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reformation, as his interest seemed to bim to ants: and always by some of his favourites, require. Although he went in procession to whom he suffered to amass immense fortunes burn the first martyrs of the reformed church, by accusing men of heresy. The reformation yet in the same year, (1535) he sent for Me was very much advanced in this reign. Tho lancthon to come into France to reconcile reli- gentry promoted the acting of plays, in which gious differences. Although he persecuted his the comedians exposed the lives and doctrines own protestant subjects with infinite inhumra of the popish clergy, and the poignant wit and nily, yet when he was afraid that the ruin of humour of the comedians afforded infinite dierthe German protestants would strengthen the sion to the people, and conciliated them to the hands of the emperor Charles V. he made an new preachers. Beza, who had fled to Geneva, alliance with the protestant princes of Germa- [1548 Jcame backward and forward into France, ny, and he allowed the Duke of Orleans, his and was a chief promoter of the work. His La. second son, to offer them the free exercise of tin Testament, which he first published in this their religion in the Dukedom of Luxemburg. reign, (1556) was much read, greatly admired, He suffered his sister, the Queen of Navarre, and contributed to the spread of the cause. to protect the reformation her country of The New Testament was the Goliah's sword Bearn, and even saved Geneva, when Charles of the clerical reformers, there was none like it. Duke of Savoy would have taken it. It was Francis II. succeeded his father Henry. (1559) no uncommon thing in that age for princes to He was only in the sixteenth year of his age, trifle thuz with religion. His majesty's first extremely weak both in body and mind, and concern was to be a king, his second to act like therefore incapable of governing the kingdom a rational creature.
by himself. In this reign began those civil. The reformation greatly increased in this wars, which rayed in France for almost forty reign. The pious Queen of Navarre made her years. They have been charged on false zeal court a covert from every storm, supplied for religion : but this charge is a calumny, for France with preachers, and the exiles at Gene the crown of France was the prize for which va with money. Calvin, who had led from the generals fought. It was that which inspi. his factory in France, and had settled at Gene red them with hopes and sears, productive of van (1531) was a chiet instrument; he slid his devotions or persecutions, as either of them catechism, and other books into France. [1541.) opened access to the throne. The interests of Some of the bishops were inclined to the refor religion, indeed, fell in with these views, and mation; but secretly, for fear of the Christians so the parties were blended together in war. of Rone. The reformation was ealled Calvin The family of Charles the Great, which had ism. The people were named Sacramentari- reigned in France for 236 years, either became ans, Lutherans, Calvinists; and nick-named extinct, or was deprived of its inheritance, at Hugonots, either from Hugon, a Hobgoblin, the death of Lewis the Lazy. (987.) Him, berause, to avoid persecution, they held their Hugh Capet had succeeded, and had transmitassemblies in the night; or from the gate of ted the crown to his own posterity, which, in. Hugon, in Tours, where they used to meet; this reign, subsisted in two principal branches, or from a Swiss word, which signifies a in that of Valois, which was in possession of league.
