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The toils of Hercules, and his cruel labours, better
Than the lasciviousness,and luxury,and plumesof Sardanapalus,
I shew what yourself may give to yourself: SURELY THE


You have no deity, O Fortune, if there be prudence; but 365
Thee we make a goddess, and place in heaven.


once comprehend all its meanings : it tles, as Fortuna libera, redux, publica, includes the will, pleasure, and determi- equestris, &c. See BROUGHTON, Bibl. nation or decree of a deity; power, au

Hist. Sacr. tit. FORTUNE. thority; a divine impulse; divine protec Horace's description of this goddess, tion and favour; influence ; also a deity, and her great power, forms one of the a god; all this the heathen attributed to most beautiful of bis odes. See lib, i. their goddess FORTUNE.

ode xxxv. 366. Thee we make a goddess, &c.] The O Diva gratum quæ rcgis Antium, ancient Greeks and Romans made a Præsens, &c. &c. goddess of Fortune, which is, in reality, 366. Place in heaven.] Give her a nothing more than a sudden and unex- place among the gods.-9. d. As things pected event of things, from Fors, luck, are, men are foolish enough to erect chance, hazard. These the heathen, temples to Fortune, make her a goddess, who knew not God, deified in the ima- worship her as such, and attribute all ginary being FORTUNE, which they sub- their miscarriages and troubles, not to stituted in the place of that wise, though their own neglect, folly, and mismanagemysterious, government of the world, ment, but to the power and influence of and all things in it, by Him“ whose this imaginary deity. “judgments areunsearchable,and whose For the ideas which the Romans en

ways are past finding out !” He has tertained about the goddess Fortune, given to man that wisdom which is see sat. iii. I. 39, 40. Sat. vi. l. 604 “ profitable to direct” (Eccl. x. 10.) in the affairs and concerns of common life; I should observe, that some copies the due and proper exercise of which is read, l. 365, the duty of man towards himself. This Nullum numen abest, &c. neglected, leaves him without excuse, No deity is absent, &c. whatever evil may happen : yet, under As if it were said, that if there be pru. the strictest exercise of human wisdom dence, that is, if a man acts wisely and and prudence, let us remember, that prudently, all the gods are present with disappointment may defeat the ends him, not one absents himself from him; proposed ; this ought to awaken our con or, prudence is all-sufficient, and no fidence in the SUPREME DISPOSER OF other deity can be wanting. But the ALL EVENTS, who knows what is best sense first above given, on the reading for us:

nullum numen habes, appears to be most " And that should teach us

consonant to the intention of the two There's a divinity that shapes our ends, lines taken logether. Rough-hew them how we will.I know not how to end my observa

HAMLET, act v. sc. ii. tions on the Tenth Satire of Juvenal, The Greeks had many temples dedi- without calling it the finest piece, in cated to Fortune, under the name of point of composition, matter, and senti. TTXH. Pindar makes her one of the ment, which we have derived from headestinies, the daughter of Jupiter. An. then antiquity. I should call it inimi. cus Martius, king of the Romans, first tably fine, had not the late Dr. SAMUEL built a temple at Rome to this deity. JOHNSON's poem, on “THE VANITY Servius Tullus also built one at the capi- OF HUMAN WISHES," appeared ; such tol. Afterwards the Romans conse a copy, of such an original, is rarely to crated temples to her under various ti- be met with.



The poet takes occasion, from an invitation which he gives to

his friend Persicus to dine with him, to commend frugality, and to expose and reprehend all manner of intemperance and debauchery; but more particularly the luxury used by the Romans in their

feasting. He instances some lewd practices at their feasts, and reproves the nobility for making lewdnessand


ATTICUS eximie si conat, lautus habetur :
Si Rutilus, demens quid enim majore cachinno
Excipitur vulgi, quam pauper Apicius ? omnis
· Convictus, thermæ, stationes, omne theatrum
De Rutilo. Nam dum valida ac juvenilia membra
Sufficiunt galeæ, dumque ardens sanguine, fertur
(Non cogente quidem, sed nec prohibente Tribuno)
Scripturus leges, et regia verba lanistæ.
Multos porro vides, quos sæpe elusus ad ipsum
Creditor introitum solct expectare macelli,


Line 1. If Atticus, &c.] The unme of 3. Apicius.) A noted epicure in the a very eminent person in Rome; but time of Nero ; he spent an immense here it is meant to signify any one of estate in eating and drinking : growing great wealth and quality. If such a one poor and despised, he hanged himself. gives a great entertainment, it being See sat. iv, I. 23. agreeable to his rank and fortune, de 4. Company.) Convictus signifies a serves not any other name than that of living together in one house, or at one splendour and munificence.

table, and, perhaps, what we call clubs, 2. If Rutilus, &c.] One, who, by his or ordinaries. extravagant gluttony, was reduced to -Baths.] Thermæ, hot baths. These the most shameful degree of poverty. were much resorted to, and were places

This, likewise, is here made use of as of great gossipping and tattling. See a common name for all such characters. sat, vii. I. 233, and note.

