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The Poet writes this Satire to Calvinus, to comfort him under

the loss of a large sum of money, with which he had entrusted one of his friends, and which he could not get again. Hence Juvenal takes occasion to speak of the villany of the times

EXEMPLO quodcunque malo committitur, ipsi
Displicet authori. Prima est hæc ultio, quod se
Judice nemo nocens absolvitur; improba quamvis
Gratia fallacis prætoris vicerit urnam.
Quid sentire putas omnes, Calvine, recenti
De scelere, et fidei violatæ crimine ? Sed nec
Tam tenuis census tibi contigit, ut mediocris
Jacturæ te mergat onus : nec rara videmus
Quæ pateris; casus multis hic cognitus, ac jam
Tritus, et e medio Fortunæ ductus acervo.


Line 1. With bad example.] Every evil cause; after which the parties had deed which tends to set a had example power to reject such as they thought to others.

would be partial. The number of those -Displeases, &c.] Gives him unplea. excepted against were blled up by the sant sensations,

prætor's drawing other names out of the 2. First revenge, &c.] The vengeance urn. Then the judges, which were thus which first seizes upon him arises from appointed, took an oath to judge achimself; his own conscience will con- cording to law; but, on many occasions, demn him, though he should have no others were often substituted by the præother judge.

tor. The cause being lieard, the prætor 4. Should have overcome the urn, &c.] gave to each of the judges three waxen Vicerit--i. e, should have defeated the tables. On one was the letter A, to tirn's impartial decision, and have de- signify the acquittal or absolution of the clared him innocent.-The prætor, who defendant. On another C, to imply his was the chief judge, had others appointed condemnation. On another N L, for with him as assistants. The names of non liquet, signified that a farther hearing these were written upon little balls, and was necessary : which delay of the cause cast into an urn by the pra lor: after was called ampliation. Then the judges, they were shaken together, he drew out being called upon, cast the billet, exas many as the law required for the pressing their opinion, into the urn, ac



shews that nothing can happen but by the permission of Providence and thut wicked men carry their own punish ment about with them.

WHATEVER is committed with bad example, displeases


The author of it. This is the first revenge, that, himself
Being judge, no guilty person is absolved; altho' the wicked
Favour of the deceitful prætor should have overcome the urn.
What do you suppose all to think, Calvinus, of the recent 5
Wickedness, and crime of violated faith? But neither
Has so small an income come to your share, that the burden
Of a moderate loss should sink you: nor do we see rare
Those things which you suffer. This misfortune is known to

many, and now Trite, and drawn from the midst of Fortune's heap. 10

cording to which the prætor pronounced first, that he must have all the world on sentence. But if the prætor was a wicked his side; every body must join with him judge, and inclined that partiality should in condemning such a transaction. get the better of justice, he might so 7. So small an income.] Another commanage matters, in all these many turns fort is, that his circumstances are such, of the business, that the defendant, how that such a loss won't ruin him, Census ever guilty, might appear to have the means a mau's estate, or yearly revenue. urn in his favour. This our poet very - The burden, &c.] A metaphor taken properly calls, Improba gratia fallacis from a ship’s sinking by being overprætoris.

loaded. 5. What do you suppose, &c.] What, 8. Rare, &c.] His case was not singuthink you, are the opinions of people in lar, but very commonly happened to general, of this injustice which you lately inany as well as to Calvinus : he theresuffered, and of ihe breach of trust in fore must not look upon himself as a your friend, of which you so loudly com sufferer beyond others. plain?

10. Trile. ] Common. -Culvinus.]Jurenal's friend, to whom -Drawon from the midst, &c.] Not he addresses This Satire. And here he taken from the top, or summit, of that comforts him by any considerations : heap of miseries, which Fortune stores


Ponamus nimios gemitus. Flagrantior æquo
Non debet dolor esse viri, nec vulnere major.
Tu quamvis levium minimam, exiguamque malorum
Particulam vix ferre potes, spumantibus ardens
Visceribus, sacrum tibi quod non reddat amicus

Depositum. Stupet hæc, qui jam post terga reliquit
Sexaginta annos, Fonteio. Consule natus?
An nihil in melius tot rerum proficis usu?
Magna quidem, sacris quæ dat præcepta libellis,
Victrix Fortunæ Sapientia. Dicimus autem

20 Hos quoque felices, qui ferre incommoda vitæ, Nec jactare jugum, vità didicere magistrâ.

Quæ tam festa dies, ut cesset prodere farem, Perfidiam, fraudes, atque omni ex crimine lucrum Quæsitum, et partos gladio vel pyxide nummos ?

