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of men,

Et Martis frameam, et Cirrhæi spicula vatis ;
Per calamos venatricis, pharetramque puellæ,

80
Perque tuum, pater Ægæi Neptune, tridentem :
Addit et Herculeos arcus, hastamque Minervæ,
Quicquid habent telorum armamentaria coeli.
Si vero et pater est, comedam, inquit, flebile gnati
Sinciput elixi, Pharioque madentis aceto.

85
Sunt, in Fortunæ qui casibus omnia ponunt,
Et nullo credunt mundum rectore moveri,
Natura volvente vices et lucis, et anni,
Atque ideo intrepidi quæcunque altaria tangunt.
Est alius, metuens ne crimen pæna sequatur :

90
Hic putat esse Deos, et pejerat, atque ita secum ;
Decernat quodcunque volet de corpore nostro
Isis, et irato feriat mea lumina sistro,
Dummodo vel cæcus teneam, quos abnego, nummos.

79. Cyrrhaan prophet.] Apollo, who he certainly means here to deride the had an oracle at Delphos, near Cirrha, a folly of imagining that the gods had arcity of Phocis, where he was worshipped. senals or repositories of arms.

80. Virgin-luntress.] Puellæ venatri 84. A fathcr, &c.] llere is an allusion cis. Diana, the fabled goddess of hunt to the story of Thyestes, the brother of ing; she, out of chastity, avoided all Atreus, who, having committed adultery company

retired into the woods, with the wife of Atreus, Atreus in reand there exercised herself in hunting. venge killed and dressed the child born

81. Trident.] Neptune's trident was a of her, and served him up to his brother sort of spear with three prongs at the at his own table. end, and denoted his being king of the The defrauder is represented as persea, which surrounded the three then juring himself by many oaths; and now known parts of the world. With this in he wishes, that the fate of Thyestes may strument he is usually represented, and be his, that he may have his son dressed with this he was supposed to govern the and served up to table for him to eat, if sea, and even to shake the earth itself: he be guilty of the fraud which is laid so that there is no wonder that the super- 10 his charge. stitious heathen should swear by it, as 85. Part of the head.] Sinciput signi. Neptune was so considerable an cbject fies the forepari, or, perhaps, one half of of their veneration and worship. See the head, when divided downwards. See Virg. Æn. i. 142–149, et al.

Ainsw. Quasi semicaput—or, a scinFather of Ægens.) Ægeus was the dendo, from whence sinciput. son of Neptune, the father of Theseus. - Pharian vinegar.] Pharos was an He reigned at Athens—hethrew himself island of Egypt, from whence came into the Ægean sea, which was so named the best vinegar, which were made after him.

sauces and seasonings for victuals of va. 82. Herculan bows.] Perhaps the poet rious kinds. The poet does not add particularly here alludes to ihose fatal this without an ironical fling at the luxbows and arrows of Hercules, which he ury of his day. gave to Philcctctes, the son of Pæas, 86. There are, &c.] i. e. There are king of Melilæa, a city of Thessaly, at some so atheistically inclined, as to ata the foot of mount Ossa; and which wea tribute all events to mere chance. pons, unless Philoctetes had carried to 87. The world to be moved, &c.] Epi. Troy, it was fated that the city could curus and his followers acknowledged not have been taken. See Ving. Æn. that there were gods, but that they took iii. 402, and notc, Delph.

no care of human affairs, nor interfered 83. Armories of laven.) Juvenal held in the inanagement of the world. So the Roman inythology in great contempt; Hor, sat. v, lib. i. I. 101_3.

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And the javelin of Mars, and the darts of the Cyrrhæan pro

phet; By the shafts, and the quiver of the virgin-huntress, 80 And by thy trident, O Neptune, father of Ægeus: He adds also the Herculean bows, and the spear of Minerva, Whatever the armories of heaven have of weapons ; And truly if he be a father, I would eat, says he, a doleful Part of the head of my boiled son, and wet with Pharian vinegar.

