As kepe me fro thy vengeance and thin ire,

That Atteon aboughte cruelly.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2305.

So goth he forthe, and toke his leue,

And thought anone, as it was eue,

He wolde doone his sacrilege,

That many a man shuld it abedge.-Gower. Con. A. b. v.

Full ofte er this it hath be seine

The comen people is ouerleyne,

And hath the kynges synne abought,

Allthough the people agilte nought.--. b. vii.

Which when his brother saw, fraught with great griefe

And wrath, he to him leaped furiously,

And fouly said, by Mahoune, cursed thiefe,

That direfull stroake thou dearely shalt aby.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. viii.

Bar. Fool-hardy knight, full soon thou shalt aby
This fond reproach, thy body will I bang.
Beaum.& Fletch. Knight of the Burning Pestle, Act iii. sc.1.
De. Disparage not the faith thou dost not know,

Lest to thy perill thou abide it deare.

Shakespeare. Mid. Night's Dream, Act iii. sc. 2.


A'BJECT, adj.





Fr. Abject; It. Abjetto; Lat.

Abject-um, past part. of ab-

jicere, (Ab-jacere,) to cast, or

throw away from; to cast


Abject, v. To cast away, to

A'BJECTNESS. cast off or out, to cast down.

The nouns, adjective, and adverbs, have a con-

sequent application to that which is

Base, lowly, servile, worthless, despicable, mean,


The duches desiring to knowe whiche waye lady Fortune

turned her whele, herynge hym to be repudiate and abiected
oute of the Frenche courte, was in a greate agony, and muche
amased, and more appalled.-Hall. Hen. VII. an. 7.
For that offence only [disobedience] Almighty God abjected

Saul, that he shulde no more reigne ouer Israel.

Sir T. Elyot. The Governor, c. 1.

John the apostle, was now of late in a certaine yle of Licia

called Pathmos, exiled for the gospel-preaching, and made

a vile abject for testifying the name and word of Jesus Christ

the onely Saviour of the world.

Bale. Image of both Churches.

The audacite and bolde speche of Daniel signifyeth the

abiection of the kynge and his realme.

Joye. The Exposicion of Daniel, c. 5.

Jesus calleth the home frō this affeccion, to ye contem-

placio of his lowe state of abieccio in this world.

Udal. Luke c. 9. fol. 296.

Christ for the time of his pilgrimage here was a most
poore man, abiecting and casting off all worldly rule and
honour.-State Trials. 2 Rich. II. 1388. Abp. York.

The damzell straght went, as she was directed
Vnto the rock; and there, vpon the soile
Hauing herselfe in wretched wise abjected,

Gan weepe and waile, as if great griefe had been affected.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. v. c. 9. st. 9.

Oh noble Lord, bethinke thee of thy birth;
Call home thy ancient thoughts from banishment,
And banish hence these abiect lowlie dreames:
Looke how thy seruants do attend on thee,
Each in his office readie at thy becke.

Shakespeare. Tam. of Sh. Act i. sc. 3.

We are the queene's abjects, and must obey.

Or in this abject posture have ye sworn

T'adore the conqueror? who now beholds

Cherub and seraph rolling in the flood

With scatter'd arms and ensigns.

Milton. Paradise Lost, b. i.

But is it credible, that the very acknowledgment of our
owne unworthinesse to obtain, and in that respect our pro-
fessed fearfulnesse to aske any thing, otherwise than onely
for his sake to whom God can deny nothing; that this should
be termed basenesse, abjection of mind, or servilitie-is it
credible?-Hooker. Ec. Pol. b. v. § 47.

It abjected his [Wolsey's] spirit to that degree, that he fell
dangerously sick: such an influence the troubles and sorrows
Strype. Memorials, b. i. c. 15.

of his mind had upon his body.

Chaucer. The Reves Tale, ▼. 3936.

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To go away from, or leave: to disown, to dis-
claim, to renounce (upon oath).

