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Or rather as much as the Homerican Gradivus : “Do you hear, “O Jupiter, those things? nor move your lips, when you ought “ To send forth your voice, whether you are of marble or of “ brass ? or why,

115
“On thy coal, put we the pious frankincense from the loos’d
“Paper, and the cut liver of a calf, and of an hog
“ The white caul? as I see, there is no difference to be reckond,
“ Between your images, and the statue of Bathyllus.”
Hear, what consolations on the other hand one may bring, 120
And who neither hath read the Cynics, nor the Stoic doc-

trines, differing
From the Cynics by a tunic: nor admires Epicurus
Happy in the plants of a small garden.
The dubious sick may be taken care of by greater physicians,
Do you commit your vein even to the disciple of Philip. 125
If

you shew no fact in all the earth so detestable, I am silent: nor do I forbid you to beat your breast We, vile chickens hatched from unfortunate eggs?

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120. Hear.] Accipe-auribus under- misfortunes, stand in need of the most stood.

grave and learned advice. 121. Neither hath read.) Never hath 125. Commit your vein, &c.] A person made these his study.

whose cause of illness is but slight, may -The Cyrics.] The followers of Dio- trust himself in the hands of a young genes.

beginner. -Stoic doctrines.] The doctrines of So you, Calvinus, whose loss is but Zeno and his followers, who were called comparatively slight, have no need of Stoics, from otwe, a porch, where they Stoics, or Cynics, or of such a one as taught.

Epicurus, to console you; I am suffi-Differing, &c.] The people differed cient for the purpose, though I do not from each other in their dress, the Cynics read or study such great philosophers. wearing no tunic (a sort of waistcoat) -Philip.] Some surgeon of no great under their cloaks, as the Stoics did; credit or reputation; but even his apbut both agreed in teaching the contempt prentice might be trusted to advise bleedof money, and of the change of fortune. ing, or not, in a slight disorder. So you

122. Epicurus.] A philosopher of may safely trust to my advice in your Athens, a temperate and sober man, present circumstances, though I am no who lived on bread and water and herbs: deep philosopher; a little common sense he placed man's chief happiness in the will serve the turn. pleasure and tranquillity of the mind. The whole of these two last lines is He died of the stone at Athens, aged allegorical; the ideas are taken from boseventy-two. His scholars afterwards dily disorder, but are to be transferred sadly perverted his doctrines, by making to the mind. the pleasures of the body the chief 126. If you shev, &c.] Could you shew good, and ran into those excesses which no act in all the world so vile as this brought a great scandal on the sect. Sus- which has been done towards you, I picillit. looks up to.

would say no more-I would freely aban-
124. Dubious sick, &c.] Those who are don you to your sorrows, as a most
so ill, that their recovery is doubtful, singularly unhappy man.
should be committed to the care of very 127. Nor do 1, &c.] i.e. Go on, like a
experienced and able physicians. man frantic with grief-beat your breast

So, those who are afflicted with heavy slap your face till it be black and blue.
VOL. II.

P

180

135

Quandoquidem accepto claudenda est janua damno,
Et majore domûs gemitu, majore tumultu
Planguntur nummi, quam funera: nemo dolorem
Fingit in hoc casu, vestem diducere summam
Contentus, vexare oculos humore coacto:
Ploratur lachrymis amissa pecunia veris.
Sed si cuncta vides simili fora plena querelâ ;
Si decies lectis diversâ parte tabellis,
Vana supervacui dicunt chirographa ligni,
Arguit ipsorum quos litera, gemmaque princeps
Sardonyches, loculis quæ custoditur eburnis :
Ten', ô delicias, extra communia censes
Ponendum? Quî tu gallinæ filius albæ,
Nos viles pulli nati infelicibus ovis ?

140

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129. Since, &c.] In a time of mourn we see a man deploring the loss of money, ing for any great loss, it was usual to we may believe the sincerity of his tears. shut the doors and windows,

The poet in this, and the preceding -Loss being received.] A loss of mo lines on this subject, finely satirizes the ney incurred.--He is here rallying his avarice and selfishness of mankind, as friend Calvinus.--4. d. Inasmuch as the well as their hypocrisy and all want of loss of money is looked upon as the most real feelings, where self is not immeserious of all losses, doubtless you ought diately concerned. to bewail your misfortune, with every 135. If you see, &c.] q. d. However I circumstance of the most unfeigned sor- night permit you to indulge in sorrow, if

no instance of such fraud and villainy 130. Mourning of the house, &c.] i. l. had happened to any body but yourself, Of the family--for, to be sure, the loss yet if it be every day's experience, if of money is a greater subject of grief, the courts of justice are filled with comand more lamented, than the deaths of plaints of the same kind, why should you relations.

give yourself up to grief, as singularly 131. Nobody feigns, &c.] The grief for wretched, when what has happened to Joss of money is very sincere, however you is the frequent lot of others ? feigned it usually is at funerals.