85 There are who place all things in the chances of Fortune, And believe the world to be moved by no governor, Nature turning about the changes both of the light and year, And therefore intrepid they touch any altars whatsoever.

Another is fearing lest punishment may follow a crime: 90 He thinks there are gods, and forswears, and thus with himself“ Let Isis decree whatever she will concerning this body « Of mine, and strike my eyes with her angry sistrum, “ So that, even blind, I may keep the money which I deny.

Deos didici securum agere ævum,

91. Thus with himself.] i. e. Thus arNec, si quid miri fuciat natura, Deos id gues with himself, allowing and fearing Tristes ex allo cæli demittere tecto. that he will be punished.

88. Nature, &c.] A blind principle, 92.“ Let Isis," &c.] Isis was originally which they call nature, bringing about an Egyptian goddess; but the Romans the revolutions of days and years—(lue having adopted her among their deities, cis et anni)-acting merely mechanical- they built her a temple at Rome, where ly, and without design.

they worshipped her. She was supposed 89. Intrepid they touch, &c.] When a to be much concerned in inflicting disman would put another to his solemn eases and maladies on mankind, and par. oath, he brought him to a temple, and ticularly on the perjured. there made him swear, laying his hand 93. Strike my eyes.] Strike me blind. upon the altar. But what constraint - Angry sistrum.] The sistrum was a could this have on the consciences of musical instrument; it is variously dethose who did not believe in the inter- scribed, but generally thought to be a ference of the gods--what altars could sort of timbrel, of an oval, or a trianguthey be afraid to touch, and to swear by lar form, with loose rings on the edges, in the most solemn manner, if they which, being struck with a small iron ihought that perjury was not noticed ? rod, yielded a shrill sound. The Egyp

90. Another, &c.] The poet, having tians used it in battle instead of a trum. before mentioned atheists, who thought pet. It was also used by the priests of the world governed by mere chance, or, Isis at her sacrifices, and the goddess though they might allow that there were herself was described as holding one in gods, yet that these did not concern her right hand. themselves in the ordering of human af. Her angry sistrum-per hypallagen fairs, now comes to another sort, who did for the angry goddess with her sistrum. really allow not only the existence, but 94. Keep the money, &c.] Juvenal here also the providence of the gods, and describes one, who, having money intheir attention to what passed among trusted to him, refuses to deliver it up mortals, and yet such persons having a when called upon, and who is daring salvo, to console themselves under the enough, not only to deny his ever having commission of crimes, which he well de- received it, but to defy all punishment, scribes in the following lines.

and its consequences, so that he may

Et phthisis, et vomicæ putres, et dimidium crus

95 Sunt tanti ? pauper locupletem optare podagram Ne dubitet Ladas, si non eget Anticyra, nec Archigene: quid enim velocis gloria plantæ Præstat, et esuriens Pisææ ramus olivæ ? Ur sit MAGNA, TAMEN CERTE LENTA IRA DEORUM EST. 100 Si curant igitur cunctos punire nocentes, Quando ad me venient ? sed et exorabile numen Fortasse experiar: solet his ignoscere. Multi Committunt eadem diverso crimina fato. Ille crucem pretium sceleris tulit, hic diadema.

105 Sic animum diræ trepidum formidine culpæ Confirmant. Tunc te sacra ad delubra vocantem Præcedit, trahere imo ultro, ac vexare paratus. Nam cum magna malæ superest audacia causa, Creditur a multis fiducia : mimum agit ille,

110 Urbani qualem fugitivus scurra Catulli. Tu miser exclamas, ut Stentora vincere possis,

but succeed in his perjury and fraud, good does the applause got by his swiftand still keep the money in his posses ness do him? it will not fill his belly, sion,

99. Hungry branch of the Pisæan olive.] 95. A phthisic.) (From Gr. pois, a Pisa was a district of Elis, in Pelopon. pdow, to corrupt.) A consumption of the nesus, in which was Olympia, where the lungs.