But now was he so obstinate, that he woulde not abiure of
lög time. And dyuers daies wer his iudges fayn of their
fauour to geue hym with sufferance of some his best frendes,
and who he most trusted to resort vnto him. And yet
scantly could al this make him submitte himself to make
hys abiuracion.-Sir T. More. Works, p. 214.

In this season were banished out of Southwarke XII
Scottes, whiche had dwelt there a long season, and wer
conueied frō parishe to parishe by the constable, like men
yt had abiured the realme, and on their vttermost garment
a white crosse before and another behynd them.
Hall. Chron. Hen. VIII. an. 14.
For euen now

I put my selfe to thy direction, and
Vnspeake mine own detraction. Heere abjure
The taints and blames I laide vpon my selfe
For strangers to my nature.

Shakespeare. Mac. Act iv. sc. 3.
Did not one of them rather leave his inmost coat behind

him, than not be quit of thee? Did not another of them
deny thee, yea abjure thee? And yet thou sayest, Go tell
my brethren!-Bp. Hall. Contemp. The Resurrection.
Ph. And what is abjuration?

La. When a clerk heretofore was convicted of felony, he
might have saved his life by abjuring the realm; that is, by
departing the realm within a certain time appointed, and
taking an oath never to return.
Hobbs. A Dialogue of the Common Laws.

And thereupon [he] took the oath in that case provided,

viz. that he abjured the realm, and would depart from thence

forthwith, at the port that should be assigned him, and

would never return without leave from the king.

Blackstone. Com. b. iv. c. 26.

A Jacobite, who is persuaded of the pretender's right to
the crown, cannot take the oath of allegiance; or, if he could,
the oath of abjuration follows, which contains an express
renunciation of all opinions in favour of the claim of the
exiled family.-Paley. Moral Philosophy, b. iii. c. 18.

ABLACTATION. Lat. (of the lower age,)

Ablactatus. (Ab-lacte, depulsus), driven from the

milk: applied (formerly) met. to a mode of

grafting. See the quotation.

Grafting by approach or ablactation is to be performed

when the stock you would graft on, and the tree from which
you would take your graft, stand so near together that they
may be joined.-Miller. Gardener's Dict. In v. Grafting.
ABLAQUEATION. Lat. Ablaqueatio: from
Ablaqueare, to dig about and lay bare the roots of
trees. Evelyn affected such Latinisms.

Now is the time for ablaqueation, and laying bare the
roots of old, unthriving, and over-hastily blooming trees,
stirring up new-planted grounds, as directed in March.
Evelyn. The Gardener's Alm. October.
Ablaqueation now profitable, and to visit the roots of old
trees, purge the sickly, and apply fresh mould.


taken from-

Id. November.

Fr. Ablation; Lat. Ablatio:
from Ablatum, (See COLLATE,)

A taking away, or depriving.

Ablative, that can or may take away.

Prohibition extends to all injustice, whether done by
force, or fraud; whether it be by ablation, or prevention,
or detaining of rights; any thing, in which injury is done
directly or obliquely to our neighbour's fortune.

Bp. Taylor. Great Exemplar, p. 2, § 37.
But where the heart is forestalled with misopinion, abla-
tive directions are first needfull to unteach error, ere we
can learne truth.
Bp. Hall. Sermon. The Deceit of Appearance.

A'BLE, v. Goth. Abal, strength: and

A'BLE, adj.

hence the Lat. terminations in

A'BLENESS. bilis, and our own in ble. See


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Wraththe able into deeth, to schewe the richessis of his glorie into vessels of merci whiche he made redi into glorie. Wiclif. Romayns, c. 9. For no doute to dreade to offende God, and to loue to please him in all thing quyckeneth and sharpeneth all the wittes of Christes chosen people: and ableth them so to grace, that they joye greatly to withdrawe their eares, and all their wittes and membres frome all worldly delyte, and from all fleschly solace.

