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Sensit Alexander, testâ cum vidit in illa
Magnum habitatorem, quanto felicior hic, qui
Nil cuperet, quam qui totum sibi posceret orbem,
Passurus gestis æquanda pericula rebus.
Nullum numen habes, si sit prudentia : nos te,
Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam. Mensura tamen quæ
Sufficiat censûs, si quis me consulat, edam.
In quantum sitis atque fames et frigora poscunt:
Quantum, Epicure, tibi parvis suffecit in hortis :
Quantum Socratici ceperunt ante Penates.
Acribus exemplis videor te claudere; misce
Ergo aliquid nostris de moribus ; effice summam,
Bis septem ordinibus quam lex dignatur Othonis.

quogue si rugam trahit, extenditque labellum,
Sume duos Equites, fac tertia quadringenta:
Si nondum implevi gremium, si panditur ultra ;
Nec Cræsi fortuna
unquam, nec Persica





311. Alexander.) Alexander the Great suffice-as much as is required for food might easily perceive how much hap- and raiment. So St. Paul, 1 Tim. vi, 8. pier, and more content, Diogenes was in

Nescis quo valeat nummus ; quam præhis poverty, than be who coveted empire

beat usum? so much as not to be content with one

Panis ematur, olus, vini sertarius; adde world. This alludes to the story of

Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis. Alexander's coming to Corinth, where he

Hor. sat. i. 1. 73-5. found Diogenes, and not being saluted by him, Alexander went up to him, and Would you the real use of riches know? asked him, “if he could do any thing for “ Bread, herbs, and wine are all they “ him?” “Yes,” said Diogencs,“ stand " can bestow. “ from between me and the sun." " Or add what Nature's deepest wants

-In that cask.] Testa. This shews that the vessel, or hogshead, which Dio These, and no more, thy mass of money genes lived in, was not made of wood.


FRANCIS. 312. The great inhabitant.) Diogenes, So Pope, in his use of riches, Eth. ep. the chief of the Cynics, very properly so

iii. 1, 81, 2. styled, from xuw, xuros, a dog, from the What riches give us let us first inquire, snarling surliness of their manners; of Meat, fire, und clothes-what more? this we have a specimen in the answer “ meut, clothes, and fire." of Diogenes to Alexander above men 319. Little garden.] See sal. xiii. 122, tioned.

3. hortis, plur. per synec. pro horto, 314. About to suffer, &c.] i, e. To ex. sing. pose himself to, and to undergo dangers, 320. Socratic Penates, &c.] i. e. As proportionate to his attempts to accom much as Socrates required and took for plish his vast designs, and equal to all the maintenance of his household. Here, ihe glory which he might acquire. by .meton. called Penates, from the

315. No divinity, &c.] See sat. X. household gods which were in his house. 1. 365, 6, and notes.

-Before.] i. e. In earlier times, be316. The measure, &c.] If I were asked fore Epicurus. Socrates died four hunwhat I thought a competency sufficient dred years before Christ ; Epicurus two to furnish the comfortable necessaries of hundred and seventy-one. life, I would answer as follows

321. Nature never says, &c.] i. e. Na318. As much, &c.] That which will ture and wisdom always agree in teach

Alexander perceived, when he saw, in that cask,
The great inhabitant, how much happier this man was, who
Desired nothing, than he, who required the whole world,
About to suffer dangers to be equalled to things done.
Thou hast no divinity, O Fortune, if there be prudence: thee

We make a goddess. Nevertheless the measure of an estate
Which may suffice, if any should consult me, I will declare.
As much as thirst and hunger, and cold require ;
As much, Epicurus, as sufficed thee in thy little garden ;
As much as the Socratic Penates had taken before. 320
I seem to confine you by sour examples ; mix
Therefore something from our manners, make the sum
What the law thinks worthy the twice seven ranks of Otho.
If this also draws a wrinkle, and extends your lip, 325
Take two knights, make the third four hundred.
If as yet I have not filled your bosom, if it be opened farther,
Neither the fortune of Croesus, nor the Persian kingdoms,

ing the same lesson. By nature, here, were assigned to the equestrian order. we must understand that simple prin- See Hor. ep. iv. 1. 15, 16; and Juv. ciple which leads only to the desire of sat. iii. 1. 155, 6, and notes. the necessary comforts of life.