Olympian games were celebrated : the -Putrid sores.] Vomicæ — impos- victors in which were crowned with thumes of a very malignant kind. chaplets made of olive-branches, hence

95. Half a leg.] The other half being called Pisæan. amputated, on account of incurable sores, The hungry branches--i.e. that will which threatened mortification.

afford no food to the gainers of it. See 96. Of such consequence.] Tanti-of so note on 1. 93, ad fin. much consequencemi. e. as to counter The speaker here means, that to be balance the joy of possessing a large sum sick and rich, is better than to be healthy of money.

and poor; that the famous Ladas, un--Ladas.] The name of a famous run less he were mad, would sooner choose ner, who won the prize at the Olympic to be laid up with the gout and be rich, games.

than to enjoy all the glory of the Olym97. The rich gout.) So called, because pic games and be poor. it usually attacks the rich and luxurious. 100. Tho' the anger, &c.] Another fiat.

-If he does not wunt Anticyra.] i. e. If ters himself, that, though punishment he be not mad. Anticyra, an island of inay be heavily inflicted some time or the Archipelago, was famous for pro- other, yet the evil day may be a great ducing great quantities of the best helle. way off. See Eccl. viii. 11. bore, which the ancients esteemed good ion. If they take care, &c.] 9. d. If to purge the head in cases of madness. they do observe the actions of men, and Whence naviga Anticyram, was as much attend to what they do, so as to take oras to say, you are inad. See Hor. lib. der for the punishment of guilt, wherever ii. sat. iii. 1. 166.

they find it, yet it may be a great while 98. Archigenes.] Sone famous physi- before it comes to my turn to be pucian, remarkable, perhaps, for curing nished. madness. See sat. vi. 235.

103. Exorable, &c.] It may be I shall - The glory of a swift foot, &c.] What escape all punishment; for perhaps I

“ Are a phthisic, or putrid sores, or half a leg

95 “ Of such consequence ? let not poor Ladas doubt to wish for " The rich gout, if he does want Anticyra, nor “ Archigenes : for what does the glory of a swift foot “ Avail him, and the hungry branch of the Pisaan olive ?" " Tho' THE ANGER OF THE GODS BE GREAT, YET CERTAINLY 66 IT IS Slow.

100 “ If they take care therefore to punish all the guilty, “ When will they come to me?-But, perhaps too, the deity “ Exorable I may experience : he useth to forgive these things. “ Many commit the same crimes with a different fate. s6 One has borne the cross as a reward of wickedness, another “a diadem."

105 Thus the mind trembling with the fear of dire guilt They confirm : then you, calling him to the sacred shrines, He precedes, even ready of his

own accord to draw you, and to teaze you. For when great impudence remains to a bad cause, It is believed confidence by many : he acts a farce, 110 Such as the fugitive buffoon of the witty Catullus. You miserable exclaim, so as that you might overcome Stentor,

cence.

may obtain forgiveness, and find the -Ready to draw, &c.] He is ready to Deity easy to be entreated.

drag you along by force, and to harass 103. He useth, &c.] i. e. Crimes of this and teaze you to get on faster, in order sort, which was not committed out of to bring him to his oath. contempt of the Deity, but merely to get 109. When great impudence,&c.] When a little money, he usually forgives. a man is impudent enough, however

104. Different fate.] Another sub- guilty, to set a good face upon the matterfuge of a guilty conscience is, that ter, this is mistaken by many for a sign though, in some instances, wrong doers of honest confidence, arising from inno. are punished grievously, yet in others they succeed so happily as to obtain re. 110. He acts the farce, &c.] Alluding wards : so that the event of wickedness to a play written by one Lutatius Catulis very different to different people. lus, called the Phasma, or Vision, (see

105. Borne the cross, &c.] The same sat. viii. 185, 6.) in which there was a species of wickedness i hat has brought character of a buffoon, who ran away one man to the gallows, has exalted from his master, after having cheated another to a throne.