25 RARI QUIPPE. BONI: numero vix sunt totidem, quot Thebarum portæ, vel divitis ostia Nili. Nunc ætas agitur, pejoraque sæcula ferri up for mankind, but from the middle, 16. Does he wonder, &c.] Does my as it were not so small as not to be felt, friend Calvinus, now turned of sixty, nor so severe as to overwhelun you. He and consequently well acquainted with calls it, onus mediocris jacturæ, 1. 7, the nature of mankind from many years

experience, stand astonished at such a 11. Too many sighs.] Immoderate common transaction as this? grief.

17. Fonteins.] L. Fonteius Capito -More violent, &c.] A man's concern was consul with C. Vipsanius, in the should never exceed the proper bounds. reign of Nero.

12. Than his wound. Should not rise 18. Of so many things.] Of so many higher than that which occasions it re. things of a like kind, which your knowquires. Sorrow should be proportioned ledge of the world must have brought to to suffering.

your observation has all your experi. 13. Thu' you, &c.] The poet here re ence of men and things been of no use proves the impatience and anger of his or profit to you? friend, who, instead of apportioning 19. Wisdom, indeed, &c.] The volumes his grief to his loss, which was compa. of philosophers, held sacred by the folratively small, according to the preced- lowers of them, contain rules for a con. ing maxim, (1.11, 12.) shewed a violence tempt of forlune; and the wisdom by of grief and resentment on the occasion, which they were indited, and which which bespake him unable to bear, in they teach, is the great principle which any measure as he ought, a light injury triumphs over the misfortunes we meet or misfortune.

with. So SENECA, epist. 98. Valentior 14. Buruing, &c.] Your very howels omni fortuna est animus sapientis. The on fire with rage and indignation. We books of moral philosophy abound in often find the intestines, such as the maxims of this kind. heart, liver, and bowels, or entrails, re 22. Nor to toss the yoke.) A metapbor presented as the seat of moral feel taken from oxen which are restive, and ings.

endeavour to get rid of the yoke, by 15. Your friend, &c.] The poet calls fiinging and tossing their necks about. the money which Calvinus had intrusted The poet means, that much may be his false friend with, and which he was learned on the subject of triumphing afraid to lose, a sacred deposit, because over fortune from the sacred volumes of delivered to him to keep, uin the sa- philosophy: but tho are to be procred confidence of friendship.

nounced happy also, who, by the expe

Let us lay aside too many sighs. More violent than what is just,
The grief of a man ought not to be, nor greater than his wound.
Tho you can hardly bear the least, and small particle
Of light misfortunes, burning with fretting
Bowels, because


may not return to you a sacred 15 Deposit. Does he wonder at these things, who already has

left behind His back sixty years, born when Fonteius was consul? Do you profit nothing for the better by the experience of so

many things? Wisdom, indeed, which gives precepts in the sacred books, Is the great conqueror of Fortune. But we call

20 Those also happy, who, to bear the inconveniences of life, Nor to toss the yoke have learnt, life being their mistress.

What day so solemn, that it can cease to disclose a thief, Perfidy, frauds, and gain sought from every crime, And money gotten by the sword, or by poison ?

25 For Good MEN ARE SCARCE: they are hardly as many in

number As the gates of Thebes, or the mouths of the rich Nile. An

age is now passing, and worse ages than the times of

rience of life only, have learned to bear, 25. Money gotten.) Somebody or other with quietness, submission, and pati- murdered for their money, either more ence, any inconveniences, or misfor. openly by the sword, or more secretly tunes, which they may meet with. by poison.

-Levius fit paticntiâ -Poison.] Pyxis signifies a little box; Quicquid corrigere cat ncfus.

but here, by meton. poison, which used Hor. lib. i. ode xxiv, ad fin. to be kept in such boxes, by way of conSuperanda omnis fortuna ferendo est. cealment and easiness of conveyance. VIRG. En. v. l. 710. See Jer. xxxi. 27. Thebes.] A city of Bæotia, built 18.

by Cadmus, the son of Agenor; it was -Life being their mistress, &c.] Their called Heptapylos, from having seven teacher or instructor; i. e. who are in- gates. There was another Thebes in structed by what they meet with in Egypt, built by Busiris, king of Egypt, common life, and profit by daily expe- which was called Heliopolis, famous for rience,

an hundred gates. The first is meant To knoro

here. That which before us lies in daily life -Months of the rich Nile.) Which Is the prime wisdom. MILTON.