If such a one make a splendid feast, -The stations.] Particular places in we must call him mad. *

the city, where idle people used to meet 2,3. A greater laugh, &c.] What can and talk together, perhaps about the be a greater subject of ridicule among market-place, or foruin; as in our towns, the vulgar, than Apicius in rågs ? where there are commonly a number of



debauchery the chiefest of their pleasures. He opposes the temperance and frugality of the greatest men in former ages, to the riot and intemperance of the present. He concludes with repeating his invitation to his friend, advising him to a neglect of all care and disquiet for the present, and a moderate use of pleasures for the future.

IF Atticus sups sumptuously, he is accounted splendid;
If Rutilus, mad: for what is received with a greater
Laugh of the vulgar, than poor Apicius ? every
Company, the baths, the stations, every theatre, (talk)
Of Rutilus. For while his strong and youthful limbs
Suffice for a helmet, and while ardent in blood, he is reported
(The tribune not compelling indeed, but neither prohibiting)
To be about to write the laws, and princely words of a fencer.
Moreover, you see many, whom the often-eluded creditor is wont
To wait for at the very entrance of the shambles,


idle people standing and talking toge. sary to make him a fencer, that he may ther, in and near the market-place. See be thoroughly qualified for the art. Ainsw. Statio, No. 6.

7. The tribune not compelling, &c.] 5. Of Rutilus.] De--about or con- Hinting, that, though he was not comcerning Rutilus.-7. d. He is the com- pelled to such a practice of fencing, by mon subject of conversation at all these the magistracy, as many had been by places.

Nero for his inhuman diversion, yet it -Youthful limbs, &c.] While in the was a shame that he was suffered to unprime of life, and fit to bear arms in the dertake it, and not advised, or comlaudable service of his country, he is so manded, by the magistracy, to the conreduced to poverty, by his luxury and trary. See sat. viii. 193. extravagance, as to apply himself to the 9. You see many, &c.] Such fellows as wretched trade of a fencer, or prize. Rutilus. fighter, for bread.

9. Often-eluded creditor.] Who had 6. He is reported.] Or fertur may been often promised payment, but demean he is carried, by the necessity of ceived over and over again ; and who his circumstances, to copy out the laws, in vain had pursued them to come at rules, words of command (regia verba), his money. and other matters of knowledge, neces 10. Wait for, &c.] Knowing no place


Et quibus in solo vivendi causa palato est.
Egregius conat, meliusque miserrimus horum,
Et cito casurus jam perlucente ruina.
Interea gustus elementa per omnia quærunt,
Nunquam animo pretiis obstantibus : interius si
Ergo haud difficile est perituram arcessere summam
Lancibus oppositis, vel matris imagine fractà;
Et quadringentis nummis condire gulosum
Fictile: sic veniunt ad miscellanea ludi.
Refert ergo quis hæc eadem paret : in Rutilo nam
Luxuria est; in Ventidio laudabile nomen
Sumit, et a censu famam trahit. Illum ego jure
Despiciam, qui scit quanto sublimior Atlas
Omnibus in Libya sit montibus, hic tamen idem
Ignoret, quantum ferrata distet ab arca
Sacculus: e cælo descendit, yw, GEAUTÒN,




so likely to find them at, as in their i, e. to gratify their gluttony-
way to market for provisions, at the en 17. Il is not difficult.) They make no
trance to which he places himself, in sort of difficulty of procuring money, by
hopes to catch them, before they had pawning what they have.
spent the little remains of his money -Be wasled, &c.] Which will soon be
that he had lent them.