State Trials. 8 Hen. IV. 1407. William Thorpe. God tokeneth and assigneth the times abling hem to her proper offices.-Chaucer. Boecius, b. i. fol. 215.

And ye my ladies that ben trew and stable,
By way of kind ye ought to ben able,
To haue pity of folke that ben in paine,
Now haue ye cause to cloth you in sable.

Id. The Complaint of Mars, fol. 326. All our abilitie or sufficiencie commeth of God. And so consequently, it commeth not purely by the ministery of his vicarship, that he is enabled; but the ablenesse or enablenesse of him, being the vicar of Christ, commeth to him another way from aboue.

State Trials. 6 Rich. II. 1883. John Wickliffe. Vnto one he gaue v. talentes, to another ii. and to another one; to euery ma after his abilitie, and streight way departed.-Bible, 1551. S. Matthew, c. 25.

Let no man blame our nature for being weake and faint, nor laie against the goddes that they be cruell: for we haue no lesse ablenes to doe wel, than readines to doe euil. The Golden Booke, c. 3.

A noble crew about them waited round
Of sage and sober peeres, all gravely gownd;
Whom farre before did march a goodly band
Of tall young men all able armes to sound.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. can. 12.

I can produce a man,

Of female seed, far abler to resist

All his solicitations, and at length

All his vast force, and drive him back to Hell;
Winning, by conquest, what the first man lost,

By fallacy surpris'd.-Milton. Paradise Regained, b. 1.


Whom shall we choose

As the most apt and abled instrument To minister it [poison] to him [Drusus]? B. Jonson. Sejanus, Act ii. sc. 1. Cres. They say all louers sweare more performance than they are able, and yet reserue an ability that they neuer performe; vowing more than the perfection of ten, and discharging lesse then the tenth part of one.

Shakespeare. Troi. and Cres. Act iii. sc. 2.

Never liv'd gentleman of greater merit,
Hope or abiliment to steer a kingdom.

Ford. The Broken Heart, Act v. sc. 2. Natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study.-Bacon. Of Studies, Ess. 50.

Certainly the force of imagination is wonderfull, either to beget in vs an ability for the doing of that which wee apprehend we can do, or a disability for the not doing of that which wee concieue wee cannot do. Hakewill. Apologie, p. 19. Henry the second reigned in France; Philip the second,

In Spain: princes in the vigour of their age, of great ambition, of great talents, and seconded by the ablest ministers and generals in Europe.

Bolingbroke. Remarks on the Hist. of England.
And novels (witness every month's review),
Belie their name, and offer nothing new.

The mind, relaxing into needful sport,
Should turn to writers of an abler sort,
Whose wit well manag'd, and whose classic style,
Give truth a lustre, and make wisdom smile.
Cowper. Retirement.
ABLEGATION, n. Lat. Ablegatio; from Able-
gare, to send away, to dismiss. See DELEGATE.
A sending away, a dismission, a dispersion.


Dort, call the decree of God, whereby he hath appointed, in and by Christ to save those that repent, believe and persevere, Decretum annunciativum, &c.-Id. Via Media.

ABLU'TION, n. Fr. Ablution; It. Abluzione:

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Sp. Ablucion; Lat. Ablutio: from abluere, (Ab-where-of at present there is no visible appearance.
luere,) to wash from.

A washing off or away from; cleansing, purifying.
Ablution is enumerated in B. Jonson's Alchemist
as one of the vexations of metals.


There is a natural analogy between the ablution of the body and the purification of the soul.

Bp. Taylor. Worthy Communicant.

So because the common way of making a people holy, was to adopt them into the protection of a tutelary God; and of rendering particulars clear, was by ablutions and other cathartic rites; the Almighty was pleased to assume the titles of their [the Jews] national God, and regal Governor.-Warburton, Ser. 5.

