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But now the concord of serpents is greater: a similar
Beast spares his kindred spots.

his kindred spots. When, from a lion, 160
Did a stronger lion take away life? in what forest ever,
Did a boar expire by the teeth of a larger boar ?
The Indian tyger observes a perpetual peace with a fierce
Tyger: there is agreement with savage bears among themselves.
But for man the deadly sword from the impious anvil 165
To have produced is little; whereas, being accustomed only

to heat Rakes and spades, and tired with mattocks and the ploughshare, The first smiths knew not how to beat out swords. We see people, to whose anger it does not suffice To have killed any one; but the breasts, the arms, the face, 170 They believed to be a kind of fcod. What therefore would

he have said, Or whither would he not have fled, if now Pythagoras could

have seen These monstrous things? who abstaind from all animals, as from A man, and did not indulge every kind of pulse to his belly.

of souls; he would not allow himself to find many of these collected in Holyday, eat all sorts of vegetables, but abstained note 14, on this Satire. See also Ant. from beans, which he is supposed to have Univ. Hist. vol. i. p. 53. learnt from the Egyptian priests, when According to the story of his life, writhe was in that country, who abstained ten by Jamblichus, we may suppose that from beans, and thought it unlawful 10 neither Pythagoras, nor any of his fol. sow or to look upon them. Herodot, lowers, would ever reveal the cause of Euterpe.

abstinence from beans.-It seems that What, says

the poet, would Pythagoras Dionysius the tyrant, the younger, dehave said, if he had seen these Egyp- siring to know the secret, caused two tians, these Tentyrites, tearing and de- Pythagoreans to be brought before him, vouring human Aesh? to what part of a man and his wife, who being asked, the earth would not he have flown, to why the Pythagoreans would not eat have avoided such a sight? who, so far beans ?"_" I will sooner die (said the from holding it lawful to eat human flesh, “man) than reveal it.”—This, though would not eat the flesh of any animal threatened with tortures, he persisted in, any more than he would have eaten the and was, with indignation, sent away. fesh of a man, nor would he indulge his The wife was then called upon, and being appetite with every kind of vegetable. asked the same question, and threatened

The reason of this strange piece of also with tortures, she, rather than reveal superstition, of abstioence from beans, is it, bit out her tongue, and spit it in the not known; many causes have been tyrant's face. Of Pythagoras, see Ovid, assigned for it, which are full as absurd Met. lib. xv. 1. 60, et seq. as the thing itself. The reader may

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This Satire is supposed to have been written by Juvenal while he

commanded in Egypt, (see sat. xv. l. 45, note 2.); he sets forth, ironically, the advantages and privileges of the soldiery,

and how happy they are beyond others whom he mentions. Many have thought that this Satire was not written by Juvenal;

but I think that the weight of evidence seems against that

QUIS numerare queat felicis præmia, Galle,
Militiæ ? nam si subeantur prospera castra,
Me pavidum excipiat tyronem porta secundo
Sidere : plus etenim fati valet hora benigni,
Quam si nos Veneris commendet epistola Marti,
Et Samiâ genitrix quæ delectatur arena.

Commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum
Haud minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare Togatus


Line 1. Gallus.] Who this was does I have rendered the Nam si, as marking not appear; some friend, doubtless, of the transition to the poet's wish for him. Juvenal, to whom he addresses this Sa. self. See Ainsw. Nam, No. 5,6; and tire.

Si, No. 2. -Can number, &c.] i. e. Can reckon -Prosperous camps, &c.] Where peoup the advantages and emoluments ple make their fortunes. arising from a military life?

