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70

Ventus adest ; inopi miserabilis arte cucurrit
Vestibus extensis, et, quod superaverat unum,
Velo, prora, suo: jam deficientibus Austris,
Spes vitæ cum sole redit: tum gratus lülo,
Atque novercali sedes prælata Lavino,
Conspicitur sublimis apex, cui candida nomen
Scrofa dedit, (lætis Phrygibus mirabile sumen,)
Et nunquam visis triginta clara mamillis.
Tandem intrat positas inclusa per æquora moles,
Tyrrhenamque Pharon, porrectaque brachia rursum,
Quæ pelago occurrunt medio, longeque relinquunt
Italiam : non sic igitur mirabere portus,
Quos natura dedit : sed truncâ puppe magister
Interiora petit Baianæ pervia cymbæ
Tuti stagna sinûs: gaudent ibi vertice raso
Garrula securi narrare pericula nautæ.
Ite igitur, pueri, linguis animisque faventes,

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67. The miserable, &c.] The shattered When Iulus came to live at Alba, he vessel left in a miserable plight. Prora left Lavinum to his mother-in-law La(by synec.) may mean the vessel itself: vinia, the second wife of Æneas, (who but it literally signifies the forepart, the had named the city Lavinum after bis foredeck or forecastle of a shlp; and so wife Lavinia.) Hence Juvenal says, noit is probably to be understood here, as vercali Lavino. the velo suo implies the sail proper to 72, 3. A white sow, &c.] From which this part of the ship; the foresprit sail, the city was called Alba, white. See as we call it. This was the only remain sat. vi. I. 176, note. ing sail.

73. A wonderful udder, &c.] Sumen, -Poor device.] She made a sad shift the belly, paps, or udder of a sow. to make her way through the water, by AINSW. Here, by synec. it is to be the poor contrivance of the seamen's understood to signify the sow. This clothes spread out-vestibus extensis, was a sight much admired by the joyful to help her on.

Trojans, who, after all their dangers and 69. Was left.) i. e. Had surmounted toils, discovered, by this, their promised the violence of the storm. Superaverat, resting-place. quasi supererai--remained; as in Virg. Hic locus urbis erit, requies ca certa laÆn. v. 519.

borum. Æn. lib. viii. I. 46. Amissâ solus palmå superabal Acestas. Troy was the capital of Phrygia, a

69. The south winds, &c.] Which were country of Lesser Asia, and sometimes very dangerous on the coasts of Italy. taken for the whole country of Phrygia: See Hon. sat, i. 1. 6; and lib. iii, ode hence the Trojans were called Phry. iii. l. 4, 5. ode iii. lib. i. l. 14–16. gians. These now began to abate.

74. Thirty dugs.] With each a pig 70. Return'd with the sun.] With the sucking at it. Æn. viii, I. 45. A sight day-light.

never seen before. —Acceptable to Iulus, &c.] The Alban 75. She enters.] i. e. The ship enters. mount, on which lulus Ascanius, the -Placed moles.] The moles, or piers, son of Æneas, built Alba longa. This which had been placed, or built, to keep is the sublime top, mentioned 1. 72. off the violence of the sea, and to form

The poet calls it gratus Iulo, because a safe and quiet harbour. he left Lavinum, built by Æneas, to live -Included waters.] The waters inat Alba.

cluded between and within the moles. 71. Lavinum of his step-inother, &c.] 76. Tyrrhene Pharos,] In this haven

Is there a wind, the miserable prow ran with a poor device,
With extended garments, and, which alone was left,
With its own sail : the south winds now failing,
The hope of life return'd with the sun: then, acceptable to
lülus,

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And an abode preferr'd to the Lavinum of his step-mother,
The sublime top is beheld, to which the name a white
Sow gave (a wonderful udder to the glad Phrygians)
And famous for thirty dugs never [before] seen.