the throne, and in that of Bourbon, the next Henry Il., who succeeded his Father Fran heir to the throne of France, and then in poy-cis. (1517) was a weuk, and a wicked prince.session of Bearn. The latter had been driven The increase of his authority was the law and out of the kingdom of Navarre: but they rethe prophets to him. He violently persecuted tained the title, and were sometimes at Bearn, the Calvinists of France because he was taught and sometimes at the court of France. The to believe, that heresy was a faction repugnant house of Guise, Dukes of Lorrain, a very rich to authority; and he made an alliance with and powerful family, to whose niece, Mary the German protestants, and was plea ed with Queen of Scots, the young king was married, the title of Protector of the Germanic liberlies, pretended to make out their descent from that is, protector of protestantism. This alli. Charles the great, and were competitors, when ance he made, in order to check the power of the times served, with the reigning family for Charles V. He was governed, sometimes by the throne, and, at other times, with the Buurhis queen, Catharine de Medicis, niece of Pope bon funily, for the apparent heirship to it. Clement VII, who, it is said, never did right With these views they directed their family except she did it by mistake: often hy the alliances, perfected themselves in military skill, constable de Montmorenci, whom, contrary to and intrigued at court for the administration of the express command of his father, in his dying affairs. These three houses formed three parillness, he had placed at the head of adminis ties. The house of Guise (the chiefs of which tration : chiefly by his mistress, Diana of Poi were five trethren at this time) headed one ;. ters, who had been mistress to his father, and the king of Navarre, the princes of the blood, who bore an implacable hatred to the protest. and the great othcers of the crown, the other;
the Queen mother, who dolayed the interests B za the other hundreu, Calvin got them set of the reigning family, exercised her policy on to music by the best musicians, and every bo both, to keep either from becoming too strong : dy sang them as ballads. When the reformed while the feeble child on the throne was allerchurches made them a part of their worship, wately a prey to them all. the papists were forbidilen to sing them any Protestantism had obtained numerous conmore, and to sing a psalm was a sign of a Lu verts in the last reign. Several princes of tha
blood, some chief officers of the crown, and
many principal families, had embraced it, and of his country. He pleased the puerile king its partisans were so numerous, both in Paris by placing a few gaudy horse-guards round his and in all the provinces, that each leader of palace, and he infatuated the poor child to the court parties deliberated on the policy of Think himself and his kingdom rich and hapstrengthening his party, hy openly espousing py, while his protestant subjects lay bleeding the relormat.01, by endleavouring to free the tlarough all his realm. protestants from penal laws, and by obtaining The infinite value of an able statesman, in a free toleration for them. Al length, the such important crises as these, might here be bou:e of Bourbon declared for Protestantism, exemplified in the conduct of icharl de and, of consequentes', the Guises were inspired L'Hospital, who was at this time (1560) prowith zest for the support of the ancient reli. moted to the chancel.lurilshịp: but our limits rion, and took the Roman Cathol cs under will not allow an enlargement. He was the their protection. The king of Navarre, and most consummate politician that France ever the prince of Conde, were the heads of the employed. He had the wisdom of governing first : but the Duke of Guise had the address without the folly of discovering it, and all his to obtain the chiet management of affairs, an:) actions were guide l by that cool moderation the protestants were persecuted with insatiable which always accompanies a superior knowfury all the time of this reign.
led e of mankind. He was a concealeri protesto Had religion then no share in these commo. ant of the most liberal sentiments, an entire tions? Certainly it had, with many of the friend to religious liberty, and it was his wise princes, and with multitudes of the soldiers : mariagement that savell France. It was bis but they wer: a motley mixtur; one touch axed opinion, that FREE TOLERATION was for his coronel, another for his land, a thiri sound policy. We must not wonder thairgid for liberty of conscience, and a fourth for pay. papists deemed him an atheist, while zealous, Courage was a joint stock, and they were mu but mistaking protestants, pictured him carrytual sharers of gain or loss, p'raise or blame. ing a torch behind him, to guide others but not It was religion to secure the lives and proper himself. The more a man resembles God, the ties of noble families, and though the common more will his conduct be censured by ignopeople had no lordships, yet they had the more ranie, partiality and pride! valuable rights of conscience, and for them The Duke of Guire, in order to please and they fought. We mistake, if we imagine that strengthen his party, endeavoured to establisb the French have never understood the nature an inquisition in France. The chancellor, beof civil and religious liberty ; they have well ing willing to parry a thrust which he could understood it, though they have ot leen alle not entirely avoid, was forced to agree (vlay to obtain it. Suum cuique would have been 1560] to a severer euict than he could have as expressive a motto as any that the protesto w.shed, t deleat the design. By this edict, ant generals could have borne.
