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Cum duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligatos,
Millia clavorum. Quis tam procul absit ab urbe?
Præterea, quis tam Pylades, molem aggeris ultra
Ut veniat ? lachrymæ siccentur protinus, et se
Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos.
Da testem, Judex cum dixerit: audeat ille
Nescio quis, pugnos vidit qui, dicere, vidi;
Et credam dignum barba, dignumque capillis
Majorum : citius falsum producere testem
Contra paganum possis, quam vera loquentem
Contra fortunam armati, contraque pudorem.

Præmia nunc alia, atque alia emolumenta notemus
Sacramentorum. Convallem ruris aviti
Improbus, aut campum mihi si vicinus ademit ;
Aut sacrum effodit medio de limite saxum,
Quod mea cum vetulo coluit puls annua libo,

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causes.

plead his cause against him, must have with the ways of the world ; answering, the resolution and impudence of that in great measure, to the English word brawling lawyer of Mutina (hod. Mo, politic, which is from the Latin politicus, dena), who, for a fee, would undertake and this from Gr. sconos, a city. the most dangerous and desperate 26. So much a Pylades.] So much like

Pylades; alluding to Pylades, the friend 24. Since you have two legs.] (Which of Orestes, who underwent all dangers are now safe and sound) to be objects of with him and for him, and even exposed mischief to the soldiers, who will kick his life for him, when he went to Taurica your shins with their clouted shoes, and to expiate his crimes at the altar of break them.

Diana Taurica. See Eurip. Iphigen. - Common soldiers.] Caligatos--hav- in Tauris. ing the caliga on their feet and legs Whom, beside all I have been saying stuck full of nails and spikes, hence of your own personal dangers from the called caligati. See sat. iii. 222-48, soldiery, could you find such a friend, and notes.

as to expose bis safety for your sake, and 25. Thousands of nails.] Each soldier enter within the camp to plead your having a great number.

cause, or to take your part? -So far from the city.] Who can be --Mole of the rampurt.] The Romans so foolish and ignorant, so unacquainted used to surround their encampments with with the ways of the world, and espe- vast heaps or banks of earth, thrown up cially with the manners of the soldiery, by way of rampart. The mass of earth as to venture upon any quarrel with a which formed this might properly be soldier? Quis tam procul absit ab urbe ? called moles aggeris. A person could q. d. Who can be so ignorant of the not get into the camp without first world!

passing this.-Who would, says the The expression seems proverbial : the poet, venture beyond this for your people in a town, or great city, as Rome sake? was, must be supposed to know mankind 27. Let tears, &c.] Cease to implore better than rustics, who live in the coun with tears your friends to help you. try, and are usually raw and ignorant; 28. About to ercuse themselves.) For. hence called inurbani, rude, simple, bear to solicit your friends, who, instead homely:

of complying with such a request, will So ihe Greeks used the word asTSIOS, find a thousand excuses for noi comply(from artu, a city, particularly Athens,) ing with your solicitations. io denote a sharp man, well acquainted 29. When the judge says, &c.] But

Since you

have two legs, to offend so many common soldiers, Thousands of nails. Who can be so far from the city? Besides, who is so much a Pylades, beyond the mole of the

rampart That he would come ? let tears immediately be dried up, and

let us

Not solicit friends about to excuse themselves.
When the judge says—“Give evidence:" let him dare,
(I know not who,) who saw the blows, say—“ I saw," 30
And I will believe him worthy the beard, and worthy the locks,
Of our ancestors ; you might sooner produce a false witness
Against a villager, than one speaking what is true
Against the fortune of a soldier, and against his reputation.

Now other advantages, and other emoluments, let us note, 35
Of oaths. A dale of my ancestral estate,
Or a field, if a wicked neighbour has taken away

from

me ; Or hath dug up the sacred stone from the middle border, Which my annual puls hath rever'd with an old cake:

suppose you could prevail on a friend to -A dale.] Convallis signifies a vale go with you, to be a witness for you in or valley, enclosed on both sides with the cause, who saw you beaten by the hills, commonly the most fruitful part of soldier, and suppose the judge calls on an estate. See Ps. lxv. 13. the cause, and bids you produce your -My ancestral estate.] My familyevidence;

let any man, (I know not estate, descended to me from my anwho—I name nobody,) but let me see cestors.--He speaks as a common perthe man who dares to swear publicly son. in court that he saw the blows given 37. Or a field.] Some other favourite

31. Worthy the beard, &c.] I will al- spot. low him to be a man of primitive virtue, If a wicked neighbour hath by violence fidelity, and courage; such as resided in entered and disseised me of these. our great ancestors, who knew not our 38. Hath dug up, &c.] If he hath remodern effeminacy; they neither shaved moved my boundary: their beards, nor cut their hair.