74 At length she enters the placed moles, thro’the included waters, And the Tyrrhene Pharos, and again the stretched-out arms Which meet the middle sea, and far leave Italy: therefore you will not so admire the havens Which nature has given : but the master, with mangled ship, Seeks the interior pools of the safe bay, pervious to 80 A Baian boat : there, with a shaved head, secure, The sailors rejoice to relate their chattering dangers. Go then, boys, favouring with tongues and minds,

of Ostia, on the shore of the Tyrrhene alluding probably to this custom.. As if sea, Claudius built a Pharos, or light he had said, " they should not need to house, in imitation of that at Alexandria " shave and devote their hair, for they in Egypt.

" should be preserved without it.” See 76. And again.] We once more return

Pow'Er's note. to the spot from whence we sat out. 82. The sailors rejoice, &c.] Take a

-Stretched-out arm, &c.] The two sides delight to chatter and prate about what of the piers, or artificial mounts, like had happened to every boy they met. two arms, stretched so far into the Tyr The poet says, garrula pericula-quia rhene sea, that they seemed to inelose nautas garrulos reddebant-.e. because it as far as the middle way, and, as it they set the sailors a prating. BRIT. were, to leave the coast of Italy behind. See a like figure of speech, sat, vii. 49.

78. You will not, &c.] This port, Hypallage. d. d. The chattering saiformed in this manner by art, is much lors delight to relate their dangers. more wonderful than any port naturally 83. Boys.] Go, my boysspeaking to formed by the shore itself; therefore his servants. See sat. xi. I. 151, where the former is more to be admired than he describes his two servant-lads. the latter.

-Favouring, &c.] Helping on the 80. The interior pools, &c.] The inner solemnity, by observing a profound si. most part of this artificial haven, as the lence and attention ; this was always most secured froin the sea.

commanded during a sacrifice, that there 81. A Baian boat.] Little wherries were might be no disturbance or interruption. used at Baia to carry people in still wa- In this view, faveo means to attend ter; perhaps from one side of the bay with silence. AINSW. So Hor. lib. to the other.

iii. ode i. 1. 2. Favete linguis, which -Shaved head, &c.] It was a custom, Smart translates, Give a religious attenwhen in distress at sea, to invoke the tion; and which is thus commented on aid of some god or other (see Jonah i. in Delph. edit. Favete linguis. “Vox 5.) with a solemn vow of cutting off" in sacris olim usitata, qua silentium their hair, and offering it as an acknow- “ imperabatur.” " An expression forledgment for their preservation. See merly used at sacrifices, or sacred Acts xxvii. 34. where Paul says, “there “ rites, by which silence was “ shall not an hair of your head perish:” “ manded." VOL. II.

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Sertaque delubris, et farra imponite cultris,
Ac molles ornate focos, glebamque virentem.
Jam sequar, et sacro, quod præstat, rite peracto,
Inde domum repetam, graciles ubi parva coronas
Accipient fragili simulachra nitentia cera.
Hic nostram placabo Jovem, Laribusque paternis
Thura dabo, atque omnes violæ jactabo colores.
Cuncta nitent ; longos erexit janua ramos,
Et matutinis operatur festa lucernis.

Nec suspecta tibi sint hæc, Corvine: Catullus,
Pro cujus reditu tot pono altaria, parvos
Tres habet hæredes. Libet expectare, quis ægram
Et claudentem oculos gallinam impendat amico
Tam sterili. Verum hæc nimia est impensa : coturnix
Nulla unquam pro patre cadet. Sentire calorem

95

Go then, my boys, the sacred rites pre wax, neatly polished, so as to shine. pare,

Hence Hor. epod. ii. 1. 66. calls them, With awful silence, and allention hear. renidentes Leres.

POWER. 88. Slender crowns.] Small garlands, See Virg. Æn. v. 1. 71. Ore favete or chaplets. omnes, &c.

