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Cum duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligatos,

Millia clavorum.

Quis tam procul absit ab urbe 2 25

Praeterea, quis tam Pylades, molem aggeris ultra
Ut veniat? lachrymae siccentur protinus, et se
Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos.

Da testem, Judex cum dixerit:

audeat ille

Nescio quis, pugnos vidit qui, dicere, vidi; 30
Et credam dignum barbà, dignumque capillis
Majorum: citius falsum producere testem -
Contra paganum possis, quam vera loquentem
Contra fortunam armati, contraque pudorem.
Praemia nunc alia, atque alia emolumenta notemus 35


Convallem ruris aviti

Improbus, aut campum mihi si vicinus ademit;
Aut sacrum effodit medio de limite saxum,
Quod mea cum vetulo coluit puls annua libo,

plead his cause against him, must have the resolution and impudence of that brawling lawyer of Mutina (hod. Modena), who, for a fee, would undertake the most dangerous and desperate CauSeS. 24. Since you have two legs.] (Which are now safe and sound) to be objects of mischief to the soldiers, who will kick our shins with their clouted shoes, and reak them. —Common soldiers.] Caligatos-having the caliga on their feet and legs stuck full of nails and spikes, hence called caligati. See sat. iii. 222–48, and notes. 25. Thousands of nails.] Each soldier having a great number. —So far from the city.] Who can be so foolish and ignorant, so unacquainted with the ways of the world, and especially with the manners of the soldiery, as to venture upon any quarrel with a soldier? Quistam procul absit ab urbe q. d. Who can be so ignorant of the world ! The expression seems proverbial: the people in a town, or great city, as Rome was, must be supposed to know mankind better than rustics, who live in the country, and are usually raw and ignorant; hence called inurbani, rude, simple, homely. So the Greeks used the word arrsues, (from as rv, a city, particularly Athens.) to denote a sharp man, well acquainted

with the ways of the world; answering, in great measure, to the English word politic, which is from the Latin politicus, and this from Gr. orexie, a city. 26. So much a Pylades.] So much like . alluding to Pylades, the friend of Orestes, who underwent all dangers with him and for him, and even exposed his life for him, when he went to Taurica to expiate his crimes at the altar of Diana Taurica. See Eurip. Iphigen. in Tauris. Whom, beside all I have been saying of your own personal dangers from the soldiery, could you find such a friend, as to expose his safety for your sake, and enter within the camp to plead your cause, or to take your part? —Mole of the rampurt.] The Romans used to surround their encampments with vast heaps or banks of earth, thrown up by way of rampart. The mass of earth which formed this might properly be called moles aggeris. A person could not get into the camp without first passing this.-Who would, says the poet, venture beyond this for your sake? 27. Let tears, &c.] Cease to implore with tears your friends to help you. 28. About to ercuse themselves.] Forbear to solicit your friends, who, instead of complying with such a request, will find a thousand excuses for not complying with your solicitations. 29. When the judge says, &c.] But let us

Since you have two legs, to offend so many common soldiers,
Thousands of nails. Who can be so far from the city ? 25
Besides, who is so much a Pylades, beyond the mole of the
That he would come 2 let tears immediately be dried up, and

Not solicit friends about to excuse themselves.
When the judge says—“Give evidence:” let him dare,

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And I will believe him worthy the beard, and worthy the locks,
Of our ancestors; you might sooner produce a false witness
Against a villager, than one speaking what is true
Against the fortune of a soldier, and against his reputation.
Now other advantages, and other emoluments, let us note, 35

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A dale of my ancestral estate,

'Or a field, if a wicked neighbour has taken away from me; Or hath dug up the sacred stone from the middle border, Which my annual puls hath rever'd with an old cake:

suppose you could prevail on a friend to go with you, to be a witness for you in the cause, who saw you beaten by the soldier, and suppose the judge calls on the cause, and bids you produce your evidence; let any man, (I know not who—I name nobody,) but let me see the man who dares to swear publicly in court that he saw the blows given— 31. Worthy the beard, &c.] I will allow him to be a man of primitive virtue, fidelity, and courage; such as resided in our great ancestors, who knew not our modern effeminacy; they neither shaved their beards, nor cut their hair. 32. You might sooner produce, ...] Paganus literally signifies one in, or of, the country, or country village; here it is used in contradistinction to a soldier. It is more easy to bring a false accusation, and support it by false testimony, against such a one, than to bring a true accusation, and to support it by true testimony, against either the property or honour of a soldier–armati. See ante, l. 8, note. 36. Of oaths.] When soldiers were inlisted, they took an oath of allegiance and fidelity to the emperor, to their country, and to their general. Now, says Juvenal, let us consider some farther privileges of taking the oaths as a soldier, and, by this, being enrolled in the army.