3. Let the door.] Let my first entrance 2. Now since.] The subject of the Sa. be attended with the good omen of some tire is proposed, 1. 1, though not entered favourable star. It was a great notion upon till 1.7. The intermediate lines, be- among the Romans, that their good or ginning at Nam si, &c. l. 2, to the end of ill fortune depended on the situation of 1.6, are digressional, and humourously in- the stars, at certain times, and on troduce the poet, now eighty years old, certain occasions. Sat. vii. 1. 194, and forced into the service as a punish- note. ment, wishing to enter into the army with A fearful beginner.] Tyro signifies a a lucky planet, as a soldier of fortune : fresh-water soldier, a young begiuner, a the cheerfulness with which he seems to novice; these are usually fearful at first, bear his misfortune must have afforded being unused to the fatigues and hazards no small disappointment to his enemies. of war.



opinion, and that there are many passages so exactly in the style of Juvenal, as to afford the strongest internal evidence that it was written by him. It may be granted not to be a finished piece, like the rest; but if we only regard it as a draught or design of a larger work, it is a valuable hint on the oppression and inconveniences of a military government.

gone into,

WHO, O Gallus, can number the advantages of the happy Soldiery ? now since prosperous camps may


, Let the door receive me, a fearful beginner, with a favourable Star: for an hour of kind fate avails more, Than if an epistle of Venus were to commend us to Mars, 5 And the mother who delights in the Samian sand.

Let us first treat common advantages; of which that will Hardly be the least, that a gownsman to strike you

It is to be remembered, that Juvenal, another from his mother Juno, here who had passed his life in the study of meant by genitrix. The poet, in this letters, and in writing, was sent away place, is again sneering at the mythology from Rome into Egypt, under pretence of his country. Comp. sat. xiii. 1. of giving him a military command, but 40–7. indeed to exile him, for having satirized 6. Delights in the Sumian sand.] Juno Paris the player, a minion of Domitian. was worshipped at Samos, a sandy island See sat. vii. 1. 92, note. This was in a very in the Icarian sea, where she was eduadvanced stage of our poet's life; there- cated and married to Jupiter ; she was fore, though an old man, he might pro- said to have a great delight in this island. perly call himself a young soldier, un See Æn. i. 1. 19, 20. skilled and fearful.

7. Let us first treat common advantages.] 4. An hour of kind fate, &c.) One The poet now enters on his subject; and lucky hour under the influence of some begins, first, with those privileges of the friendly planet. See Hor. lib. ii. ode military, which are common to all of svii, 1. 17, et seq.

them, from the bighest to the lowest. 5. Epistle of Venus, &c.] Than if Ve 8. A gownsman.] Any common Roo nus, the mistress of the god of war, were man, called togatus from wearing a to write him a recommendatory letter in gown; as a soldier is called armatus, from my favour, and this to be seconded by wearing arms—. 34, post.



Audeat : imo etsi pulsetur, dissimulet, nec
Audeat excussos Prætori ostendere dentes,
Et nigram in facie tumidis livoribus offam,
Atque oculos medico nil promittente relictos.
Bardiacus Judex datur hæc punire volenti,
Calceus et grandes magna ad subsellia suræ,
Legibus antiquis castrorum, et more Camilli
Servato, miles ne vallum litiget extra,
Et procul a signis. Justissima Centurionum
Cognitio est igitur de milite ; nec mihi deerit
Ultio, si justæ defertur causa querelæ :
Tota cohors tamen est inimica, omnesque manipli
Consensu magno officiunt. Curabitis ut sit
Vindicta et gravior quam injuria. Dignum erit ergo
Declamatoris Mutinensis corde Vagelli,


9. May not dare.) No common man -Willing to punish, &c.] If a man dare strike you if you are a soldier. will venture to complain, he will be re

- Thoi hi.] Though he should be ever ferred to the tribunal of the military so beaten by you.

judge. - Let him dissemble.] Lel bim conceal 14. A shoe, &c.) Calceus signifies any it; let him counterfeit, and pretend, shoe, but probably means here a partithat he came by the marks, which the cular shoe worn by soldiers, which, like soldier's blows have left, some other those of our rustics, was filled with nails way.

at the bottom. See sat. ii. 247, 8. io. Nor dare lo shew, &c.] Though the note, soldier has knocked the man's teeth out - Large buskins.] These seem to have of his head, yet let not the man dare to been the upper parts of the caligæ, as complain to the superior officer, or shew the lower were the calcei, or shoes ; for his mangled mouth.

the caliga, being a sort of barness for the - Prælor.] The prætor militaris was foot and leg, the lower part, or calceus, the general, or commander in chief. See covered the foot, the upper part, or suAinsw. Prætor.