325. If this also draws, &c.] If this If we go farther, the term nature may contracts your brow into a frown, and extend to the appetite and passions, makes you poul out your lips, as in diswhich, in their desires and pursuits, suit dain or displeasůremas we say, hang the but ill with the dictates of wisdom. lip-i. e. if this, as well as the examples

Mr. POPE, Eih. epist. iii. 1. 25, 6. before mentioned, of Socrates and Epi. What nature wants" (a phrase I must curus, displeases you distrust)

326. T'uke two knights.] Possess an “ Extends to luxury,extends to lust,"'&c. estate sufficient for two of the equestrian

322. I seem to confine, &c.] By saying order. See above, 1. 323, note 2. this, I may seem, perhaps, too severe, - Make the third four hundred.] E'en and to circumscribe your desires in too add a third knight's estate, have three narrow a compass, by mentioning such times four hundred sestertia. rigid examples of persons, of what you 327. Filled your wsom, &c.] A metamay think sour ispositions.

phor alluding to the garments of the 323. Our manners.] That I may not ancients, which were loose, and which be thought too scanty in my allowance, they held open before to receive what I will permit you to mingle something was given to them. Comp. Is. Ixv. 6, of our more modern way of thinking 7. Luke vi. 38. and living.

The poet means, If I have not yet -Make the sum, &c.] Suppose you satisfied your desires by what I allow make up, together with what I have you : if I have not thrown enough into mentioned as sufficient, a sum equal to your lap, as we say. See sat. vii. 215, a knight's estate, which, by a law of and note. Roscius Olho the tribune, called the -Opened farther.] The metaphor is Roscian law, was to amount to four still continued-9. d. If your desires hundred sestertia revenue per annum, are still extended beyond this. about 3,1251. of our money.

328. Fortune of Cræsus.) The rich 324. Twice seven ranks, &c.] Fourteen king of Lydin. See sat. x. 274. ranks or rows of seats in the theatre -Persian kingdoms.) The kings of

VOL. 11.

Sufficient animo, nec divitiæ Narcissi,
Indulsit Cæsar cui Claudius omnia, cujus
Paruit imperiis, uxorem occidere jussus.


Persia, particularly Darius and Xerxes, ficient to gratify your desires. were famed for their magnificence and -Riches of Narcissus.] A freedman riches.

and favourite of Claudius Cæsar, who 329. Suffice your mind.) Will be suf- had such an ascendancy over the em

Will ever suffice your mind, nor the riches of Narcissus,
To whom Claudius Cæsar indulged every thing, whose 330
Commands he obey'd, being ordered to kill his wife.

peror, as to prevail on him to put Mes. salina to death, after her paramour Silius. See sat. x. l. 330—345. Claudius would have pardoned her adultery, but,

at the instigation of Narcissus, he had her killed in the gardens of Lucullus. By the favour of the emperor, Nar. cissus was possessed of immense wealth.



The Poet in this Satire, which he is supposed to have written

when he was under his banishment in Egypt, relates the mortal and irreconcileable hatred, which sprung from a religious quarrel between the Ombites and Tentyrites, inhabitants of two neighbouring cities of Egypt--and describes, in very lively colours, a bloody fray which happened between theni. He seems to lay this as a ground for those fine reflections, with which he finishes the Satire, on the nature,

use, and intention of civil society. In reading this Satire, it is difficult not to advert to the mon

strous cruelties which superstition and bigotry have brought on mankind, while those who have disgraced the Christian name by bearing it, have, with relentless fury, inflicted tortures and

QUIS nescit, Volusi Bithynice, qualia demens
Ægyptus portenta colat ? "Crocodilon adorat
Pars hæc: illa pavet saturam serpentibus Ibin.
Effigies sacri nitet aurea cercopitheci,
Dimidio magicæ resonant ubi Memnone chordæ,


Line 1. Bithynian Volusius.] Who this Egypt which lies near the river Nile Volusius was does not appear; all that worships the crocodile; a dreadful amwe know is, that he came from Bithynia, phibious animal, shaped something like a country of the Lesser Asia, and was a lizard, and, from an egg little bigger undoubtedly a friend of Juvenal, who than that of a goose, grow's to be thirty addresses this Satire to him.

feet long. The Egyptians know how 2. Mad Egypt.] Demens not only bigh the river will rise that year, by the means mad, i. c. one that has lost his place where the crocodiles lay their eggs. senses, but also silly, foolish; which per. The crocodile was worshipped with di. haps is meant here, in allusion to the vine honours, because these animals silly superstition which possessed the were supposed to have destroyed the minds of the Egyptians in religious mal. Libyan and Arabian robbers, who swam ters.

over the river and killed many of the - This part.] One part of Egypt. inhabitants. -Adores a crocodile.] That part of 3. An Ibis.] A certain bird, which is

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