—A dale.] Convallis signifies a vale or valley, enclosed on both sides with hills, commonly the most fruitful part of an estate. See Ps. lxv. 13. —My ancestral estate.] My familyestate, descended to me from my ancestors.-He speaks as a common person. 37. Or a field.] Some other favourite spot. Po a wicked neighbour hath by violence entered and disseised me of these. 38. Hath dug up, &c.] If he hath removed my boundary. The stones which were set up for boundaries were held sacred; they adorned them with chaplets, and every year offered to the god Terminus, on the top of the boundary stones, sacrifices of honey, meal, and oil, made into cakes. This composition was called puls. See AINsw.—And the cakes, liba. See ib. libum. —Middle border.] i. e. Which stood on the line between my estate and my neighbour's. It was always reckoned a grievous offence to remove a land-mark; it was expressly forbidden in the divine law, Deut. xxvii. 17. 39. An old cake.] This institution of a yearly sacrifice to the god Terminus, the god of boundaries, was as old as the days of Numa Pompilius, the successor of Romulus.

Debitor aut sumptos pergit non reddere nummos,

Vana supervacui dicens chirographa ligni;
Expectandus erit, qui lites inchoet, annus
Totius populi: sed tune quoque mille ferenda
Taedia, mille morae; toties subsellia tantum

Sternuntur ; jam facundo ponente lacernas

Caeditio, et Fusco jam micturiente, parati
Digredimur, lentâque fori pugnamus arenå.
Ast illis, quos arma tegunt, et balteus ambit,
Quod placitum est, illis praestatur tempus agendi,

Necres atteritur longo sufflamine litis.

Solis praeterea testandi militibus jus
Vivo patre datur: nam quae sunt parta labore
Militiae, placuit non esse in corpore censis,

Omne tenet cujus regimen pater.
Signorum comitem, castrorumque aera merentem, 55
Quamvis jam tremulus captat pater.

40. A debtor goes on, &c.] A man that has borrowed a suth of money continues to refuse the payment.

41. Saying the hand-writings, &c.] Denying the validity of his bond. See sat. xiii. 137, note.

42. The year, &c.] There were judges, or commissioners, chosen to hear certain civil causes among the people, of whom every tribe had three : there being thirty-five tribes in Rome, there were, of course, one hundred and five judges, though named centumviri, from the greater number.

By the year (annus) here, we are to understand a certain time of the year, when the judges sat to try causes; what we should call term-time. Annus properly signifies a circle, whence annulus, a ring. Being applied to time, it denotes the annual progress of the sun through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which we call a year; but it may also denote the revolution of any certain time.

—Of the whole people.] Totius populi —i. e. when the courts were open to the people at large, that they might get their causes heard and decided.

—Begin suits.] The time of year when the centumviri will open their commission, and begin to try causes, must be waited for—this may occasion much delay.

Ergo Coranum

Hunc labor aequus

43, 4. Fatigues—delays.] When the term is begun, and the cause is ready for hearing, there is no eud of the delays, and of the uneasiness which these occasion. Taedium signifies irksomeness, weariness, 44. So often the benches, &c.] It so often happens that the seats are prepared for the judges, and they don't attend. Sternuntur may here signify the spreading of the benches for the judges with cushions, or the like. See AINsw. Subsellium, No. 2. 45. Laying by his garments.] Lacerna signifies a cloak, a riding coat, and various other species of garments; but here, the robes or dress of the judges. One judge, says the poet, lays by his garments; meaning, perhaps, that he goes out of court to do this, complaining that he can't bear the heat. Of Caeditius, see sat. xiii. 197, note. 46. Fuscus, &c.] Aurelius Fuscus, noted by Martial as a very drunken fellow. He is always going out of court to get rid of his liquor. —Prepared.] That is, for the hearing. 47. We depart.] By the strange avo. cations of the judges for different purposes, the day passes without the cause being tried, and the parties are forced to go away as they came. —The slow sand, &c.] A metaphor. taken from gladiators. See sat. ii. 143,