89. Placate.] Appease and render pro84. Put garlands, &c.] On solemn oc- pitious. casions all the temples of the gods were -Our Jupiter.] The favourer and adorned with garlands.

guardian of our country; or, as the poet So Virg. Æn. ii. l. 218, 9.

mentions the worship of Jupiter after Nos delubra Deim

his return home, we may suppose, that, festá relamus fronde per urbem among his other little statues, there was -Meal on the knives.] The custom was one of Jupiter, before which, as before to make cakes with meal and salt, with the others, he intended to offer incense, which they sprinkled the sacrificing in order to make him propitious. knife, the head of the victim, and the -Paternal Lares.] Left me by my fire. Hence comes the word immolor, forefathers, who used to worship them from the sacred mola, or cake.

as I do. See note on sat, viii. 1. 110. Virgil calls them salsæ fruges, Æn. The Romans were very superstitious ii. 132, 3.

about these little images of the Lares; -Mihi sacri parari they thought no house safe without Et salsa fruges.

them, they constantly worshipped them, 85. Sift hearths, &c.] The poet gave and, if they removed, they carried their us to understand, 1.2. that his altar was Lares along with them : they were made of turf, or green sod.

looked upon as tutelar deities, which 86. I'U soon follore.) i. e. After these protected their houses and lands. preparations are made.

90. Will give.) Will offer; which they -The sacred business, &c.] That of the did, by putting it on the fire, and fumipublic sacrifice, which I shall offer. gating the images, or letting the smoke

-Which is best.] Quod præstat, i. e. ascend before them. which is the most material thing, and - Throw down.] i. e. Will strew bemost necessary to be done.

fore them. 87. Then return home.] In order to --All the colours, &c.] 1. c. Violets of offer private sacrifices on the little turf- every colour. altar to my domestic deities.

91. All things shine.] Every thing Little irr &c.] Little statues of looks gay. the Lares, or household gods, made of -Has crected, &c.] Over the tops of

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Put garlands on the temples, and meal on the knives,
And adorn the soft hearths, and the green glebe.

85 I'll soon follow, and the sacred business, which is best, being

duly finishid, I will then return home; where, little images, shining With brittle wax, shall receive slender crowns, Here I will placate our Jupiter, and to my paternal Lares Will give frankincense, and will throw down all the colours of the violet.

90 All things shine. My gate has erected long branches, And joyful celebrates the feast with morning lamps.

Nor let these things be suspected by you, Corvinus: Catullus, For whose return I place so many altars, has three Little heirs: I should be glad to see who would bestow 95 A hen, sick and closing her eyes, on a friend So barren: but this is an expence too great. No quail Will ever fall for a father. If rich Gallita and Paccius,

the doors are long branches of laurel. overshadow our door-posts with lauThis was usual on these festal occa “ rels, nor infringe upon the day with sions.

“ lamps?” 92. Joyful.] Having a joyful and fes By the word matutinis, the poet tival appearance.

means to say, he will ligbt them early, Celebrates.] Operatur. The verb out of zeal to his friend, that they might operor, like facio, (see sat, ix, 1. 117.) burn from morning to night. when it stands without any addition,

-My portal shines with verdant bays, signifies performing sacrifice. See also

And consccruted tapers early blaze. VIRG. ecl. iii. 77; and Georg. i. l. 339.

POWER. So the word nwy, in Hebr. See

93. Suspcoled, &c.] As if done with a Pank. Heb. and Eng. Lex. hwy, mercenary view, or for selfish ends; as No. 5.

if to flatter my friend Catullus into mak. The poet here means to say, that the ing me his heir. very gates of his house bore a part in the 94, 5. Three little heirs.] Has three solemnity on this joyful occasion. Some children to inherit his estate. are for reading operitur, covered-i. c. 95. Glad to see.] Libet expectare-lithe gates were covered with lamps as terally, it liketh me to expect; which well as

with laurel-branches. This certainly answers to the English idiom makes a very clear sense; but I question in the translation. whether operatur, as above explained, 96, 7. A friend so barren, &c.] So undoes not more exactly coincide with the likely to leave any thing in his will to epithet festa in this line. Operatur here any body but his own family; who is metaphorical, like Virgil's ridet ager. would sacrifice for such a one, I won't