gone, squandered away presently.
11. The purpose, &c.] Who have no 18. Dishes being pawned.] Lanx signi-
other design, end of living, but eating fies, literally, a great broad plate, a deep
and drinking

dish, or platter, to serve meat up in. 12. The most wretched, &c.] When Here, by lancibus, perhaps, is to be unthey are visibly falling into ruin, even derstood his plate in general, his familythe most wretched of them will live plate, per synec. This he sends to the more expensively than ever, thinking, pawnbrokers to raise money upon for perhaps, to put a good face on the mat the present supply of his extravater, the better to conceal their situation, gance. and thus to maintain their credit some 18. Broken image, &c.) A family bust, little time longer ; or, perhaps, from or statue, broken in picces that it may mere desperation, seeing it is too late to not be known, and pawned for the value retrieve their affairs, and they can be of the gold or silver only. but ruined. This is no uncommon thing 19. Four hundred sesterces, &c.] When in our day.

so many nummi are mentioned, sesterces 14. Meantime.] While they have any (sestertii) are usually understood ; the thing left.

sestertius is often called absolutely num- They seek, &c.] They ransack, as it mus, because it was in most frequent were, earth, air, and water, for flesh of Also, sestertius nummus, about beasts, fowl, and fish, for dainties to 14d. of our money. See KENNETT, please their taste.

book v. part ii. p. 13. Four hundred of 15. The prices, &c.] They never con these (about 21. 10s.) were laid out in sider or scruple the price which they are seasoning a single dish. to pay ; these do not stand in their 20. Earthen dish.] Having pawned way.

their plate, they are reduced to earthen 16. More intimately, &c.] More close

The dish is put here, by meton. ly to the dispositions of such.

for its contents. - Please more, &c.] The dish pleases - To the diet, &c.] Miscellaneama best that is dearest bought; therefore, mixture of things without any order, a



And to whom the purpose of living is in the palate alone.
The most wretched of these, and now soon to fall, (his
Ruin already being clear,) sups the more elegantly, and the

Meantime, they seek a relish thro' all the elements,
The prices never opposing their inclination : if you attend 15

BOUGHT FOR MORE. Therefore it is not difficult to procure a sum that will be wasted, Dishes being pawned, or a broken image of their mother, And, for four hundred sesterces, to season a relishing Earthen dish: thus they come to the diet of a prize-fighter. 20 It importeth, therefore, who may prepare these same things~

for, in Rutilus, It is luxury; in Ventidius a laudable name It takes, and derives its fame from his income. I should, by right, Despise him, who knows how much higher Atlas is Than all the mountains in Libya, yet this same person 25 Be ignorant, how much a little bag differs from an Iron chest : KNOW THYSELF-descended from heaven,

is put.

gallimawfry, an hotchpotch, such as the 23. From his income.] From the great sword-players and prize-fighters used to estate of the giver, who only lives in a eat. From their dainties they are at magnificence suitable to his income. last reduce to the coarse diet, as well 23, 4. By right, despise, &c.] Or as to the mean occupation, of a conmon justly, for he deserves it. prize-fighter. See 1. 5, and note 2. 24. Atlas.] See sat. viii. 1. 32, note.

Ludi, for ludii, the gen. of Tudius, 26. A little bag.) Sacculusma little a stage-player, dancer, sword-player, bag, pouch, or purse, in which money and the like, who plays on a stage.

21. it importeih, therefore.] 9. d. 27. Iron chest.] The rich used to keep Therefore, that we may judge aright, their money in large chests armed with and not indiscriminately, it importeth iron, to prevent their being broken open us to consider, who gives the entertain- and robbed. ment, what are his circumstances; for The poet means, that if a man has that may be praiseworthy in those who sense enough to distinguish the size of can afford it, which is highly vicious, Atlas from that of other mountains which and blameable, in those who cannot. are inferior in size, and, at the same time,

- In Rutilus.) Above mentioned. See is foolish enough not to see the difference note on I. 2. To live splendidly, would, between his own narrow circumstances, in such a one as Rutilus, deserve the and the fortunes of the rich, so as to rename of extravagance and luxury, be- gulate his manner of living accordingly, cause he is poor, and can't afford it. he is very deserving of ihe utmost con.

22. Ventidius.) A noble Roman, who tempt. lived hospitably.

-Know thyself.] rode riautor. This -A laudable name.] The entertain was a saying of Chilon the Lacedæmoments given by such a one are de- nian, and a very important one; for on servedly styled generous and magnifi- self-knowledge depends all other that cent.

can contribute to !he right management 23. Derives its fame.] The commenda- and direction of human life: for no man, tion which is justly bestowed upon il- endowed with this, would plunge himself its praise.

into difficulties, by under:aking what is VOL. II.


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