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And to-day comb’d only on account of our feast.

150 Ons is the son of an hardy shepherd, the other of an herdsman; He sighs after his mother, not seen for a long time, And sad, longs for the little cottage, and the known kids. A lad of an ingenuous countenance, and of ingenuous modesty, Such as it becomes those to be, whom glowing purple clothes. Nor, hoarse, does he expose himself,

156 With indecency, when naked in the baths, Nor, fearful, practise means to hide his nakedness. He shall give you wine made in those mountains From whence himself comes, under the top of which he played: For the country of my wine, and of my servant, are one and the same.

161 Perhaps you may expect, that a Gaditanian, with a tuneful Company, may begin to wanton, and girls approved with applause Lower themselves to the ground in a lascivious manner. Married women behold this, their husband lying by, 165 Which it may shame any one to have related, they being present; A provocative of languishing desire, and sharp incentives Of a rich man: yet that is a greater pleasure Of the other sex, it is most affected by it, and soon The eyes and ears are contaminated to a great degree. 170 An humble house does not contain these follies: let him hear The noise of shells, with words, from which a naked slave

dance and sing in a lascivious manner. centives to his palled and depraved apThis custom was probably

pelites. 163. Approved.] i.e. Encouraged by 169. The other ser.] Women are most the applause of the company.

delighted with such scenes as these. 164. Lower, &c.] By degrees, and at Neither here, any more than throughout last seat themselves on the ground. the sixth Satire, does Juvenal conceal or

165. Their husband lying by.] The spare the faults of the ladies of his time. husband and wife are here supposed to 170. The eyes and cars.] The former, be both invited to the entertainment, by beholding the lewd gestures ; the and both, from the couches on wbich latter, by hearing the obscene songs of they lay at meals, beholding these inde- the dancing women. cencics, which were so great as not even 171. An humble house, &c.] A small to be related, without shame, (præsen- estate is not capable of throwing away tibus ipsis) in their presence.

expence on such follies. Which brides do by their husband's side -Let him.) i. e. The rich and luxu. behold,

rious ; so, ille fruatur, 1. 173. Tho'shameful before them to be ont 172. The noise of shells.] These were, told.

HOLYDAY. probably, shells jingled together in their 167. A provocative, &c.] To stir up hands as they danced, like the Spanish the enfeebled passions.

castanets, -Sharp incentives.] See urtica, used -With words.] With obscene songs in a similar sense, sat, ii. 128.

accompanying 168. A rich man.) Who can afford the --From which, &c.] i. e. Which a expence of such scenes as these, and is common prostitute, standing naked in a profligate enough to use them as in- brothel, would be ashamed to utter. VOL. II.

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180

Fornice mancipium quibus abstinet : ille fruatur
Vocibus obsconis, omnique libidinis arte,
Qui Lacedæmonium pytismate lubricat orbem ;
Namque ibi fortunæ veniam damus : alea turpis,
Turpe et adulterium mediocribus : hæc tamen illi
Omnia cum faciant, hilares nitidique vocantur.
Nostra dabunt alios hodie convivia ludos :
Conditor Iliados cantabitur, atque Maronis
Altisoni dubiam facientia carmina palmam :
Quid refert, tales versus quâ voce legantur?
Sed nunc dilatis averte negotia curis,
Et gratam requiem dona tibi, quando licebit
Per totam cessare diem : non fænoris ulla
Mentio ; nec, prima si luce egressa reverti
Nocte solet, tacito bilem tibi contrahat uxor,
Humida suspectis referens multitia rugis,
Vexatasque comas, et vultum, auremque calentem.
Protinus ante meum, quicquid dolet, exue limen :

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190

The common harlots in the brothels were Absumet hæres cæcuba dignior slaves, purchased for that purpose by Servata centum clavibus ; et mero the leno, or pander ; they were his Tinget pavimentum superbum property, and therefore Juvenal calls

Pontificum potiore cænis. one of these mancipium, which signifies

Lib. ii. od. xiv, I. 25, &c. a thing or person bought and made

Then shall the worthier heir discharge, over. 175. Who lubricates, &c.] Pytisma

And set th' imprison'd casks at large,

And dye the floor with wine : (from Gr. srtua, spuo, to spit) signifies

So rich and precious not the feasts a spirting out of wine betwixt the teeth when we taste it, or a throwing

Of pontiff's cheer their ravish'd guests,

With liquor more divine. FRANCIS. out of the bottom of the cup on the floor. Ainsw.

The various reading of this line 175, - The Lacedæmonian orb.] The Ro as well as the various senses given, may mans were very fond of fine pavements, be seen by consulting the various comor floors, made of marble, and inlaid mentators in the Leyden quarto edit. with various kinds of it; among the 1695. See also Hor. Delph. on the rest, some came from Sparta, in small above ode. round forms, which were inserted in

'he poet's meaning is, that such their proper places by way of ornament, scenes of obscenity, and such arts of When they had an entertainment, it lewdness, are only fit to be enjoyed by was given in a room thus ornamented professed sensualists. with a fine inlaid marble floor, on which 176. There we give, &c.] In the case the master of the house, and the guests, of a rich libertine, we make all due alwhen they met at a feast, scrupled not lowance for his large fortune, and don't to spirt their wine, or throw out, as the blame his excesses, as we do those of custom was, the bottom of the cup. people in a lower class of life.

