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pepper and dates, came this our wisdom void of manli

ness, “ The mowers have vitiated their puddings with thick oil." 40 “ Do you fear these things beyond your ashes ?-But thou,


heir, “ Whoever thou shalt be, a little more retired from the crowd,

« hear.

“O good man, are you ignorant? A laurel is sent from Cæsar “ On account of the famous slaughter of the German youth,

66 and from the altars 66 The cold ashes are shaken off; and now, to the posts, arms, 45 “ Now the garments of kings, now sorry mantles on the captives,


he expected to be heir to; and even the " A luurel is sent,” &c.] Caius Caliluxury which had been imported from gula affected to triumph over the GerGreece would not have troubled him, mans, whom he never conquered, as but as it cost money to gratify it.

he did over the Britons; and sent let. 40. " Their puddings.”] Puls -tis-a ters to Rome, wrapt about with laurels, kind of meat which the ancients used, to the senate, and to the empress Cæmade of meal, water, honey, or cheese sonia his wife. and eggs; a sort of hasty-pudding 45. The cold ashes.] The ashes here put for any rustic, homely fare. which were to be swept off the altars The word vitiarunt well intimates the were either those that were left there meaning of the selfish Bestius, which after the last sacrifice for victory, or was to express his entity to every thing might, perhaps, mean the ashes which that looked like expence.

were left on the altars since some for. 41. beyond your ashes.”] Beyond mer defeat of the Romans by the Ger. the grave, as we say-Do you, miserable mans; after which overthrow the altars wretch, concern yourself about what had been neglected. Dryden. your heir says of you, or in what man

-“ And now.

"] i. e. On the receipt Der your funeral is conducted ?

of this good news. -" But thou, my heir,” &c.] Persius 45.To the posts, arms.] Persius here bere, coincidently with the subject he is enumerates the preparations for now entering upon, represents, in a triumph ; such as fixing to the doors or supposed conversation in private with columns of the temples the arms taken the person who might be his heir, the from the enemy. Thus Virg. Æo. vii. right a man has to spend his fortune as 183–6. he pleases, without standing in awe of Multaque, prælerea sacris in postibus those who come after him: and first, to be liberal and munificent on all public Captiri pendent currus,curvæque secures, occasions of rejoicing; next, to live Et crist e capitum, et portarum ingentia handsomely and comfortably, and not claustra, starve himself that his successor may Spiculaque, clypeique, ereptaque rostra live in luxury.

carinis. 42.Retired from the crowd."] Secre- And Hon. lib. iv. ode xv. 1. 6—8. tam garrit in aurem, sat. v. I. 96. Step Et signa postes restituit Jori, aside a little, if you please, that I may Derepta Parthorum superbis deal the more freely with you, and listen Postibus.

46. “ Garments of kings."] Chlamys 43. “O good man."] 9. d. Hark ye, signifies an habit worn by kings and my good friend, and 'heir that is to other commanders in war. be

- Ipse agmine Pallas -"Are you ignorant ?''] Have not In medio, chlamyde, et pictis conspectus you lrcard the news ?

in armis. Æn. viii. I. 587, 8.


to me.

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Essedaque ingentesque locat Cæsonia Rhenos.
Diis igitur, genioque ducis, centum paria, ob res
Egregie gestas, induco. Quis vetat ? aude.
Væ, nisi connives-Oleum artocreasque popello
Largior: an prohibes ? dic clare. Non adeo, inquis,
Exossatus ager juxta est. Age, si mihi nulla
Jam reliqua ex amitis ; patruelis nulla ; proneptis
Nulla manet; patrui sterilis matertera vixit;
Deque aviâ nihilum superest : accedo Bovillas,



46. “ Sorry mantles on the captives."] the conqueror; therefore Persius adds, When captives were to be led in tri ob res egregie gestas. umph, they put on them clothing of 49. I produce."] Induco signifies to the coarsesi sort, made of a dark frize, introduce to bring in-to bring forth, in token of their abject state.