him, and then vexed, and even provoked 106, 7. Thus they confirm.] By all him, that he might be brought to swear these specious and deceitful reasonings, himself off, cheerfully proposing thus to they cheat themselves into the commis- be perjured. This play is lost by time, sion of crimes, and endeavour to silence so that nothing certain can be said conthe remonstrances and terrors of a guilty cerning this allusion ; but what is here conscience.

said (after Holyday) seems probable. 108. He precedes, &c.] Thus confident, 111. Witty Catullus.] Some ex pound the wretch whom you summon to the urbani, here, as the cognomen of this temple, in order to swear to his inno- Catullus. cence, leads the way before you, as if in 112. You miserable exclaim-) You, the utmost haste to purge himself by oath. half-mad with vexation at finding your

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120

Vel potius quantum Gradivus Homericus: audis,
Jupiter, hæc? nec labra moves, cum mittere vocem
Debueras, vel marmoreus, vel aheneus ? aut cur
In carbone tuo chartâ pia thura solutâ
Ponimus, et sectum vituli jecur, albaque porci
Omenta ? ut video, nullum discrimen habendum est
Effigies inter vestras, statuamque Bathylli.
Accipe, que contra valeat solatia ferre,
Et qui nec Cynicos, nec Stoïca dogmata legit
A Cynicis tunica distantia ; non Epicurum
Suspicit exigui lætum plantaribus horti.
Curentur dubii medicis majoribus ægri,
Tu venam vel discipulo committe Philippi.

Si nullum in terris tam detestabile factum
Ostendis, taceo; nec pugnis cædere pectus
Te veto, nec planâ faciem contundere palmå ;

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self thus treated, and in amazement at tom, mentioned sat. x. 55. (sce noto the impudence of such a perjury, break there,) of fastening pieces of paper, conforth aloud.

taining vows, upon the images of the 112. Stentor.] A Grecian inentioned gods, and taking them off when their by Homer, II, s. 1. 785, 6. to have a

prayers were granted, after which they voice as loud as Gifty people together. offered what they had vowed.

113. Homerican Gradivus.].See note, 117. “ The cut liver," &c.] The liver sat, ii. 1. 128. Homer says, (Il. . 860 cut out of a calf, and the caul wbich -2.) that when Mars was wounded by covered the inwards of an hog, were Diomede, he roared so loud that he usual offerings. frightened the Grecians and Trojans, and 119. “ The statue of Bathyllus.] A made a noise as loud as 10,000 men to fiddler and a player, whose statue was gether.

erected in the temple of Juno, at Samos, In some such manner as this, wouldst by the tyrant Polycrates.-4. d. Al this thou, my friend Calvinus, exclaim, and rate, I don't see that there is any differ. call out to Jupiter.

ence between thy images, 0 Jupiter, and 114. Nor move your lips.] Canst thou those that may be erected in honour of be a silent hearer, 0 Jupiter, of such a fiddler, perjuries as these? wilt thou not so much In this expostulatory exclamation to asutter a word against such doings,when Jupiter, which the poet makes his friend one should think thou oughtest to utter with so much vehemence, there is threaten vengeance, wert thou even very keen raillery against the folly and made of marble or brass, like thine superstition that prevailed at Rome, images which are among us ?

which Juvenal held in the highest con115. Or why.) Where is the use-to tempt. This almost reminds one of ibat what purpose is it?

fine sarcasm of the prophet Elijah, 116. Put we, &c.] See sat, xii, 1. 89, 1 Kings xviii. 27. note.

120. Hear, &c.] The poet is now 116, 17. From thc loos'd paper.] Some taking another ground to console his think that the offerers used to bring their friend, by representing to him the freincense wrapped up in a paper, and, com- quency not only of the same, but of much ing to the altar, they undid or opened greater injuries than what he has sufthe paper, and poured the incense out of fered ; and that he, in being ill used, is it upon the fire.

only sharing the common lot of manBut others, by charta soluta (abl. ab. kind, from which he is not to think hiinsol.) understand a reference to the cus self exempt.

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