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ENCYCLOPÆDIA METROPOLITANA; ;
UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY OF KNOWLEDGE.
MISCELLANEOUS AND LEXICOGRAPHICAL.
Another blood, diffused about the heart; DIFFUSE.
Another saith the elements conspire,
And to her essence each doth give a part.
Davies. Of the Soul of Man and the Immortality thereof.
Glanville. Preexistence of Souls, ch. xi.
Goodwin. Works, vol. v. part i. fol. 19.
and is handled by all, not in difusion but in representation.
Taylor. Polemical Discourses. Episcopacy Asserted.
diffusum, to pour apart or abroad; The divine benignity is much more diffusive than the light, the
(dis, and fundere, to pour) See air, the most communicable element in the world, and billeth
every thing according to its measure and capacity of reception.
Hale. Contemplation, rol. i. p. 254. Of Humility.
To pour apart or abroad ; to
The truth and spirit of religion comes in a narrow compass,
though the effect and operation thereof are large and diffusive.
Id. A Discourse of Religion, vol. i. p. 459.
And then, what is so much larger than the particulars diffusively
taken is sure very unlikely to be the summ of them.
Hammond. Works, vol. ii. part iv. fol. 71. Of Metropoles, dic.
He [Horeman) was one of the most generall schollars of his
age as may appear by the diffusiveness of his learning, and books
written in all faculties.
Fuller. Worthies. Wiltshire.
to examine a conjecture I had made about the great diffusedness
subtility of parts in the Glacial Noctiluca. Let the statutes of God be turn'd over, be scann'd anew, and
Pleas'd that her magic fame diffusely flies, considered not altogether by the narrow intellectuals of quota
Thus with a horrid smile the hag replies. tionists and common places, but (as was the antient right of
Rowe. Lucan, book vi.
She did ber healing influence display.
Stepney. To the Memory of Queen Mary.
DIFFUSE. Rectified spirit of human blood abounds with very subtle par- Metalls elsewhere are digged, as out of the bowells of the
ticles, which in point of taste, odonr, diffusiveness and penetrancy, earth, so out of the bowells of the land ; I mean so far from any DI- do much resemble those of strong spirits of urine, of hartshorn, conveyance by water, that the expence of the portage swallows GAMMA. and of sal-armoniac.
much of the profits thereof.
Fuller. Worthies. Wales, Generall.
But the rarest invention is the supplying the miners with fresh
aire, which is performed by two men's blowing wind by a paire
of bellows on the outside of the allit, into a pipe of lead, daily The morn her beams diffuses o'er the sea,
lengthened as the mine is made longer, whereby the candle in The pyre, then wasted, ceas'd to flame.
the mine is daily kept burning, and the diggers recruited con-
A ravinous vulture in his open side,
Her crooked beak and cruel talons try'd :
Siill for the growing liver digg'd liis breast;
Dryden. Virgil. Æneid, book vi.
On that principle, the wedge-like snout of a swine, with its
make of the head, so well adapted to its offices of digging and
Burke. On the Sublime and Beautiful.
second time. Fr. digame.
Digamy and Bigamy were formerly used indiscrimi-
nately. See Bigasy.
Therefore it must probably signifie lier that is departed by
divorce, and then that which followeth of the dig amist will also
concur with it, to interpret his sense to this purpose.
to Timothy, ch. iii.
Then for the other interpretation, that here the digamist, or
be made incapable of holy orders, or be under some reproach for
Id. 16. fol. 693.
And for the ordinary digamy, the marrying a second after the
decease of the foriner, that that should be so reproachfull and Bible, Anno 1551. Genesis, ch. xxi.
blameable in any, as to render one incapable of holy orders
(which they are capable of, which have been guilty of some
Id. 16. sol. j. fol. 597. Of Divorces.
DI G A M M A.
DIGAMMA, Gr. ĉis yeuria, a figurd. The Double the fact that it is still found in ancient documents for Gamma, so named from its form, F. One Gainma set the number 6. In the Code.r Bezæ, we find the characupon another.
ter s used for this number, to denote the Ammonian Wbile tow'ring o'er your alphabet, like Saul,
section in the margin. This explains the paradoxical Stands our digamma, and o'ertops tlem all.
introduction of the character 5, by which this number Pope. The Dunciaıl, book iv.
is usually expressed in MSS., and which is, in reality,
subject is one on which conjectures have been almost
boundless, we think we shall best consult the interests
this point as antiquity has left us.
Mr. Payne Knight is of opinion that the Digamma ment, wherein the Digamma should appear: and in the DIGAMMA. fell into general disuse about the time of the Persian XVIth century, Goltz published several coins supposed of
GAMMA. war, But long after this letter had become obsolete the Falisci with the inscription FAAEINN. This testiwith the other nations of Greece, it was retained mony, although well authenticated, was little regarded, among the Æolians; and therefore we frequently find as, the word being written in Latin with an F, it was it mentioned in ancient writers under the title of “the supposed that it had been adopted into the Greek to Æolian Digamma." It had, however, long since express a sound which that language did not possess. ceased to be used even among them in the time of But it is probable that these coins belonged to the Dionysius ; and Priscian mentions as a curiosity an Eleans, as that nation is termed FAAEIOI on the inscription on a tripod at Constantinople which he Elean inscription. In 1708, however, Montfaucon had himself seen, and which ran thus :
(Palæographia Græca, lib. ii. 1,) published a fac simile ΔΗΜΟΦΟ FΩΝ ΛΑFOKOFΏΝ. .