This, among the numerous readings - The die is base, &c.] Gaming is and comments which learned men have reckoned very scandalous, adultery vile given of this much controverted line, and abominable, in plebeians, seems to be the best interpretation, be 177. When they do, &c.] When people cause it nearly coincides with a passage of quality and of large fortunes practise in Horace to the same purpose :

these things, they are looked upon as

Standing in a stinking brothel abstains ; let him enjoy
Obscene expressions, and all the art of lewdness,
Who lubricates the Lacedæmonian orb with spirting wine, 175
For there we give allowance to fortune. The die is base,
Adultery is base in middling people: yet when they do
All these things, they are called joyous and polite.
Our feast to-day will give us other sports:
The author of the Iliad shall be repeated, and of lofty Maro
The verses making a doubtful palm.

181
What does it signify with what voice such verses may be read?
But now leave off business, your cares deferr’d,
And give yourself grateful rest, since you may
Be idle throughout the whole day: of interest-money 185
No mention; nor, if gone forth at day-break, she is wont
To be returned at night, let your wife provoke you, silent, to

anger, Bringing back her fine garments with suspected wrinkles, Her hair disorder'd, and her countenance and ears glowing: Immediately put off before my threshold whatever grieves: 190

your wife.

instances of cheerfulness and elegance ; Verse, so sublimely good, no voice can in short, as gentlemanlike qualifications.

wrong 179. Other sports.] Amusements of a 183. Leave of business.] Lay it quite different kind than those above men. aside; think not of it. tioned.

--Carcs deferr'd.] All cares put off for 180. Author of the Iliad, &c.] Homer- the present. parts of his Iliad shall be repeated. 185. Idle, &c.] Having nothing else Canto may perhaps imply, that the Ro- to do, but to enjoy yourself all the day mans read, or repeated verses, in a sort long at my house. of chant or singing. See sat, vii. 153, -Interest-money.] No talk of money note.

matters. -Lofty Maro.] Virgil. He derived 186. Nor, if, &c.] Though, like many the surname of Maro from his father; other husbands, you suffer from the he was the most sublime of all the La- irregularities of tin poets.

187. Provoke you, &c.] Don't let the 181. A doubtful palm.] The palm, or thoughts of this vex you, or let her chaplet, made of palm-lwigs and leaves, make you angry, or tempt you to say a was a token of victory.

single word upon the subject, though, as Juvenal means to say, that it was the two next lines import, you should doubtful which of the two excelled, Ho- have found the most evident and undemer or Virgil. See sat. vi. 435, 6. niable circumstances of her guilt. Con

182. With what voice, &c.] With what trahat bilem tibi- lit. contract, or draw tone of voicei.e. so intrinsically valua together, choler to you. ble and excellent are the verses of these 188. Fine garments.) Multitia, or authors, that they can't lose their value, multicia - garments wrought so fine though read or repeated by ever so in that the body might be seen through different a toned voice. This line also them. See sat. ii. 1. 66. seems to imply that verses were usually 190. Put off, &c.] Exue ; a metachanted or sung.

phorical expression, laken from putSo Mr. CONGREVE :

ting off clothes, &c. Divest yourself Il matters not with what ill tone they're of all uneasiness at entering my sung,

doors.

195

Pone domum, et servos, et quicquid frangitur illis,
Aut perit : INGRATOS ANTE OMNIA PONE SODALES.
Interea Megalesiacæ spectacula mappæ
Idæum solenne colunt, similisque triumpho
Perda caballorum Prætor sedet : ac (mihi pace
Immensæ nimiæque licet si dicere plebis)
Totam hodie Romam Circus capit ; et fragor aurem
Percutit, eventum viridis quo colligo panni.
Nam si deficeret, mostam attonitamque videres
Hanc urbem, veluti Cannarum in pulvere victis
Consulibus. Spectent juvenes, quos clamor, et audax
Sponsio, quos cultæ decet assedisse puellæ :
Nostra bibat vernum contracta cuticula solem,
Effugiatque togam : jam nunc in balnea salva
Fronte licet vadas, quanquam solida hora supersit

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205

191. Luy aside, &c.] Pono also signi 195. The prætor, a destroyer, &c.] He fies to put off as clothes. He desires was au officer not unlike our mayor or his friend to lay aside, or put off, all sheriff. Sat. i, 101, note.-He was to his domestic uneasiness, arising from oversee these sports, and sat in great the mischief or misconduct of servants. state, while they were acting, to the de.