136. If, tablets.] i. e. Deeds or obliga. 132. Consent to sever, &c.] Nobody tions written on tablets. See sat. ii. l. contents himself with the mere oulward 58, note. show of grief-such as rending the upper -Read over, &c.) i. c. Often read over edge of a garment, which was an usual in the hearing of witnesses, as well as of sign of grief.

the parties. 133. Ver the eyes, &c.] To rub the eyes, -By the different party.] This ex. in order to squeeze out a few forced tears, pression is very obscure, and does not

See Terent. Eun. act i. sc. i. where appear to me to have been satisfactorily Parmeno is describing the feigned grief elucidated by commentators. Some read of Phædria's mistress, and where this diversa in parte, and explain it to mean, circumstance of dissimulation is finely that the deeds had been read over in dif. touched :

ferent places-variis in locis, says the Hæc verba una mehercle falsú lacrumulá, Delphin interpretation. However, after Quam, oculos terendo misere, vix vi er much consideration, I rather approve of presserit,

reading diversa parte, by the different Reslinguet, 8c.

(i. e. the opposite) party. Pars means, So VIRG. En. ii. 1. 196.

sometimes, a side or party in conten. Captique dolis lachrymisque coacti. tion. Ainsw. In this view, it exagge134. Lost money is deplored, &c.) When rates the impudence and villainy ofa inan

Lost money

With your fists, nor to bruise your face with your open palm;
Since, loss being received, the gate is to be shut,
And with greater mourning of the house, with a greater tumult,
Money is bewailed than funerals: nobody feigns grief 131
In this case, content to sever the top of the garment,
To vex the eyes with constrained moisture :

is deplored with true tears.
But if you see all the courts filled with the like complaint, 135
If, tablets being read over ten times, by the different party,
They saw the hand-writings of the useless wood are vain,
Whom their own letters convicts, and a principal gem
Of a sardonyx, which is kept in ivory boxes.
Think

you, O sweet Sir, that out of common things 140 You are to be put? How are you the offspring of a white hen,

over.

who devied his deed or obligation, see. Deliciæ is often used to denote a daring that his adversary, the creditor, hav- ling, a minion, in which a person deing frequently read over the deed, could lights; here delicias might be rendered not be mistaken as to its contents, any choice, favourite, i, e. of fortune-as if more than the debtor, who had signified exempted from the common accidents of and sealed it, as well as heard it read life--as if put or placed out of their reach.

141. How.) Why-by what means-187. They say.] i.e. The fraudulent how can you make it out? debtors say, that the hand-writings con -The offspring of a white hen.) The tained in the bonds are false and void. colour of white was deemed lucky. This

Supervacuus means superfluous, serv. expression seems to have been provering to no purpose or vise.-Supervacui bial in Juvenal's time to denote a man ligni, i. e. of the inscribed wooden ta That is born to be happy and fortunate. blets, which are of no use, though the Some suppose the original of this say. obligation be written on them.

ing to be the story told by Suetonius in 9.d. Notwithstanding the hand-writing his life of Galba, where he mentions an appears against them, signed and sealed eagle, which soaring over the head of by ihemselves, and that before witnesses, Livia, a little after her marriage with yet they declare that it is all false, a mere Augustus, let fall into her lap a white deceit,and of no obligation whatsoever- hen, with a laurel-branch in her mouth; they plead, non est factum, as we say. which hen, being preserved, became so

138. Whom their own letter conviets.] fruitful, that the place where this hapWhose own hand-writing proves it to be pened was called Villa ad Gallinas. their own deed.

But the poet saying nothing of fruitful. -A principal gem, &c.] Their seal cut ness, but of the colour only, it is rather upon a sardonyx of great value, with to be supposed that Erasmus is right, in which they sealed the deed.

attributing this proverb to the notion 139. Which is kept, &c.] Kept in splen- which the Romans had of a white colour, did cases of ivory, perhaps one within that it denoted luck or happiness, as dies another, for its greater security. By this albi, and albo lapillo notati, and the like. circumstance, the poet seems to bint, that 142. Unfortunate eggs.] The infelicibus the vile practice which he mentions was ovis, put here in opposition to the white by no means confined to the lower sort hen, seems to imply the eggs of some of people, but had made its way among birds of unhappy omen, as crows, ravens, the rich and great.

&c. figuratively to denote those who are 140. O sweet Sir.] Delicias-hominis born to be unfortunale. understood. Comp. sat. vi. 47. An Sæpe sinistra cavâ prædixit ab ilice ironical apostrophe to his friend.

Cornir. Virg. ecl, i, 18; and ix. 15.

145

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150

Rem pateris modicam, et mediocri bile ferendam,
Si flectas oculos majora ad crimina: Confer
Conductum latronem, incendia sulphure cæpta,
Atque dolo, primos cum janua colligit ignes :
Confer et hos, veteris qui tollunt grandia templi
Pocula adorandæ rubiginis, et populorum
Dona, vel antiquo positas a rege coronas.
Hæc ibi si non sunt, minor extat sacrilegus, qui
Radat inaurati femur Herculis, et faciem ipsam
Neptuni, qui bracteolam de Castore ducat.
An dubitet, solitus totum conflare Tonantem?
Confer et artifices, mercatoremque veneni,
Et deducendum corio bovis in mare, cum quo
Clauditur adversis innoxia simia fatis.
Hæc quota pars scelerum, quæ custos Gallicus urbis
Usque a Lucifero, donec lux occidat, audit ?
Humani generis mores tibi nôsse volenti
Sufficit una domus; paucos consume dies, et
Dicere te miserum, postquam illinc veneris, aude.
Quis tumidum guttur miratur in Alpibus ? aut quis

155

160

143. With moderate choler, &c.) i. c. 148, 9. The gifts of the people.] Rich Moderate wrath, anger, resentment, and magnificent offerings, given to some when you consider how much greater in shrine by a whole people together, in juries others suffer from greater crimes. honour of the god that presided there.

