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O souls bowed to the earth-and void of heavenly things!
What doth this avail, to place our manners in the temples,
And to esteem things good to the gods out of this wicked pulp?
This dissolves for itself Cassia in corrupted oil,
And hath boiled the Calabrian fleece in vitiated purple. 65
This has commanded to scrape the pearl of a shell, and to

draw the veins
Of the fervent mass from the crude dust.
This also sins, it sins: yet uses vice. But ye,
Oye priests, say what gold does in sacred things ?
Truly this, which dolls given by a virgin to Venus. 70
But let us give that to the gods, which, to give from a great

dish, The blear-eyed race of great Messala could notWhat is just and right disposed within the soul, and the sacred

recesses

themselves, and to be pleased with gold propriated to the rich ; but sometimes and silver because men are, is the inven. they made use of the acerra (v. 5.), tor and contriver of all manner of luxury a small censer appropriated to the and sensual gratifications.

poor. 68. This also sins, &c.] This evil cor 72. The blear-eyed race, &c.] Val. rupted flesh is the parent of all sin, both Corv. Messala took his name from Mes. in principle and practice. Comp. Rom. sana, a city of Sicily, wbich was besieged vii. 18-24.

and taken by him; he was the head of -Yet uses vice.] Makes some use of the illustrious family of the Messale. vicc, by way of getting some emolument The poet here aims at a descendant of from it, some profit or pleasure.

his, who degenerated from the family, 69. O ye priests, &c.) But tell me, ye and so devoted himself to gluttony, ministers of the gods, who may be pre- drunkenness, and luxury of all kinds, sumed to know better than others, what that, in his old age, his eyelids turned pleasure, profit, or emolumeat, is there inside out. to the gods, from all the gold with Let us offer to the gods, says Persius, which the temples are furnished and that which such as the Messalæ have not decorated ?

to offer, however large their censers may 70. Truly this, &c.] The poet answers be, or however great the quantities of the for them i Just as much as there is to incense put within them. " Venus, when girls offer dolls to her." 73. What is just and right.) Jus is Pupa, a puppet, a baby, or doll, such as properly that which is agreeable to the girls played with while little, and, being laws of man-fas, that which is agreegrown big, and going to be married, of able to the divine laws. fered to Venus, hoping, by this, lo ob -Disposed.] Settled, fashioned, set tain her favour, and to be made mothers in order or composed, fitted, set togetker, of real children. The boys offered their within the soul. It is very difficult to bullæ to their household gods. Juv. sat. give the full idea of compositum in xiii. 33, nole.

this place by any single word in our .71. But let us give, &c.] The poet now language. is about to shew with what sacrifices the 73, 4. The sacred recesses of the mind.] gods will be pleased, and consequently The inward thoughts and affections what should be offered.

what St. Paul calls to routra TN -A great dish.] The lanx-lit. a arwrwy. Rom. ii. 16. Prov. xxiii. deep dish--signifies a large censer, ap- 26.

Mentis, et incoctum generoso pectus honesto.

Hæc cedo, ut admoveam templis, et farre litabo.

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74. A breast imbrued, &c.] Incoctum as to imbibe the colour. See Virg. G. -metaph. taken from wool, which is ii. 307. boiled, and so thoroughly tinged with the 75. That I may bring to the temples.] dye. It signifies that which is infused; Let me be possessed of these, that I may not barely dipped, as it were, so as to be with these approach the gods, and then lightly tinged, but thoroughly soaked, so a little cake of meal will be a sufficient

Of the mind, and a breast imbrued with generous honestyThese give me, that I may bring to the temples, and I will sacrifice with meal.

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offering. Comp. VIRG. Æn. v. 1. sought for.
745 ; and Hor. lib. iji. ode xxiii. l. Tum Jupiter faciat ut semper
17, &c.

Sacrificem, nec unquam litem.
Lito not only signifies to sacrifice,

Plaut. in Persa. but, by that sacrifice, to obtain what is

SATIRE III.