The stones which were set up for 32. You might sooner produce, &c.] boundaries were held sacred; they Paganus literally signifies one in, or of, adorned them with chaplets, and every the country, or country village ; here it year offered to the god Terminus, on the is used in contradistinction to a soldier. top of the boundary stones, sacrifices of It is more easy to bring a false honey, meal, and oil, made into cakes. tion, and support it by false testimony, This composition was called puls. See against such a one, than to bring a true Ainsw. And the cakes, liba. See ib. accusation, and to support it by true tes- libum. timony, against either the property or - Middle border.] i. e. Which stood honour of a soldier-armati." See ante, on the line between my estate and my 1. 8, note.

peighbour's. It was always reckoned a 36. Of oaths.] When soldiers were grievous offence to remove a land-mark; inlisted, they took an oath of allegiance it was expressly forbidden in the divine and fidelity to the emperor, to their law, Deut. xxvii

. 17. country, and to their general.

39. An old cake.] This institution of a Now, says Juvenal, let us consider yearly sacrifice to the god Terminus, the some farther privileges of taking the god of boundaries, was as old as the oaths as a soldier, and, by this, being days of Numa Pompilius, the successor enrolled in the army.

of Romulus.

ccusa

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Debitor aut sumptos pergit non reddere nummos,
Vana supervacui dicens chirographa ligni ;
Expectandus erit, qui lites inchoet, annus
Totius populi: sed tunc quoque mille ferenda
Tædia, mille moræ ; toties subsellia tantum
Sternuntur ; jam facundo ponente lacernas
Cæditio, et Fusco jam micturiente, parati
Digredimur, lentâque fori pugnamus arena.
Ast illis, quos arma tegunt, et balteus ambit,
Quod placitum est, illis præstatur tempus agendi,
Nec res atteritur longo sufflamine litis.

Solis præterea testandi militibus jus
Vivo patre datur: nam quæ sunt parta labore
Militiæ, placuit non esse in corpore censûs,
Omne tenet cujus regimen pater. Ergo Coranum
Signorum comitem, castrorumque æra merentem,
Quamvis jam tremulus captat pater. Hunc labor æquus

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40. A deblor goes on,
&c.] A man that

43, 4. Fatigues--delays.] When the has borrowed a suth of money continues term is begun, and the cause is ready to refuse the payment.

for hearing, there is no eod of the delays, 41. Saying the hand-writings, &c.] De- and of the uneasiness which these ocnying the validity of his bond. See casion. Tædium signifies irksomeness, sat. xiii. 137, note.

weariness, 42. The year, &c.] There were judges, 44. So often the benches, &c.] It so or commissioners, chosen to hear certain often happens that the seats are precivil causes among the people, of whom pared for the judges, and they don't every tribe had three: there being attend. Sternuntur may here signify thirty-five tribes in Rome, there were, the spreading of the benches for the of course, one hundred and five judges, judges with cushions, or the like. See though named centumviri, from the Ainsw. Subsellium, No. 2. greater number.

45. Luying by his garments.] Lacerna By the year (annus) here, we are to signifies a cloak, a riding coat, and va• understand a certain time of the year, rious other species of garments; but when the judges sat to try causes; what here, the robes or dress of the judges. we should call term-time. Annus pro. One judge, says the poet, lays by his perly signifies a circle, whence annulus, garments; meaning, perhaps, that be a ring. Being applied to time, it de- goes out of court to do this, complaining notes the annual progress of the sun that he can't bear the heat. Of Cædi. through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, tius, see sat, xiii. 197, note. which we call a year; but it may

also 46. Fuscus, &c.] Aurelius Fuscus, denote the revolution of any certain noted by Martial as a very drunken time.

