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Figendum, et memori tractandum pectore, sive
Conjugium quæras, vel sacri in parte senatûs
Esse velis. Nec enim loricam poscit Achillis
Thersites, in quâ se traducebat Ulysses
Ancipitem. Seu tu magno discrimine causam
Protegere affectas ; te consule, dic tibi quis sis;
Orator vehemens, an Curtius, an Matho. Buccæ
Noscenda est mensura tuæ, spectandaque rebus
In summis, minimisque ; etiam cum piscis emetur :
Nec mullum cupias, cum sit tibi gobio tantum
In loculis : quis enim te, deficiente crumena,
Et crescente gula, manet exitus; ære paterno,
Ac rebus mersis in ventrem, fænoris atque
Argenti gravis, et pecorum agrorumque capacem ?
Talibus a dominis post cuncta novissimus exit
Annulus, et digito mendicat Pollio nudo.
Non præmaturi cineres, nec funus acerbum


beyond the reach of his abilities, either of Ulysses and Ajax in the dispute about mind, body, or estate. This apophthegm it: he knew himself too well. of Chilo's was, with others, written up in 31. Exposed himself.] To ridicule, as golden letters at the temple of Apollo, at the daw in the fable exposed itself to Delphos, and was therefore believed to the derision of the other birds, when it come from heaven. Not but it is very had dressed itself in the borrowed sound theology, to say, that, to have the plumes of the peacock. See AINSW. veil of pride and self-love taken away, Traduco, No. 5. so that we know ourselves aright, is the 32. Doubtful.] As to his appearance, gift of God, and the foundation of all when he had the armour of Achilles on, true and saving knowledge. See Jer. no longer bearing his own semblance. xvii. 9, 10.

Others give this passage another turn, 28. Fixed, and revolved, &c.] As a con- and make it express the modesty of stant maxim, and principle of action, Ulysses, who shewed himself doubtful and, as such, we should ever be mindful whether he should demnand the armour of it. Tracto-lit. signifies to handle, or not, looking upon himself as unwor. which, in a mental sense, by analogy, thy to wear it. So FARNAB. may signify to revolve in the mind. 32, 3. Great difficulty.) Where the

29. Wedlock.) This instance of private controversy is very hazardous and diffi. and domestic concern may stand also cult, and the cause requires an able ad. for all others of the like kind, in which vocate to defend it. self-knowledge is highly profitable to di 33. Consult thyself.] Before you un. rect aright.

dertake, consult well your abilities for 30. Senate.] If you wish to be a se it. nator, you ought to know yourself, that -Tell thyself, &c.] After much selfyou may be able to judge whether you examination, let your own conscience are fit for such an office; for nothing can answer, and tell you what manner of be more pernicious to the state than un man you are. able statesmen, as well as disgraceful to 34. A vehement orator.) Eloquent and those who are so.

powerful. - Thersites.) See sat. viii. 1. 269, -Or Curtius.] Montanus, a man of note. Such a fellow as this could never very middling abilities. think of contending for the armour of -Or Matho.] See sat. i. 1. 32, and Achilles, or of making a third with note; vii. 129. a fellow of no abilities,

To be fixed, and revolved in the mindful breast, whether
You may seek wedlock, or would be in a part of
The sacred senate. For Thersites does not demand the 30
Breast-plate of Achilles, in which Ulysses exposed himself
Doubtful. Or whether you may affect to defend a cause in

Difficulty ; consult thyself, tell thyself who thou art,
A vehement orator, or Curtius, or Matho. The measure of
Your abilities is to be known, and regarded in the greatest, 35
And in the least affairs; even when a fish shall be bought :
Nor should you desire a mullet when you have only a gudgeon
In your purse: for what end awaits thee, your purse failing,
Your gluttony increasing: your paternal fortune,
And substance, sunk in your belly, capable of containing

40 Interest and principal, and fields and flocks? From such masters, after all, last goes forth The ring, and Pollio begs with a naked finger. Ashes are not premature, nor is a funeral bitter

who, not succeeding at the bar, turned ris, which signifies interest upon money spy and informer.

lent) the principal money itself may be 35. Your abilities, &c.] Buccæ–lit. understood. Or the epithet gravis may cheek, here (by synec.) put for the here signify the best silver money, in whole mouth, through which we speak; contradistinction to the tenue argentum, and this, for speaking itself, by metonym. venæque secundæ, sat. ix. 31. The poet means, that the extent of a Many interpret argenti gravis to deman's capacity should be considered, if note silver in the rude hcavy mass. he intends to plead at the bar ; he should 42. Such masters.] i. e. Owners, posknow his own powers of eloquence, and sessors. act accordingly.

- After all, &c.] When all else is -Regarded.] This attention to the fit- spent and gone. ness of a man for what he undertakes 43. The ring.] The mark of honour should be regarded in all concerns what and distinction worn by Roman knights, soever, from the highest to the lowest. They must be driven very hard to part

36. A fish, &c.] When he goes to the with this; but having, by their extravafish market, if his purse will only afford gance, reduced themselves below the forhim a gudgeon, he should not think of tune and rank of the equestrian order, buying so dear a fish as a mullet ; i.e. a they have no right to claim it, or to man should always proportion his ex

he badge of it. pences to his pocket.