or produce. Ainsw. 47. " And chariots.”] Essedum is a

-"Who forbids ?''] Who puts a negaGallic word-a sort of chaise or chariot live on my intention? used by the Gauls and Britons; also by -" Dare."] Will you, who are to be the Germans.

my heir, contradict this ? do if you dare. Belgica vel molli melius feret esseda 50.“ Woe! unless you connive."] Con

collo. Virg. G. jj. 1. 204. niveo is to wink with your eyes. Met. The Belgæ were originally Germans, to wink at a matter, to take no notice, but, passing the Rhine, seiled them. to make as if he did not see it. selves in Gaul, of which they occupied Woe be to you, says Persiys, if you what is now called the Netherlands. offer to take notice, or to object to what

Huge Germans.”] Rhenos, so I purpose doing on this occasion. called because they inhabited the banks - Oil and pasties to the people."] of the Rhine; they were men of great Moreover I intend to bestow a dole

upon the common people-popello (see -" Cæsonia.”] Wife to Caius Caligu- sat. iv. 15.)-in order to enable them to la, who afterwards, in the reign of celebrate the victory. Oil was a faClaudius, was proposed to be married vourite sauce for their victuals. See to him, after he had executed the em 1. 40, and note. press Messalina for adultery, but he Artocrea (from aptos, bread, and xpias, would not have her. See her character, flesh) a pie, or pasty of Aesh. Ainsw. Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 297.

51. “Do you hinder ?''] Says be to She was a most lewd and abandoned his supposed heir; do you find fault

See Juv.sat. vi. l. 613--16. with this bounty of mine, would you 48. “ To the gods, therefore.”] By prevent it? way of thanksgiving.

-Speak plainly.] Come, speak out. -" The genius of the general."] Of .“ Your field hard by," &c.] Perhaps the emperor Caligula,see sat. ïïi. 1.3, you will say, that my estate near Rome, note—who protected and prospered ihough its vicinity to the city makes it him.

the more valuable, yet is not fertile and -"An hundred pair.”] i. e. Of gla- enough to afford all this. diators. These were beyond the purse Exossatus, cleared of the stones, of any private man to give; therefore called the bones of the earth, Ov. Met. this must be looked upon as a threaten- ;. 193. to which Persius perhaps aling to his heir, that he would do as he ludes. Here it is supposed to mean pleased with his estate.

cleared of the stones-i. e. cultivated On public cccasions of triumph, all to such a degree, as to be rich and fermanner of costly shews and games were tile enough to produce wbai would be exhibited, in honour of the gods, to answerable to such an expence. whose auspices the victory was sup The above is the leading sense given posed to be owing ; also in honour of by some of the best commentators to


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6 And chariots, and huge Germans, Cæsonia places. “ To the gods, therefore, and to the genius of the general, an

“ hundred pair, “ On account of things eminently achieved, I produce: Who

rbids ?—Dare“ Woe! unless you connive-Oil and pasties to the people 50 “ I bestow: do you hinder?-speak plainly.”-““ Your field

is not so fertile”—“ Go to, if none to me “ Now were left of my aunts, no cousin-german, no niece's

daughter “ Remains; the aunt of my uncle has lived barren, 54 “ And nothing remains from my grandmother: I go to Bovillæ,

66 hard by, “ Say you,

this difficult passage; but I cannot say " 48, will bone it-i. c. diminish its subthat it satisfies me. I see no authority, “ stance and value, sufficiently to render from any thing that precedes or follows, “ me very unconcerned as to being your to construe juxta—nigh the city, and “ beir." We often use the word near, hence make juxta equivalent to subur to express what concerns us. banus: nor is the taking est from juxta, This appears to me to be the most and transferring it to exossatus or ager, eligible construction of the words, as as done above, the natural method of well as most naturally to introduce what the syntax.

follows. I would therefore place the words in 52. “ Go to") Says Persius-very their natural order in which they are well, take your own way-think as you to be construed—Non adeo, inquis, please, I am not in the least fear of juxta est exossatus ager. The Delph. fioding an heir, though I should not interpret, says, Non ita, ais, prope est have a relation left in the world. ager sine ossibus.