The Nile is called rich, 23. What day, &c.] Festa dies signifies because it made Egypt fruitful by its a day set apart for the observance of overflowing, thus enriching all the counsome festival, on which some sacrifices try within its reach. or religious rites were performed; a 28. An age, &c.] i. e. The present holiday, as we call it.

age in which we live, now passing on Fesius also signifies happy, joyful. in the course of time. The verb ago, Perhaps the poet means to say, what when applied to age or life, has this day is so happy as not to produce some signification : hence agere vitam, to mischief or olher?

live. Si octogesimum agerent annum : 24. Gain ght, &c.] Eve sort of if they were eighty years old. Cic. wickedness practised for the sake of gain. Worse ages.] The word sxculum,

were seven.



Temporibus : quorum sceleri non invenit ipsa
Nomen, et a vullo posuit natura metallo.
Nos hominum Divûmque fidem clamore ciemus,
Quanto Fæsidium laudat vocalis agentem
Sportula. Dic senior bulla dignissime, nescis
Quas habeat Veneres aliena pecunia ? nescis
Quem tua simplicitas risum vulgo moveat, cum
Exigis a quoquam ne pejeret, et putet ullis
Esse aliquod numen templis, aræque rubenti?
Quondam hoc indigenæ vivebant more, prius quam
Sumeret agrestem posito diademate falcem
Saturnus fugiens: tunc, cum virguncula Juno,
Et privatus adhuc Idæis Jupiter antris.
Nulla super nubes convivia Cælicolarum,

puer Iliacus, formosa nec Herculis uxor


like ætas, means an age; a period of Fæsidius while he is pleading at the bar, an hundred years.

Here ihe poet and makes them, with loud shouts, extol would represent the age in which he his eloquence: hence the poet calls it wrote as worse than any that had gone vocalis sportula. See a like manner of before.

expression, sat. xii. 1. 82. See an ac28, 9. The times of iron.] The last of count of the sportula, sat, i. l. 95, note. the four ages into which the world was Comp, sat. x. 1. 46. supposed to be divided, and which was Hor. lib. i. epist. xix. 1. 37, 8. worse than the three preceding. See Non ego ventosæ plebis suffragia venor Ov. Met. lib. i.

Impensis cænarum, ct tritæ munere 29. Nature itself, &c.] The wicked

vestis. ness of the present age is so great, that “ I never hunt th’inconstant people's vote, nothing in nature can furnish us with a With costly suppers, or a threadbare proper name to call it by.


FRANCIS. 30. Imposed, &c.] Lit, put it.-9.d. The name Fæsidius, ur Fessidius, as Nor has any name been affixed to it some editions have it, may mean some from any metal. The first age of the vain pleader of the time, who courted world was named Golden, from its re the applause of the mob, by treating sembling gold in purity; and after this them with his sportula. Perhaps no parcame the Silver, the Brazen, the Iron ticular person may be only meant, but Age ; but now the age is so bad, that such sort of people in general. no metal can furnish it with a name 33. Old man, worthy the bulla.] The which can properly describe the nature bulla was an ornament worn about the of it. Nomen ponere signifies to put or necks of children, or at their breasts, affix a name, i. e. to name. Nature made like an heart, and hollow within; herself can find no inetal base enough to they wore it till seventeen years of age, call it by.

and then hung it up to the household 31. We invoke, &c.] Pro Deam atque gods.-Pers. sat. v. 1. 31. hominum fidem! was a usual exclama The poet addresses hiinself to his old tion on any thing wonderful or surpris friend Calvinus, in a joking manner; as ing happening.. q. d. We can scem if he said, “Well, old gentleman," much amazed, and cry out aloud against (comp. 1. 16, 17.) “ worthy again to the vices of the age- we can call heaven “wear your childish baubles, are you, at and earth to witness our indignation. sixty years old, such a child, as not to

32. The wcal sportula.] The dole "know-" basket; the hope of sharing which opens 34. What charms, &c.) i. e. As to be the mouths of the people who stand by ignorant how great the temptation is,

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