-Morning lamps.] It was a custom, say a fine cock to Æsculapius for his on any joyful occasion, either of a pub- recovery, but even an old rotten hen ? lic or private nature, to adorn the gates even this would not be worth while. of their houses with branches of laurel, 97. No quail.] Not even one of the and with lamps, even in the day-time; least of birds. which Tertullian mentions, in his apo 98. Ever fall.] i. e. Be killed and ofc logy, in the following passage : “Cur die fered in sacrifice. “ læto non laureis postes adumbramus ? -A father.] i. e. For a man that is

ncc lucernis diem infringimus?" the father of children, and who, like Ca" Why, on a joyful day, do we not cullus, has heirs to his estate,

100

Elephants

105

Si cæpit locuples Gallita et Paccius, orbi,
Legitime fixis vestitur tota tabellis
Porticus. Existunt, qui promittant hecatomben.
Quatenus hic non sunt nec venales elephanti,
Nec Latio, aut usquam sub nostro sidere talis
Bellua concipitur: sed furvå gente petita
Arboribus Rutulis, et Turni pascitur agro
Cæsaris armentum, nulli servire paratum
Privato: siquidem Tyrio parere solebant
Hannibali, et nostris Ducibus, Regique Molosso,
Horum majores, ac dorso ferre cohortes,
Partem aliquam belli, et euntem in prælia turrim.
Nulla igitur mora per

Novium, mora nulla per Istrum
Pacuvium, quin illud ebur ducatur ad aras,
Et cadat ante Lares Gallitæ victima sacra,

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98. Gallilu and Paccius.] Two rich here at Rome, or in the country of Italy men who were childless, which made at large. See note, sat. xi. 115. them fine objects for the hæredipetæ, or 104. Conceived.] i. e. Bred. legacy-hunters.

A dusky nation.] From the Moors, 99. Perceive heat.] To be attacked or the Indians, who are of a swarthy or with a fever.

black complexion. See sat. xi. l. 125, --Every porch, &c.] Tota is here note. equivalent to omnis. 4. d. The whole of 105. The Rutulian woods, &c.] In the the porches, i. e. all the porches of the forest near Lavinum, where Turnus the temples, are covered, as it were, with vo. king of the Rutuli reigned, the country tive tablets for their recovery. These was called Etruria ; now the dukedom votive tablets were inscribed with the of Tuscany. vows and prayers of those who hung 106. The herd of Cæsar.] Domitian, as them up. If the party, for whom these a matter of state and curiosity, trans. tablets were hung up, recovered, the of- ported into Italy numbers of elephants; ferers of the tablets ihought themselves and, in the forest above mentioned, an bound to perform their vows.

herd of them might be seen together. 100. According to law.] Legitime here 106, 7. No private man.] They were seems to mean, according to the stated not procured to be at any private man's custom and usual practice of such peo- command, but at the emperor's only, for ple, who made it a kind of law among his pleasure and amusement, in seeing them to act in this manner on such oc them in the forest, and exhibiting them casions; not that there was any public in public shows in the Circus. law to compel them to it.

107. Ancestors of these.) The elephants 101. There exist, &c.] Some there are, of former days were put to a nobler who would not scruple to vow an hun. dred oxen in sacrifice. Hecatombe is -Indeed.) Prateus, in his Interprecompounded of irato, an hundred, tatio in usum Delph. explains the siquiand Bous, an ox; but it also denotes a dem by enimvero, verily, truly, indeed sacrifice of an hundred sheep, or of any Marshall, by vero, which is much of the other animals, though primarily is to be same import, and seems to mark a sarunderstood of oxen, according to the castical contrast between the use of etymology.

those noble animals by the warlike kings 102. Elephants, &c.] q. d. They can't and generals of old time, and Domitian's get elephants indeed, or else they would getting them to Roine at a vast expence, vow an hecatomb of them.

for the empty gratification of his pride 102, 3. llere nor in Latium.] Either and ostentation.

use.

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