53. “

My uunts.”] Amita is the aunt Exosso -are-is to take out the bones by the father's side—the father's sister. of an animal; to bone it, as wę say. -" Cousin-german.") Patruelisoma Congrum istum maximum in aqua finito father's brother's son or daughter. ludere paulisper, ubi ego venero, exos "Niece's daughter."] So proneptis sabitur. Ter. Adelph. Ager is a field, signifies. land, ground---hence, a manor with the 54. The aunt of my uncle."] Materdemesnes, an estate in land. Hence, tera-matris soror—an aunt by the moby Metaph. exossatus ager may mean, ther's side. here, an estate that has been weakened, L" Lived barren.”] Had no childiminished by extravagance of great ex dren. pence, having what gave it its value and 55. Grandmother."] Avia, the wife consequence taken out of it.

of the avus, or grandfather. In this view I think we may suppose

Persins means, that if he had no rethe poet as representing his heir's answer lation, either near or distant, he should to be

find an heir who would be glad of his " An estate that has been exhausted estate. " and weakened_exossatus, boned as it -“ I go to Bovilla."] A town in the “ were, by such expence as you propose, Appian way, about eleven miles from “ is not so near-non adeo juxta est— Rome, so called from an ox which broke “ i. e. so near my heart, so much an ob- loose from an altar, and was there "ject of my concern, as to make it worth taken: it was near Aricia, a noted place my

while to interfere about it, or at for beggars, the highway being very “ tempt to hinder this last expence of public. your dole to the mob, when the first

Dignus Aricinos qui mendicaret all ares. “ of the hundred pair of gladiators, I.

See Juv. sat. iv. l. 117.

e plus

Clivumque ad Virbi; præsto est mihi Manius hæres.
* Progenies terræ'- Quære ex me, quis mihi quartus
Sit pater; haud prompte, dicam tamen. Adde etiam unum,
Unum etiam ; terræ est jam filius: et mihi ritu
Manius hic generis, prope major avunculus exit.

Qui prior es, cur me in decursu lampada poscas ?
Sum tibi Mercurius : venio deus huc ego, ut ille
Pingitur. An renuis? vin' tu gaudere relictis ?

Deest aliquid summæ.' Minui mihi: sed tibi totum est,
Quicquid id est. Ubi sit, fuge quærere, quod mihi quondam 65
Legarat Tadius, neu dicta repone paterna:
• Fænoris accedat merces ; hinc exime sumptus.'

Quid reliquum est?' reliquum? Nunc, nunc impensius unge,




56. The hill of Virbius."] An hill lated. about four miles from Rome; so called 61. “ You who are before," Sic.] This from Hippolytus, who was named Vir- line is allegorical, and alludes to a fesbius, and worshipped there, on account tival at Athens, instituted in honour of of his living twice-inter viros bis. See Vulcan, or of Prometheus, where a race Æn. vii. 761-77. This hill, too, was was run by young men with lighted torches always filled with beggars, who took their in their hands, and they strove who stands by the road-side.

could arrive first at the end of the race -" Manius is ready,&c.] Manius is without extinguishing his torch. If the the name of some beggar, and so put foremost in the race tired as he was run

any; the first which he met with ning, he gave up the race, and delivered would immediately be glad to be his heir. his torch to the second; the second, if he Præsto-ready at hand.

tired, delivered it to the third, and so on, 57. " An offspring of earth”-) What, till the race was over. The victory was says the other, would you take such a his who carried the torch lighted to the low base-born fellow as that, whose end of the race. family nobody knows any thing about, Now, says Persius, to his presumptive

son of earth, to be your beir, who appears to be more advanced heir ?

in life, why do you, who are before me -Inquire of me,” &c.] As for that, in the race of life, i. e. are older than I replies Persius, if you were to ask me am, want what I have before the course who was my great grandfather's father, is over, i. e. before I die, since, in the who stood in the fourth degree from my course of nature, the oldest may die father, I could not very readily inform first? I ought therefore to expect your you. But go a step higher, add one, estate instead of your expecting mine. and then add another, I could give you It is the first in the torch-race that, if be no account at all; I then must come to fails, gives the torch to the second, not a son of earth, nobody knows who, but the second to the first. See Arxsw. somebody that, like the rest of mankind, Lampas, ad fin. sprung from the earth.