ta, reached up to the calf of the leg : 11. Black bump, &c.] His face beat they were like our half boots, and in the black and blue, as we say, and full of front had the figure of a lion, or some lumps and swellings.

fierce beast. 12. And eves lift, &c.] His eyes left 14. At the great benches.] The benches in such a condition, as to make it im on which the superior magistrates sat possible for the surgeon to promise a re. were called tribunalia, those on which covery of them.

the lower magistrates sat were called 13. A Burdiae judge.] Bardiacus, or subsellia ; so that the epithet magna, Bardaicus, a military judge, something here, is probably ironical. like our judge-advocate in the army, who The poet means, that the complainant had the sole cognizance of all military is referred to a military judge, who takes causes, and of such as arose within the his seat on the bench'in his military camp: so called from bardi, an ancient habit. people of Gaul, who wore a particular 15. Laws of camps.] These complaints sort of dress, that was adopted by the were not tried by the civil laws and inRomans, and used by the military. This stitutions, but by the old military laws. judge, being of the army, wore this -The custım of Camillus.] L. Furius dress, and therefore is called Bardiacus, Camillus, during the ten years' siege of which signifies, of the country of Gaul, Veii, a city of Tuscany, famons for the or dressed like Gauls. Ainsw.

slaughter of ihe Fabii there, made a law,

May not dare. Even tho' he may be stricken, let him dis

semble, Nor dare to shew his teeth beat out to the prætor,

10 And a black bump in his face with swelled bluenesses, And eyes left, the physician promising nothing: A Bardiac judge is given to one willing to punish these things, A shoe, and large buskins at the great benches, The ancient laws of camps, and the custom of Camillus 15 Being observed, that a soldier should not litigate without the

trench, And far from the standards. Most just is therefore the trial Of centurions concerning a soldier ; nor will revenge Be wanting to me, if a cause of just complaint be brought : Yet the whole cohort is inimical, and all the companies 20 Obstruct with great consent. You will take care, that there be Vengeance, heavier than the injury. It will, therefore, be worthy The heart of the declaimer Vagellius of Mutina,


that no soldier should be impleaded with- man who complains against a soldier. out the camp, or at a distance from the 20. All the companies.) Manipli, for standard, that he might always be on manipuli, of which there were ten in a the spot in case of an engagement: so regiment, and answer to our companies that if a man received an injury, as in of foot. Here may be meant all the the case above put, from a soldier, he common soldiers. could prosecute him no where but be Manipulus was a small band of solfore the military judge, and that by the diers, which, in the days of Romulus, martial law.

when the Roman army was but in a 17. Most just is therefore, &c.] The poor condition, tied an handful of hay igitur, bere, relates to what the poet men or grass to the top of a spear, and cartions in the preceding lines, concerning ried it by way of ensigu. We have the trial of a soldier, which was ordained adopted this term, and often call a small to be before a military tribunal; no other detachment of soldiers an handful of had cognizance of ihe cause where a soldier was a party. Now as this was 21. Obstruct.] i.e. The course of jusordained by law, and to prevent the mi- tice. litary from being absent at a distance -With great consent.] With the most from the camp, in case of a sudden at hearty and earnest united opposition ; tack from an enemy, and, for this reason, so that, if you should have the centumust be for the public good and safety, rion, who tries the cause, on your side, it must be deemed highly proper and his sentence can't be carried into execujust.

tion for fear of a mutiay, the soldiers 18. Nor wili revenge, &c.] q.d. Though banding together as one man to oppose a centurion be judge, yet were I, sup it. posing myself a common person, who -You will take care, &c.] You soldiers prosecute a soldier on good and reason. (tota cohors-omnesque manipli) will able grounds, really to make out my take care, that vengeance, even heavier Cause to be true and just, I shall have than the injury complained of, shall sentence in my favour, and, as far as the await the plaintiff, and that he shall find judge is concerned, I shall be avenged the remedy worse than the disease. of my adversary: but notwithstanding Comp. 1. 24, and note. this

23. The heart of l'agellius, &c.] There20. The rchole cohort.] The whole re- fore the man wbö could affront a soldier, giment, as it were, will be against the or sue him for an injury, and attempt to

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