the cognizance or the crime otheresy was taken The persecution of the protestants was very from the secular judges, and given to the bishsevere at this time. Counseilor Du Boury, a ops alone. The Calvinists complained of this, gentleman vt eminent quality, and great merit, because it put them into the hands of their was burnt for heresy, and the court was inclin- enemies, and although their Loruships coned, not only to rid France of protestantism, demned and burnt so many herelies, that their but Scotland also, and sent La Brosse with courts were justly called chambres ardıntes.* three thousand men, to assist the queen of Scot. yet the zealous catholics thought them less el. land in that pious design. This was frustrated igible than an inquisition after the manner of by the intervention of queen Elizabeth of Eng. Spain. land. The persecution becoming every day Soon after the making of this ediri, (Aug. more intolerable, and the king being quite in 1560) many families having been ruined by accessible to the remonsirances of his people, it, Admiral Coligny presented a petition to the the protestants held several consultations, and king, in the names of all the protestants of took the opinions of their ministers, as well as France, humbly praying that they might be those of their noble partisans, on the question, allowed the free exercise of their religion. whether it were lawful to take up arnis in The king referred the matter to the parliatheir own defence, and to make way for a free ment, who were to consult about it with access to the king to present their petitions ? the lords of the council. A warm delate co. It was unanimuusly resolved, that it was law. sued, and the catholies carried it against the ful, and it was agreed, that a certain number protestants by three voices. It was resolved, of men should be chusen, who should go on a that people should be obliged, either to cona fixed day under the direction of Lewis prince form to the old established church, or to quit of Conde, present their petition to the king, the kingdom, with permission to sell their es. and seize the Duke of Guise, and the cardinal tutes. The protestants argued, that in a point of Lorrain, his brother, in order to have them oisuch importance, it would be wreasonable, tried before the states. This affair was discov on account of three voices, to infame all France ered to the Duke buy a false brother, the design with animosity and war: that the method of was defeated, and iwelve hundred were ve. banishment was impossible to be executed ; headed. Guise pretended to have suppressed and that the obliging of those, who continued a rebellion that was designed to end in the de. in France, to submit to the Romish religion, throning of the king, and by this manæuvre. against their consciences, was an absurj athe procire! the general lieutenancy of the kingdom, and the glorious title of Conserrator Burning couris-fire offices.
templ, and equal to an impossibility. The ral council, nor the other to a national assemchancellor, and the protestani Lords, used ev. bly, that a conference should be held il Poissy, ery effort to procure a toleration, while the between both parties. (July 1561) and an elict catholie party urged the necessity of unifor was made, that no perso:s shuulil molest the mity in religion. Al length two of the bish. protestants, that the imprisoned should be reops owned the necessity of reforming, pleaded leased, and the exiles called home. (Auz. 1561.) strenuously for moderate measures, and propo The conference at Poissy was held, in the sed the deciding of these controversies in an as. presence of the king, the princes of the blood, seu bly ol the states, assisted by a national the nobility, cardinals, prelates, and grandees council, to be summoned at the latter end of of loth parties. On the popish side, six cardithe year. To this proposal the assembly nals, four bishops, and several dignified clergyagreed.
men, and on the protestant about twelve of The court of Rome having laid it down as an the most famous reformed ministers, manaindubulable maxim in church police, that an yed the dispite. Beza, who spoke will, inquisition was the only support of the hierar. knew the world, and had a realy wit, and a chy, and drealing the consequenres of allow. deal of learning, displayed all his powers in faing a nation to relorm itself, was alarmed at vour of the relorination. The papists r a-onthis inteligence, and instantly sent a muncio in ed where they could, and where they could not to France. His instruction were to prevent, they railed. The conference ended (Sept. 29] if possibile, the calling of a national council, where must public disputes have endell, that is, anul to promise the reassembling of the general where they brgan ; for great men never enter council of Trent. The protestants had been these lists, without a previous determination too ollen dupes to such artifices as these, and, not to submit to the disgrace of a public debeing fully convinced of the futility of general feat. councils, they refused to submit to the coun At the close of the