of an inscription on the pedestal of a statue of Apollo
in the Island of Delos, which was given him by TourIt became therefore an object of interest with anti- nefort, and runs thus : quaries to discover some inscription, or ancient docu
ONE PTOMS OFMAN DPI45KKITOSSE 145
This, Montfaucon reads ....oa év tự low elui åvąpids advantage of being the most ancient inscription ever
From all this unexceptionable testimony we derive a in more modern Greek,
very fair notion of the several forms of the Digamma,
and of the manner in which it was formerly employed.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, as we have already seen,
attributes to the Digamma the force of the Greek où: brazen helmet with an inscription, of which a copy is and that the Greek où corresponds nearly, though not given in the Classical Journal, vol. i. p. 323, and of entirely, with the Roman V, whether vowel or consowhich Bishop Marsh has offered a most satisfactory nant, is obvious from the manner in which the two account in his Horæ Pelasgicæ, (part i. ch. iii.) The nations respectively wrote the names of each other. inscription is
Thus the Romans rendered ’AplozóBOY los by Aristo
Vlus; and the Greeks, Virgilius and Varro by OYipyiTADT | ||1||| OI ANEOENTOIAIFITONKOPINOOOEN. deos and OY appwr: yet that the Greeks had no letter That is ταργειοι (fort. ταργει Foι) ανεθεν τοι ΔιFι τον precisely corresponding to tlie Latin V, may be inΚορινθοθεν,-οι Αργέιοι ανέθεσαν τω Δι των Κορινθόθεν. ferred from the words Νόμας, Σύλλα, Βιργίλιος, Βαρρων, Besides these, the Orchomenian Marble, in the collec- by which they also expressed the Roman names, tion of Lord Elgin, contains the words Fikari, Fetia, Numa, Sulla, Virgilius, Varro. Oủ, therefore, is rather and Fedatın, for eľkool, étea, and Elatera' and an in- to be considered an approximation to the Latin V, scription copied by Gropius from a marble near the site than the sound itself; and the nearest which Dionysius of the ancient Crissa, on the Corinthian bay, exhibits could employ to express the sound in question. KnowFOMA probably for our.
ing, therefore, that the sound of the Roman V did not In all these inscriptions, the Digamma resembles exist in the Greek language in the time of Dionysius ; more or less the Roman F, the only difference ex- that the Digamma was also lost; that the place which isting in the inclination of the cross lines to the he calls Ovelia was actually written in Latin Velia ; stem. There is, however, another form under which and that this name originally had the Digamma; it sometimes appears, resembling an upright and it seems difficult to come to any other conclusion than inverted Gamma united, C. This form was supposed that the Digamma was no other in power than the to be confined to Italy; but coins have been found in- Latin V. We shall see how far this opinion is supscribed CASION as well as FAEINN, and the latter ported by ancient' testimony. The authority of the are generally referred to Axus in Crete. The C is learned and laborious Varro, far more important than used on the Heraclean Tables, which exhibit CEIKATI that of Dionysius, comes first to be noticed, who obfor eľkoor, [Ez for F, CETOS for éros, [E for é, serves, (de Ling. Lat.) “ Tempus secundum Ver, quod tum [EIKATIAEIQ for civatiôćw, CEKTA for frT9, CIKATI virere incipiunt virgulta, et vertere se tempus anni; also for cřkool. Beside these words, the Digamma is nisi quod Iones dicunt BHP.” That the Ionians did not found in all others derived from them.
write BHP, we know from their works; and indeed The most important inscription, however, for illus- Varro's statement only implies that this was the trating the use of the Digamma is one which was Ionian pronunciaton. B therefore appears to be used by brought from Elis by Sir William Gell, in 1813. It Varro as an approximation to the Æolic Digamma, is a brazen tablet, and relates to a treaty between the as it is used by the Greeks themselves as an approxEleans and Evæans, entered into, as Mr. Payne Knight imation to the Latin V. Suetonius (Claud. xlv.) and conjectures, about the XLth Olympiad. It has the Tacitus (Annal. xi. xiv.) inform us, that the Emperor
DI- Claudius added three letters to the Roman alphabet, it is purely conjectural and analogical, and has no DI-
thority as Claudius would be of little value, had we single, equivocal, and even self-contradictory testimony
ώ πόποι, η δη παισι Wewoίκοτες αγορέψεσθε.
mena in Homerum, wherein he contends, from the testi-
We will now endeavour to ascertain somewhat of
were first used in Greece, ended with the letter T. Oιόμενος Γέλεναν ελικόπιδα: •
The Greeks, however, possessed a sound in their lan
guage, inexpressible by the Phænician character, conand we also say,
cerning which it is in vain now to conjecture. To At Venus haul animo nequicquam erterrita mater."
express this sound, the character V, afterwards Y, was To the same purpose Terentianus,
invented at a very early period in the history of the
language; but before this invention, when the rules si prior sit V, sequatur illa (littera I)
of pronunciation were less definite, the language less
settled, and practice less restricted, it appears that
they sometimes employed the Digamma as the best
The Delian inscription appears to
have been written when the use of the V was scarcely
determined, for there we find AFYTO for AFTO or
AVTO. The modern Greeks have now two pronun-
ciations of the Y; when it occurs in a diphthong,
Strong as appears to be this body of testimony, being mistaken by the soldiers of Crassus for cave ne
TE-I-EE. We see, therefore, in what manner EIT-