-Pollio.] He was brought to that pass 38. What end, &c.] What must in. by his gluttony, that he was forced to creasing expence and gluttony, and a sell his ring, and then beg for a livelidecreasing and failing purse, end in ? hood.

40. In your belly.) Your patrimony, -Naked finger.] His finger bare, be. both in goods and land, all spent to gra reft of the ring which he used to wear tify your luxury and gluttony, all swal- upon it. lowed up by your voracious appetite. 44. Ashes, &c.] Death never comes

-Capable of containing, &c.] Not only too soon; the funeral pile, which reduces the interest and principal of what the fa- them to ashes, is never bitter to such ther left in personal estate, but also all as these, whose maxim is,

“ a short life his land, and stock thereon, into the " and a merry one,” or, “ let us eat and bargain.

drink, for to-morrow we die." By argenti gravis (joined with fono




Luxuriæ, sed morte magis metuenda senectus.
Hi plerumque gradus : conducta pecunia Romæ,
Et coram dominis consumitur : inde ubi paulum
Nescio quid superest, et pallet fænoris auctor,
Qui vertêre solum, Baias, et ad Ostia currunt.
Cedere namque foro jam non tibi deterius, quam
Esquilias a ferventi migrare Suburrâ.
Ille dolor solus patriam fugientibus, illa
Mastitia est, caruisse anno Circensibus uno.
Sanguinis in facie non hæret gutta ; morantur
Pauci ridiculum, ct fugientem ex urbe pudorem.

Experiêre hodie numquid pulcherrima dictu,
Persice, non præstem vità, nec moribus, et re;
Sed laudem siliquas occultus ganeo, pultes
Coram aliis dictem puero ; sed in aure placentas.
Nam, cum sis conviva mihi promissus, habebis
Evandrum, venies Tirynthius, aut minor illo
Hospes, et ipse tamen contingens sanguine cælum;
Alter aquis, alter flammis ad sidera missus.



45. To luxury.] To gluttons and spend- from Romc for debt is so common, that thrifts.

there is no more discredit in it, than - More to he feared, &c.] Because it changing the hot street of the Suburra can be attended with nothing but po. (see sat. iii. v.) for the cool air of the verty and diseae.

Esquilian hill. Sce sat. v. 1. 77, 8. 46. Ofllimes the steps.] Plerumque Foro is here put, by synec. for Rome for the most part, most commonly, the itself. Or to depart from the forum, degrees by which they proceed.

may imply their running away from -Borrozocd at Rome.] They first take justice. up money at Rome.

53. Circensian games, &c.] These peo47. Before the oveners.] Spent before ple have no other sorrow, or regret, at the face of the late owners, i. e. of the flying their country, than arises from people who lent it.

their not being able to partake of the -When a little, &c.] Before it is all public diversions during their absence. gone, and they have just enough to carry See sat. iii. I. 223, note. them off, whatever the sum may be I 54. Drop of blood, &c.] They have don't know

lost all shame, they cannot blush. 48. The usurcr. ] Lit, the increaser of 54, 5. Detain modesty, &c.] The virinterest; the money-lender ; who, per tue of modesty is laughed at and ridihaps, may have taken such an advan culed : she is as it were, taking her tage of their necessities, as to make fight from the city, and very few are for them pay interest upon interest stopping her, or delaying her retreat.

- s pale.] With the fear of losing all 56. This day, &c.) When you are to his money:

dine with me. 49. Changed the soil.] Vertere solum, -Experience, &c.] i. e. You shall be signifies to run one's country. Cic. pro convinced, by your own experience, domo. Those who have made off. whether I am an hypocrite, saying one

-Baix, and to Ostia.] See sat. iii. l. 4. thing and doing another; and while I and sat, viii. 171, n. 2. from whence have been laying down such fair and they might take shipping, and make becoming rules of economy, in what I their escape into some other country. have been saying, I practise them not,

50. For, lo depırt, &c.] To run away in fact, neither with respect to my way

To luxury, but old age more to be feared than death. 45
These are ofttimes the steps: money is borrowed at Rome,
And consumed before the owners: then, when a little,
1 don't know what, is left, and the usurer is pale,
Those who have changed the soil, run to Baiæ, and to Ostia.
For, to depart from the forum, is not worse to you, than 50
To migrate to Esquiliæ from the hot Suburra.
That is the only grief to those who fly their country, that
The sorrow, to have been deprived of the Circensian games

for one year.

Not a drop of blood sticks in the face, few detain
Modesty, ridiculous and flying out of the city.