Hearts may be found, that harbour at this hour
That love of Christ, and all its quick'ning pow'r;
And lips unstain'd by folly or by strife,
Whose wisdom, drawn from the deep well of life,
Tastes of its healthful origin, and flows
A Jordan for the ablution of our woes.

Cowper. Conversation.

With us, the man of no complaint demands
The warm ablution, just enough to clear
The sluices of the skin, enough to keep
The body sacred from indecent soil.


Armstrong. Art of Health, b. iii.
Ab-negare (quasi, ne
agere, says Vossius), to
deny. The verb is used

What strange ominous abodings and fears do many times on a sudden seize upon men, of certain approaching evils, Bp. Bull. Works, ii. 489. Fr. Abolir; It. Abolire Sp. Aboler; Lat. Abolere; Gr. Ολεω, ολλυμι, to hurt, to destroy. See Vossius,


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To destroy, to deprive of power; to annul, to abrogate; to annihilate.

Abolitionist is modern word, lately of frequent


The inhabitauntes of the north partes being by the meanes of certayne abbottes and ignorant priestes not a little stirred and prouoked for the suppression of certain monasteries, and for the extirpacion and abholishyng of the byshoppe of Rome, saiyng, see frendes nowe is taken from vs fower of the vii. sacramentes, and shortly ye shall lese the other thre also; and thus the fayth of holy churche shall vtterly be suppressed and abholished.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 28.

Thus, M. Hardinge, it is plaine by the judgment of your owne doctors, that were your auriculare confession quite abolish'd, yet might the people notwithstandinge haue ful remission of theire sinnes. Jewel. Defence of the Apologie, p. 143.

He hath given it them moreouer to doe these thinges to his glory, throgh the agreement of faith that they haue in the vnitie of his godly truth, to the abolishment of all Bale. Image of bothe Churches, pt. ii. sects, false prophets, and coniurers of Egipt. Rather so farre are we from thabolishement or thappayby Dr. Johnson under the v. abjure, as synony- ryng of the authoritie of the lawe, that we muche more mous with it.


Let the princes be of what religion they please, that is all one to the most part of men; so that with abnegation of God, of his honour, and religion, they may retain the friendship of the court.

Knox. Letter to the Queen Regent of Scotland.

A serpentine generation wholly made of fraud, policies,
and practices; lovers of the world, and haters of truth and
godliness; fighters against the light, protectors of darkness,
persecutors of marriage, and patrons of brothels; abnega-
Sir E. Sandys. State of Religion.
tors and dispensers against the laws of God.
On board. See BOARD.
To Abord or bord, Fr. Aborder,
To come or go on board; to
approach, to accoast, or accost,

ABOARD, n. ABO'RD, v. or Bo'RD. ABO'RD, n. and, then, to address.

And afterwards, a great wynde and tepest arisyng in ye sea,
for that, that it was a place wt out porte; one part of the
by meane wherof, thair shippes might no longar tary there,
embarqued theself. And passing bifore a rokky place, called
Nicolls. Thucydides, fol. 53.
Ithis, they came to aborde in the porte of Philie.
And who we had gotte a shippe yt wolde sayle vnto Phe-
nices, we went aborde in to it, and set forth.
Bible, Lond. 1539, Actes, c. 21.


Resolv'd he said: and rigg'd with speedy care,
A vessel strong, and well equipp'd for war,
The secret ship with chosen friends he stor'd;
And bent to die or conquer, went aboard.

Dryden. Cymon and Iph.
We left this place about eleven in the morning, and were
again conveyed, with more sunshine than wind, aboard our
ship.-Fielding. Voyage to Lisbon.

I would at the same time penetrate into their thoughts, in order to know whether your first abord made that advantageous impression upon their fancies, which a certain address, air, and manners, never fail doing.