fellow. He is always going out of court -Of the whole people.] Totius populi io get rid of his liquor. -i. e. when the courts were open to - Prepared.] That is, for the hearing. the people at large, that they might get 47. We depart.] By the strange avo. their causes heard and decided.

cations of the judges for different pur. -Begin suits.] The time of year when poses, the day passes without the cause the centumviri will open their commis- being tried, and the parties are forced sion, and begin to try causes, must be to go away as they came. waited for this may occasion much The slow sand, gc.] A metaphor, delay.

taken from gladiators. See sat. ii. 143,

Or a debtor goes on not to render money taken,

40 Saying the hand-writings of the useless wood are void; The year of the whole people, which will begin suits, Will be to be waited for: but then also a thousand fatigues Are to be borne, a thousand delays; so often the benches areonly Spread. Now eloquent Cæditius laying by his garments, 45 And Fuscus now making water, prepared We depart, and fight in the slow sand of the forum. But to them, whom arms cover, and a belt goes round, What time of trial they please, to them is afforded : 49 Nor is the affair worn out by a long in pediment of the cause.

Moreover, a right of making a will is given to soldiers alone, The father living. For what things are gotten by the labour Of warfare, it was thought good should not be in the body of

the estate, The whole government of which the father possesses. There

fore, Coranus, An attendant of banners, and earning the money of camps, 55 His father, tho' trembling, besets. Just labour

wars.

note 2, ad fin. lenta arena fori--for by their military services.

This was arena lenti fori. Hypall.q. d. We, called peculium castrense. the litigating parties, carry on our con 53. Was thought good, &c.] Placuit tention in as low dilatory manner, see it pleased the legislature to ordain, that ing no end of the vexation and delay what was gotten by the toils of war, of the court.

should not be looked on as a part of, or 48. Whom arms cover, &c.] q. d. But incorporated with, their private fortune, as for the soldiery, they meet with none over the whole of which the father had of these disappointments—they may a power, so that they could not dispose bring on their cause when they please. of it hy will in his life-time.

50. Nor is the affair worn, &c.] Their 54. Coranus.] Some valiant soldier, cause is not delayed from time to time, who had made a large fortune in the till the matter grows stale, and wears away by length of procrastination. Or 55. An attendant of banners.] Who res here may signify estate, goods, fortune; had followed and fought under the Roand we may explain the poet to mean, man banners. that they are not ruined in their for -Earning the money nf camps.] Retunes, as others are, by the expences ceiving his pay, and sharing the booty of dilatory proceedings, by long and when enemies were defeated and plunvexatious delays.

dered. -Long impediment.] Sufflamine. Me 56. His father, tho' trembling.) An old taph. See sat. viii. 1. 148, note. man trembling with age, and not long

51. A will, &c.] By the laws of Rome, for this world. a son, during the life of his father, could -Besets.] Captat-wheedles him, in not dispose of his effects by will. Sol. hopes of being his heir. See sat. x. l. diers were excepted, so that their last 202, and note. wills were valid, though made during -Just labour, &c.] A diligent and the father's life, and though they even faithful discharge of his duty as a solexcluded the father's from any share of dier, has advanced this man to afuence their effects which they bequeathed : and rank. but this related only to what they got VOL. II.

2 c

Provehit, et pulchro reddit sua dona labori.
Ipsius certe ducis hoc referre videtur,
Ut qui fortis erit, sit felicissimus idem ;
Ut læti phaleris omnes, et torquibus omnes.

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57. And renders, &c.] And has amply 60. Should be glad, &c.] Should rerewarded all the glorious pains which he joice in being distinguished by military has taken in the service of his country. honours,

58. This certainly, &c.] q. d. It should -Trappings.] Phalaræ-arum — some certainly be the principal study of a ornaments worn by men of arms, who general to promote and reward the had distinguished themselves. brave ; and that they who render the - Collars.] Or chains of gold, worn greatest services to their country by their about the necks of those whose valour valour, should be most happy. See and services in the army had rendered Ainsw. Refero, No. 5.

them worthy of military honours. Referre ipsius ducis is of difficult q. d. It should be the peculiar care of construction, but seems equivalent to re the general, that all who have distinferre ad ipsum ducem.

guished themselves by their services For 'tis a noble generul's prudent part,

under him should be made happy, by To cherish valour and reward desert. bearing those military honours about

DRYven them, which are the rewards of military

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