Or a debtor goes on not to render money taken, 40
Saying the hand-writings of the useless wood are void;
The year of the whole people, which will begin suits,
Will be to be waited for: but then also a thousand fatigues
Are to beborne, a thousand delays; sooften the benches areonly
Spread. Now eloquent Caeditius laying by his garments, 45
And Fuscus now making water, prepared
We depart, and fight in the slow sand of the forum.
But to them, whom arms cover, and a belt goes round,
What time of trial they please, to them is afforded : 49
Nor is the affair worn out by a long impediment of the cause.
Moreover, a right of making a will is given to soldiers alone,
The father living. For what things are gotten by the labour
Of warfare, it was thought good should not be in the body of

the estate,

The whole government of which the father possesses.

fore, Coranus,


An attendant of banners, and earning the money of camps, 55

His father, tho' trembling, besets.

note 2, ad fin.-lenta arena fori-for
arena lenti fori. Hypall.—q. d. We,
the litigating parties, carry on our con-
tention in as low dilatory manner, see-
ing no end of the vexation and delay
of the court.
48. Whom arms cover, &c.] q. d. But
as for the soldiery, they meet with none
of these disappointments—they may
bring on their cause when they please.
50. Nor is the affair worn, &c.] Their
cause is not delayed from time to time,
till the matter grows stale, and wears
away by length of procrastination. Or
res here may signify estate, goods, fortune;
and we may explain the poet to mean,
that they are not ruined in their for-
tunes, as others are, by the expences
of dilatory proceedings, by long and
vexatious delays.
—Long impediment.] Sufflamine. Me-
taph. See sat. viii. 1. 148, note.
51. A will, &c.] By the laws of Rome,
a son, during the life of his father, could
not dispose of his effects by will. Sol-
diers were excepted, so that their last
wills were . though made during
the father's life, and though they even
excluded the father's from any share of
their effects which they bequeathed:
but this related only to what they got
WOI. ii.

Just labour

by their military services. This was
called peculium castrense.
53. Was thought good, &c.] Placuit—-
it pleased the legislature to ordain, that
what was gotten by the toils of war,
should not be looked on as a part of, or
incorporated with, their private fortune,
over the whole of which the father had
a power, so that they could not dispose
of it by will in his life-time.
54, Coranus.] Some valiant soldier,
who had made a large fortune in the
55. An attendant of banners.] Who
had followed and fought under the Ro-
man banners.
-Earning the money of camps.] Re-
ceiving his pay, and sharing the booty
when enemies were defeated and plun-
56. His father, tho' trembling.] An old
man trembling with age, and not long
for this world.
—Besets.] Captat—wheedles him, in
hopes of being his heir. See sat. x. 1.
202, and note.
—Just labour, &c.] A diligent and
faithful discharge of his duty as a sol-
dier, has advanced this man to affluence
and rank.

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Provehit, et pulchro reddit sua dona labori.
Ipsius certe ducis hoc referre videtur,
t qui fortis erit, sit felicissimus idem;
Ut laeti phaleris omnes, et torquibus omnes. 60

57. And renders, &c.] And has amply rewarded all the glorious pains which he has taken in the service .."his country. 58. This certainly, &c.] q. d. It should certainly be the principal study of , a general to promote and reward the brave; and that they who render the greatest services to their country by their valour, should be most happy. See AINsw. Resero, No. 5. Referre ipsius ducis is of difficult construction, but seems equivalent to referre ad ipsum ducem. For’tis a noble general's prudent part, To cherish valour and reward desert. DRY DEN.

60. Should be glad, &c.] Should rejoice in being distinguished by military honours. —Trappings.] Phalara-arum — some ornaments worn by men of arms, who had distinguished themselves. —Collars..] Or chains of gold, worn about the necks of those whose valour and services in the army had rendered them worthy of military honours. q. d. It old be the peculiar care of the general, that all .. have distinguished themselves by their services under him should be made happy, by bearing those military honours about them, which are the rewards of military

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