I appeal to any free judge, how likely these liquid particles are to approve themselves of that nature and power as to be able, by erecting and knitting themselves together for a moment of time, to bear themselves so as with one joynt contention of strength to cause an arbitrarious ablegation of the spirits into this or that determinate part of the body. Hen. More. An Antidote against Atheism, b. i. c. 11. s. 7. ABLUDE, v. Ab-ludere, to play from. To play from, or out of tune; and, thus, to infer good or ill. differ; to be unlike.

Whereas we ought, according to the wise advise of our Seneca (not much abluding from the counsell of that blessed apostle, with whom he is said to have intercharged letters) so to possesse them, as those that make account to forego them; and so forego them as if we possessed them still Bp. Hall. The Balm of Gilead. So Ambrose interprets that place of 1 Tim. ii. 4. would have all to be saved," saith he, if themselves will: for he hath given his law to all; and excepts no man, in respect of his law and will revealed, from salvation. Neither doth it much ablude from this, that our English divines at


cial appearance,

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Nay, such abodes ben nat worth an haw.

Chaucer. Troilus, b. iii. fol. 171.
The night-crow cryde aboding luckless time.

Shakespeare. 3 Part Hen. VI. Act v. sc. 6.
Edw. Tush, man, aboadments must not now affright vs.
By faire and foule meanes we must enter in,
For hither will our friends repaire to vs.
Id. Ib. Act iv. sc. 7.
For he [Bishop Felix] brought all the province unto the
faith, and workes of iustice, and in the end to rewarde of
perpetuall blessednesse, according to the abodement of his

maintaine and establishe it.-Udal. Rom. c. 3.

Now to thentent that ye may yet farther percieue and se, that they by the distruccion of the elergy, meane the clere abolycion of Christes faith: it may like you to conferre, and compare together ii places of hys beggars bill. Sir T. More. Works, p. 311.

But my saluation shal be for euer, and my righteousnes shall not be abolished.--Bible. Isaiah, li. 6.

But is nowe made manifest by the appearing of our
Sauiour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath
Id. 2 Timotheus, I. 10.
brought life and immortalitie vnto life through the gospel.

With silly weake old woman thus to fight;---
Great glory and gay spoile sure hast thou got,
And stoutly prov'd thy puissaunce here in sight;
That shall Pyrrhocles well requite, I wot,
And with thy bloud abolish so reproachefull blot.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 6.

Mol. That vow perform'd, fasting shall be abolish'd:
None ever serv'd Heav'n well with a starv'd face
Preach abstinence no more; I tell thee, Mufty,
Good feasting is devout.

Dryden. Don Sebastian, Act i. sc. 1. Though he [the Church of England man] will not determine whether episcopacy be of divine right, he is sure it is most agreeable to primitive institution, fittest of all others for preserving order and purity, and under its present regulations best calculated for our civil state: he should therefore think the abolishment of that order among us, would prove a mighty scandal and corruption to our faith. Swift. Sentiments of a Church of England Man. The abolition of Spiritual Courts (as they are called) would shake the very foundation on which the establishment is erected. Warburton. Alliance between Church and State. Fr. Abominer; It. Abominare; Sp. Abominar; Lat. Abominari. (Ab-ominari, omen velut oremen. Festus,) to turn from, as a bad omen. Malum omen


To turn from as ill omened. To loath or abhor, hate or detest, to accurse or execrate.

Thei knowlochen that thei knowen god, but bi dedis thei denyen whanne the ben abomynable and unbileefful and repreuable to al good werk.---Wiclif. Tyte, c. 1.

And he seide to hem, ye it ben that justifyen you bifore men; but God hath knowen youre hertis, for that that is Ib. Luke, c. 16. high to men: is abhomynacioun bifore God

Al whom therfore by the whole thousande on an heape (for no fewer he nombreth them) dothe thys dyuelyshe dronken soule abominablye blaspheme, and calleth them then draffe.--Sir T. More. Works, p. 679. lyars and falsefiers of scripture, and maketh them no better

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