144. Compare.] Consider in a com 149. Crowns placed, &c.] As by Roparative view.

mulus and other kings, whose crowns, 145. Hired thief.] Or cut-throat, who in honour of their memory, were hung is hired for the horrid purpose of assas up in the temples of the gods. sination.

150. If these are not there.) If it so --Burnings begun with sulphur.] Which happen that there be no such valuable is here put, by sy nec. for all sort of com relics as these now mentioned, yet some bustible matter, with which incendiaries petty sacrilegious thief will deface and fire houses.

rob the statues of the gods. 146. By deceit.] In a secret manner, 151. Scrape the thigh, &c.) To get a by artfully laying the destructive mate little gold from it. rials, so as not to be discovered till too 151, 2. Face of Neptune.) Some image late to prevent thc mischief.

of Neptune, the beard whereof was of Collects the first fires.] So as to gold. prevent those who are in the house from 152. Draw off the leaf-gold, &c.] Peel getting out, and those who are without it off, in order to steal it, from the image from getting in, to afford any assistance. of Castor : there were great treasures in It is not improbable that the poet here his temple. See sat. xiv. 1. 260. glances at the monstrous act of Nero, 153. Will he hesitate.) At such comwho saw Rome on fire.

paratively small matters as these, who 147. Large cups, &c.] Who are guilty could steal a whole statue of Jupiter, and of sacrilege, in stealing the sacred vessels then melt it down; and who can make which have been for ages in some an a practice of such a thing? A man who tique temple, and which venerable accustoms himself to greater crimes, from the rust which they have contracted can't be supposed to hesitate about comby time.

mitting less.

You suffer a moderate matter, and to be borne with moderate

choler, If you bend your eyes to greater crimes : compare The hired thief, burnings begun with sulphur,

145 And by deceit, when the gate collects the first fires : Compare also these, who take away the large cups Of an old temple, of venerable rust, and the gifts Of the people, or crowns placed by an ancient king. If these are not there, there stands forth one less sacrilegious, who May scrape the thigh of a gilt Hercules, and the very face of Neptune, who may draw off the leaf-gold from Castor. Will he hesitate, who is used to melt a whole Thunderer? Compare also the contrivers, and the merchant of poison, And him to be launched into the sea in the hide of an ox, 155 With whom an harmless ape, by adverse fates, is shut up. How small a part this of the crimes, which Gallicus, the keeper

of the city, Hears from the morning, until the light goes down? To you who are willing to know the manners of the human race One house suffices ; spend a few days, and dare

160 To call yourself miserable, after you come from thence. Who wonders at a swoln throat in the Alps? or who

154. Contrivers, and the merchant of It is not to be supposed that the præ. prison.) Those who make and those who fectus urbis literally sat from morning to sell poisonous compositions, for the pur- night every day, but that he was conposes of sorcery and witchcraft, or for tinually, as the phrase ainong us imports, killing persons in a secret and clandes- hearing causes, in which the most atroci. tine inanner. See Hor.sat. ix. lib. i. 31; ous crimes were discovered and punished. and epod. ix, 1. 61.

160. One house suffices.] 9. d. If you 155. Launched into the sea, &c.] Par- desire to be let into a true history of huricides were put into a sack made of an man wickedness, an attendance at the ox's hide, together with an ape, a cock, house of Gallicus alone will be sufficient a serpent, and a dog, and thrown into for your purpose, the sea. See sat. viii. 214. The fate of -Spend a few days, &c.] Attend there these poor innocent animals is very for a few days, and when you come cruel, they having done no wrong. De. away, dare, if you can, to call yourself ducendum. Met. See Virg. G. i. 255. unhappy, after hearing what you have

157. Keeper of the city. ) Rutilius Gal. heard at the house of Gallicus. Domus licus was appointed, under Domitian, is a very general word, and need not be præfectus urbis, who had cognizance of restricted here to signify the private capital offences, and sat every day on house of the judge, but may be undercriminal causes.

stood of the court or place where he sat 158. From the morning.) Lucifero. to hear causes. The planet Venus, when seen at day. 162. Swoln throat, &c.] The inha. break, is called Lucifer-i.e. the bringer hitants about the Alps have generally of light. See sat, viii. 12.

great swellings about their throats, occa. Nascere praque diem veniensage Lucifer sioned, as some suppose, by drinking

almum. VIRG. ecl. viii. 1. 17. snow-water. The French call these proLucifer ortus crat

tuberances on the outside of the throat, Ov, Met. iv. 664. goitres.

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