last reign, the ruin of procil of Trent now for several good reasons. The testantism seemed inevitable : but now the repope, they said), who assembled the council, formation turned like a tide, overspread every was to be judge in his own cause: the coun place, and seemed to roll away all opposition, cil would he chiefly composed of Italian bish and, in all probability, had it not been for one ops, who were vassals of the pope, as a secular sad event, it would now have subverted popeprince, and sworn to him as a bishop and head ry in this kingdom. The king of Navarre, of the church: the legates would pack a ma who was now lieutenant general of France, jority, and brite the poor bishops to vote : had hitherto been a zealous protestant, he had each article would be first setiled at Rome, taken incredible pains to support the reformaand then proposed by the legates to the coun tion, and had assured the Danish anbassador cil: the Emperor, by advice of the late coun that, in a year's time, he would cause the true cil of Constince, haligiven a safe conduct to gospel to be preached throughout France. John llass, and 10 Jerome of Prague; however, The Guises caballed with the pope and the when they appeared in the council, and propo king of Spain, and they offered to invest the se their doubts, the council condemned them king of Navarre with the kingdom of Sardito be burnt. The protestants had reason on nia, and to restore to him that part of the kingtheir side, when they rejected this method of dom of Navarre, which lay in Spain, on condireforming, for the art of procuring a majority tion of his renouncing protestantism. of votes is the soul of this system of church lure was tempting, and the king deserted, and government This art consists in the ingenu even persecuted the protestants. Providence ity of muling out, and in the dexterity of ad. is never at a loss for means to effect its designs. dressing each man's weak side, his pride or The queen of Navarre, daughter of the last bis igioranca, his envy, his gravity, or his ava queen, who had hitherto preferred a dance to rice: anl the possessing of this is the perfec. a sermon, was shocked at the king's conduct, Liou osa Lexate of Rome.
and instantly became a zenluus / 'rotestant herDuring these disputes, the king died without selt. She met with some unkind treatment, issue, (D c. 5, 1:60] and h s brother Charles but nothing could shake her resolution; Hud IX. who was in the eleventh year of bus age, I, said she, the kingdoms in my hand. I would succeeded him. (Dec. 13.) The status met at throw tintm into the sea, rather than dofile my the ti ne proposed. The chancellor opened conscience by going lo muss.
This courageous the session by an unanswerable speech on the profession saved her a deal of trouble and disill policy of persecution, he represented the mis.
pule! erier of the protestants, and pro, osed an abate. The protestants began now to appear more meit of their sufferins, till their complaints puhlicly than before. The queen of Navarre could be heard in a national council. The caused Beza openly to solemnize a marriage in Prince of Conde and the king of Navarre were a noble family, after the Genera manner. the heals of the protestant party, the Guises This, which was consummated near the court, were the heads vi their opponents, and the emboldened the ministers, and they preached queen notier, Catharine de Medicis, who had at the countess de Senignan's, guarded hy the ootained the reveicy till the king's majority, marshal's provosts. The notilily thought that an 1 who began to dread the power of the Gui the common people had as good a right to hear ses, leaned to the protestants, which was a the gospel as themselves, and caused the regrand event in their favour. After repeated formed clergy 10 priach without the walls of meetings, and various warm debates, it was Paris. Their auditors were thirty or torty agresu, as one side would not submit to a gene thousand people, divided into three companies,
This Edition has been carefully corrected by the Rev. J. SUTCLIFFE, previously to the work being put to the press, through which it has been my province to guide and correct it. To those who value the great doctrines of Christianity, these volumes cannot but prove highly acceptable : nor can they fail of making a due impression on the mind, by the forcible and eloquent manner in which they exhibit truth and holiness,
Brixtable Lodge, Mortlake,
Jan. 1, 1824.
CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME,
Sermon VI.-The holiness of God 87 kind
Sermon IX.-The Severity of God 108 Christ
Sermon XII.-God the only Object of Death of Christ.
Sermon XIII.-The Manner of Praising Sermon XXXVIII.-Judgment
Sermon XIV.-The Price of Truth 143 Sermon XL.--Hell
Sermon XXII.-The Effusion of the ligion and Civil Polity
CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.
10 Sermon LXII.-Disgust with Life 67
23 Sermon LXV.-The different Methods
37 Sermon LXVII.-The Sentence passed
44 Sermon LXVIII.-- The Cause of the
Destruction of Impenitent Sinners 121
54 Sermon LXIX.--The Grief of the Righ-