55 You shall this day experience, whether things most fair In word, Persicus, I cannot practise, neither in my life, nor

in my morals, and in deed; But, a secret glutton, I can praise pulse, order water-gruel To the servant before others, but, in his ear, cakes. For, since you are a promised guest to me, you shall have 60 Evander, you shall come Tirynthius, or a guest less Than he, and yet he akin to heaven in blood, The one sent to the stars by water, the other by flames.

of life, nor my moral conduct. Re-in -You shall have, &c.] i. e. You shall reality. TER. And, act v. sc. i. 1. 5. find in me

58. Pulse.] Siliquas denotes bean or 61. Evunder.] A king of Arcadia, who, pea-pods, or the like; also the pulse having accidentally slain his father,sailed contained therein; it stands for frugal into Italy, and possessed himself of the and homely diet in general.

place where afterwards Rome was built. -Water-gruel.] Pultes. Puls signi. He entertained Hercules, and hospitably fies a kind of diet which the ancients received Æncas when he landed in Itaused, made of meal and water sodden ly. See Virg: Æn. viii. 154, et seq. together. This also stands here for any -Tirynthius.] A name of Hercules, thing of that homely kind.

the son of Jupiter and Alcmena; she 59. Cakes.] These were dainties made being born at Tiryns, a city of Peloponwith honey and other sweetmeats, Hor. nesus, he was therefore called TirynEp. lib. i. x. l. 11, 12. says,

thius. Liba recuso,

-A guest less, &c.] Meaning Æneas, Pune egeo jam mellitis potiore placentis. inferior in birth.

62. Yet he akin, &c.) Æneas was the I nauseatc honicd cakes, and long for

son of Anchises and the goddess Vebread.

FRANCIS. You shall see, says the poet, whether 63. By water.] Æness was drowned I am a glutton in secret, though profess- in the Nimicus, a river in Italy, which edly abstemious; whether I recommend on that account was fabulously consea meal of herbs, yet secretly gorinandize crated. on dainties; and when before company - The other by flumes.] Hercules burnt I order my servant to bring some home. himself to death on mount Eta, in Jy fare, I secretly whisper him to bring Thessaly. some very luscious and delicate food. The poet seems to mean, that Persi

60. Promised guest.] Since you have cus, his friend, should, on his coming to promised to be my guest at dinner. dine with himn, find him another Evan




Fercula nunc audi nullis. ornata macellis :
De Tiburtino veniet pinguissimus agro
Hædulus, et toto grege mollior, inscius herbæ,
Necdum ausus virgas humilis mordere salicti;
Qui plus lactis habet quam sanguinis; et montani
Asparagi, posito quos legit villica fuso.
Grandia præterea, tortoque calentia fæno
Ova adsunt ipsis cum matribus; et servatæ
Parti anni, quales fuerant in vitibus uvæ :
Signinum, Syriumque pyrum: de corbibus îsdem
mula Picenis, et odoris mala recentis,
Nec metuenda tibi, siccatum frigore postquam
Autumnum, et crudi posuere pericula succi.
Hæc olim nostri jam luxuriosa senatûs
Cæna fuit: Curius, parvo quæ legerat horto,
Ipse focis brevibus ponebat oluscula : quæ nunc
Squallidus in magnâ fastidit compede fossor,
Qui meminit, calidæ sapiat quid vulva popinæ.



der with respect to the homeliness and of villicus, a steward or bailiff, signifies simplicity of his entertainment; and the wife of such a one, a farmer's wife, that Persicus might consider himself as and the like. The asparagus gotten for Hercules, or Æneas, or indeed both, the dinner was not of the sort which is with regard to the welcome he would raised at a great expence, and gathered find, and the hospitable reception he by people kept for such purposes, but would meet with.

the wild sort, and gathered by a woman, 64. Now hear, &c.] Now hear your who at other times was employed in bill of fare, not a single article of which spinning. is furnished from the butcher's or poul 70. Eggs warm, &c.] Large new-laid terer's. Macellum signifies a market eggs, brought in the nest, which was for all manner of provisions.

made of hay twisted together. 65. Tiburtine farm.] Tibur, a pleasant 71. Are added.] i, e. To the bill of city of Italy, situate on the river Anio, fare. about sixteen miles from Rome; in the -With the mothers, &c.] The same neighbourhood of this, Juvenal had a heps that laid them. farm, See Hor. Od. lib. i, ode vii. et 72. Grapes, &c.] Preserved for some al.

time after their being gathered, so as to 66. Ignorant of grass.) Never suffered look quite fresh, as much so as when to graze, but, like our house-lamb, fat- they were upon the vines. ted by suckling.

73. The Signian.) Signia was a town 67. Nor yet daring.) Or attempting to in Italy, famous for pears and for rough browse on the twigs of the willow, which wines; kids are very fond of, but they are apt Spumans immiti Signia musto. to make the flesh bitter.

SIL. viii. 380. 68, 9. Mountain asparaguses.] Some - The Syrian pear.] These came from wild sorts that grew on the mountains, Tarentum, a city of Calabria, but were inferior in flavour to the asparagus alti- originally brought from Syria. lis, or that which was carefully cultivated 74. Apples, rivals to the Picene.] Hoin garden-beds. Asparagi, plur. may race says, that the apples from Tibur mean the young shoots of herbs that are were not so good as the Picene. to be eaten. See sot. v. 81, note.

Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia succo. 69. Bailif's wife, &c.] The feminine

Lib. ij. sat. iv. 70.

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