ARGUMENT. Persius, in this Satire, in the person of a Stoic preceptor, up

braids the young men with sloth, and with neglect of the study of philosophy. He shews the sad consequences which will attend them throughout life, if they do not apply themselves early to the knowledge of virtue.

NEMPE hæc assidue ? Jam clarum mane fenestras
Intrat, et angustas extendit lumine rimas.
Stertimus, indomitum quod despumare Falernum
Sufficiat, quinta dum linea tangitur umbra.

Line 1. " What these things con But I do not understand how the light "stantly?"] The poet here introduces a can be said to widen â chink, if we take philosopher, rousing the pupils under his the word widen in its usual sense, of care from their sloth, and chiding them making any thing wider than it was. for lying so late in bed. What,” Perhaps we may understand the verb says he,

“ is this to be every day's extendit, here, as extending to view-i, e. practice ?"

making visible the interstices of the lat. Already the clear morning," &c.] tices, which, in the dark, are imper9. d. You ought to be up and at your ceptible to the sight, but when the mornstudies by break of day; but here you ing enters become apparent. It should are lounging in bed at full day-light, seem, from this passage, that the feneswhich is now shining in at the windows træ of the Romans were lattice winof your bed-room.

dows. 2. “ Extends with light," &c.] Makes But the best way is to abide by exthem appear wider, say some. But Ca- perience, which is in favour of the first saubon treats this as a foolish interpreta- explanation; for when the bright sun tion. He says, that this is an“ Hypallage. shines through any chink or crack, there “ Not that the chinks are extended, or is a dazzling which makes the chink or “ dilated, quod quidem inepte scribunt, crack appear wider than it really is. Of " but the light is extended, the sun the first glass windows, see Jortin, Rem. “ transmitting its rays through the chinks vol. iv.

P:.

196. " of the lattices."

3. “ We snore.”] Stertimus-i. e. sterDr. Sheridan says" this image (an. titis. The poet represents the philoso"gustas extendit lumine rimas)very pher speaking in the first person, but it “ beautifully expresses the widening of is to be understood in the second "We " a chink by the admission of light.” “ students,” says he, as if he included

SATIRE III.

ARGUMENT.

The title of this Satire, in some ancient manuscripts, was,

The Reproach of Idleness ;though in others it is inscribed, Against the Luxury and Vices of the Rich ; "-in both of which the poet pursues his intention, but principally in the former.

“ WHAT—these things constantly ? Already the clear

“ morning enters “ The windows, and extends with light the narrow chinks. “ We snore, what to digest untamed Falernan “ Might suffice: the line is already touched with the fifth

shadow.

himself, but meaning, no doubt, those to hour and sober, sat up late drinking, and whom he spake. Comp. sat. i. 1. 13. went to bed with their stomachs full of

" To digest untamed,' &c.] Instead Falernan wine. of rising to study, we (i. e. ye young

4. The line is already touched,&c.] iden) are sleeping, as long as would suf- Hypallage; for quinta linea jam tangifice to get rid of the fumes of wine, and tur umbra, i. e. the fifth line, the line make a man sober, though he went to or stroke which marks the fifth hour, is bed ever so drunk.

touched with the shadow of the gnomon -" To digest."] Despumare-metaph. on the sun-dial. taken from new wine, or any other fer The ancient Romans divided the namenting liquor, which rises in froth or tural day into twelve parts. Sun-rising scum : the taking off this scum or froth was called the first hour; the third after was the way to make the liquor clear, sun-rising answers to our nine o'clock; and to quiet its working. Thus the Fa- the sixth hour was noon; the ninth anlernan, which was apt, when too much swers to our three o'clock P. M. and the was drunk of it, to ferment in the twelfth was the setting of the sun, which stomach, was quieted and digested by we call six o'clock P. M. The fifth sleep. The epithet indomitum refers to hour, then, among the Romans, answers this fermenting quality of the wine. to our eleven o'clock A. M. The stu

Perhaps the master here alludes to dents slept till eleven-near half the the irregularities of these students, who, day. instead of going to bed at a reasonable

VOL. II.

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