62. I am to thee Mercury."] Do not Empedocles, and some other philoso- look on me as thy nearest kinsman, on phers,' held that mankind originally thyself as my certain heir, and on my

estate as what ought to come to you by By the course of kindred,” right; but rather look on me as the god &c.] Perhaps, in this way of reckoning, Mercury, who is the bestower of unas the earth is our common mother, looked-for and fortuitous gain. Manjus may appear to be my relation, 62, 3. “ 1s he is painted."'] Mercury, my great uncle for ought I know, or as the god of fortuitous gain, was painted not very far from it; for as children with a bag of money in his hand.' Herof one common parent, we must be re cules was the god of bidden treasures,

sprang from the earth.

59, 60. "

“ And to the hill of Virbius; Manius is ready at hand to be


56 “ An offspring of earth”—“ Inquire of me, who my fourth

6 father May be, I should nevertheless not readily say. Add also one,

Again one; he is now a son of earth: and to me, by the course “ Of kindred, this Manius comes forth almost my great uncle. “ You who are before, why do you require from me the torch “ in the race ?

61 “ I am to thee Mercury: I a god come hither, as he “ Is painted. Do you refuse? - Will you rejoice in what is left?

? “ There is wanting something of the sum :” “ I have dimi

“ nished it for myself, “ But you have the whole, whatever that is: avoid to ask where " that is which

65 “ Tadius formerly left me, nor lay down paternal sayings“ Let the gains of usury accede; hence take out your expence." 66 What is the residue "_" the residue !-Now-now-more

expensively anoint,

See sat. ii. 1. 11, and note. Mercury which my friend Tadius left me, or to presided over open gain and traffic, and bring me to an account concerning that, all unexpected advantages arising there or any thing else. from,

66.“ Paternal sayings."] Nor think of 63. “ Do you refuse ?"] Are not you laying down to me, as a rule, the lesson willing to look upon me in this light, and that old covetous fathers inculcate to to accept what I may leave, as merely their sons, whom they wish to make as adventitious.

sordid as themselves. Perhaps repone -An magis ercors

may here be rightly translated retort Rejectå præda, quam præsens Mercurius (comp. Juv. sat. i. 1. 1, and note). d. fert?

Don't cast this in my teeth. Hor. lib. ii, sat. iii, 1. 67, 8. 67. Let the gains of usury," &c.] “ Will you rejoice in what is lefi?"] 9. d." Put your money out to usury, and Will you thankfully and joyfully take live upon the interest which you what I leave?

“ make, reserving the principal entire:” 64. There is wanting something," &c.] let me hear none of this, says Persius, as But methinks you grumble, and find if I were bound to live on the interest fault that a part of the estate has been of what I have, that the principal may spent.

come to you. _" Diminished it for myself."'] Well, 68.“ What is the residue?''] Well, but suppose my estate to be less than it was, though I may not call you to an account I, that had the right so to do, spent the about your expences, yet let me ask you part of it that is gone upon myself and how much, after all, may be left for me my own concerns.

to inherit. 65. But you have the whole,” &c.] -" The residue !''] Says Persius, with But you have all at my decease, what- indignation ; since you can ask such a ever that all inay be ; you could have no question, as if you meant to bind me right to any part while I was alive; so down to leave you a certain sum, you that you have no right to complain, when shall have nothing, I'll spend away as what I leave comeş whole and entire to fast as I can. you.

Now, now more expensively,&c.] -“ Avoid to usk,” &c.] Don't offer to Here,” says Persius, “ slave, bring me inquire what I have done with the legacy oil, pour it more profusely over my


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