192. Ungrateful friends.] Which are struction of many horses, which were the bitterest trials of all.

spoiled on the occasion. See sat. X. 193. Meuntime. This invitation of 1. 36–40. the poet to his friend was on a holi. Many are for reading prædo, and supday, or day of the public gaines begin- pose it to denote the prætor's acting ning.

sometimes unjustly, and determining the -Spectacles.] The shows or games. prizes wrongfully, taking them from the

-Megalesian towel.] At the Circen- winning horses, and giving them to the sian and Megalesian games, they hung losers, by which he might be said to rob out a towel (mappa) to shew that the the winners of their due. sports were going to begin. Nero in. Others think the word prædo is used troduced this custom ; for hearing, as as a jest upon the prætor's fine trappings he sat at dinner, how impatiently the and gaudy dress on the occasion, as if people expected his coming, he ihrew he had robbed the horses of their finery out at the window the towel with which to put upon himself. he wiped his hands, to give the people There are other conceits upon this notice that he had dined, and would subject, but perda seems to give the soon be at the circus. Ever since this, most natural sense of the passage. I am, the beginning of these games was an therefore, with Salmasius and others, for nounced by hanging out a towel. adopting it.

The Megalesian games were in honour - If with the peace, &c.] If with their of Cybele, the mother of the gods. She good leave I may take the liberty of was called meyaan Matue, magna Mater, saying so much without offence. The and from thence these games Megalesia, poet bere lashes the Roman people for or ludi Megalenses; they began on the their great eagerness to crowd after fourth of April, and lasted six days. these shows, as if they thought nothing

194. Idaan solemnity.] Cybele was else worthy their attention. Sat. x. l. called Idæa, from Ida, a mountain of 80, 1. Phrygia, where she was worshipped ; 197. The circus.] Where those games and hence her festival was called Idæum were celebrated. solenne.

-A noise strikcs, &c.] I hear a great

Lay aside home, and servants, and whatever is broken by them,
Or is lost : BEFORE ALL, PUT AWAY UNGRATEFUL FRIENDS.
Meantime, the spectacles of the Megalesian towel
Grace the Idæan solemnity, and, like as in triumph, 194
The prætor, a destroyer of horses, sits: and (if with the peace
Of such an immense and superabundant crowd I might say it)
This day the circus contains all Rome, and a noise strikes
My ear, from whence I gather the event of the green cloth.
For if it should fail, sad and amazed would you see
This city, as when the consuls was conquered in the dust 200
Of Cannæ. Let youths behold, whom clamour, and a bold
Wager becomes, and to sit by a neat girl.
Let our contracted skin drink the vernal sun,
And avoid the gown : even now to the baths, with a safe
Countenance you may go, tho' a whole hour should remain 205

shout, as of victory, which makes me ously together on these occasions. See suppose that the race is determined on sat, iii. I. 65, and note. the behalf of some favourite competitor. 203. Contracted skin.] Once smooth,

198. The green cloth.] The four par. but now through age contracted into ties, which ran chariot races in the cir. wrinkles. cus, were divided in several liveries, viz. -Drink the vernal sun.] Let us avoid green, russet, blue, and white. One of these crowds, and bask in the reviving these factions was always favoured by rays of the sun, which now is bringing the court, and, at ibis time, more proba on the delightful spring. This was in bly, the green ; which makes Juvenal the beginning of April. See above, note fancy that he hears the shouts for joy, on l. 193, ad fin. that their party had won the race.

204. Avoid the gown.] The gown was 199. Should fuil.] If the green cloth the common habit of the Romans, insoshould fail of the prize, or if the festival, much that Virg. Æn. i. 286, calls them which occasioned ihe celebration of these gentem togatam. The poet, by togam, games, should be laid aside, and these here means the people that wore it, by shows fail, or cease.

metonym. i. e. The Romans now crowd. 200. This city.] The people of Rome ing to the games-let us keep out of would be ready to break their hearts their way, that we may enjoy ourselves reflecting on their immoderate fondness in quiet. for these shows.

204, 5. Safe countenance, &c.] With-The consuls.) Paulus Æmilius and out fear of being put out of countenance. Terentius Varro.

The Romans used to follow their busi201. Canna.) A small town, near ness till noon, that is, the sixth hour, which Hannibal obtained a great victory our twelve o'clock; and then to the over the Romans. See sat. x. l. 164, ninth hour, our three o'clock in the note.

afternoon, they exercised and bathed -Let youths behold.] i. e. Be specta- themselves, and then went to their tors of these shows.

meals : but to do these sooner than the -Whom clamour, &c.] Who may, appointed hours was allowed only on without any indecency, inake as much festival days, or to persons aged and noise as they please in clapping and infirm; otherwise, to be seen going to hallooing, and lay what bets they please the baths before the usual appointed on the side they take.

hour was reckoned scandalous See sat. 202. By a neat girl, &c.] By this we i. l. 49, and note. see that men and women sat promiscu

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