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Fourth Division:


, Fr. difforme is Deformed, q. v.
One thinks the soul is air ; another, fire;

DiffO'RMITY. $ English, difform is applied to dissimi-

Another blood, diffused about the heart; DIFFUSE.

Another saith the elements conspire,
larity or unlikeness in form opposed to uniform. See

And to her essence each doth give a part.

Davies. Of the Soul of Man and the Immortality thereof.
The unequal refractions of difform rays proceed not from any But I omit further prosecution of this matter, since these
contingent irregularities ; such as are veins, an uneven polish places have been more diffusely urged in a late discourse to this
or fortuitous position of the pores of glass.


Glanville. Preexistence of Souls, ch. xi.
They are all and each of them attributes of the whole, attri- And the consolations we have, are called the comforts of the
butes of the one simple infinite being ; just as the powers of Holy Ghost. Acts, xi. 38. As being the author and diffuser of
hearing and seeing, are not incqualities or difformities in the soul them into our hearts, &c.
of man; but each of them, powers of the whole soul.

Goodwin. Works, vol. v. part i. fol. 19.
Clarke. On the Attributes, p. 495. And therefore the determination of councils pertains to all,

and is handled by all, not in difusion but in representation.
DIFFU'se, adj.
It. diffondere ; Lat. diffundere,

Taylor. Polemical Discourses. Episcopacy Asserted.

diffusum, to pour apart or abroad; The divine benignity is much more diffusive than the light, the

(dis, and fundere, to pour) See air, the most communicable element in the world, and billeth

every thing according to its measure and capacity of reception.

Hale. Contemplation, rol. i. p. 254. Of Humility.

To pour apart or abroad ; to
spread abroad, to spread or dis-

The truth and spirit of religion comes in a narrow compass,

though the effect and operation thereof are large and diffusive.
perse widely; to extend ; to ex-

Id. A Discourse of Religion, vol. i. p. 459.

And then, what is so much larger than the particulars diffusively
G. Douglas uses Diffound. Vir-

taken is sure very unlikely to be the summ of them.
gil, p. 190.

Hammond. Works, vol. ii. part iv. fol. 71. Of Metropoles, dic.
Or that the charme and venum, which they drunk,

He [Horeman) was one of the most generall schollars of his
Their bloud with secret filth infected hath,

age as may appear by the diffusiveness of his learning, and books

written in all faculties.
Bcing diffused through the senselesse trunk,

Fuller. Worthies. Wiltshire.
That through the great contagion direfull deadly stunk.
Spenser. Frerie Queene, book ii. can. 2. One of my designs, I had in making this experiment, being

to examine a conjecture I had made about the great diffusedness
His virtues diffused throughout the whole world (because we of the noctilucal matter.
know not what his proper name is) we invoke under different Boyle. Works, vol. iv. p. 482. Experiments discovering a strange
Cudworth. Intellectual System, fol. 276.

subtility of parts in the Glacial Noctiluca. Let the statutes of God be turn'd over, be scann'd anew, and

Pleas'd that her magic fame diffusely flies, considered not altogether by the narrow intellectuals of quota

Thus with a horrid smile the hag replies. tionists and common places, but (as was the antient right of

Rowe. Lucan, book vi.
councils) by men of what liberal profession soever, of eminent Thus to the noon of her high glory run,
spirit and breeding, join'd with a diffuse and various knowledge From her bright orb, diffusive like the sun,
of divine and human things.

She did ber healing influence display.
Milton. To the Parliament of England, fic.

Stepney. To the Memory of Queen Mary.




DIFFUSE. Rectified spirit of human blood abounds with very subtle par- Metalls elsewhere are digged, as out of the bowells of the

ticles, which in point of taste, odonr, diffusiveness and penetrancy, earth, so out of the bowells of the land ; I mean so far from any DI- do much resemble those of strong spirits of urine, of hartshorn, conveyance by water, that the expence of the portage swallows GAMMA. and of sal-armoniac.

much of the profits thereof.
Boyle. Works, vol. iv. p. 637. The Natural History of Human

Fuller. Worthies. Wales, Generall.

But the rarest invention is the supplying the miners with fresh
But when the star, day's harbinger, arose,

aire, which is performed by two men's blowing wind by a paire
Soon after whom, in saffron vest attir'd,

of bellows on the outside of the allit, into a pipe of lead, daily The morn her beams diffuses o'er the sea,

lengthened as the mine is made longer, whereby the candle in The pyre, then wasted, ceas'd to flame.

the mine is daily kept burning, and the diggers recruited con-
Cowper. Homer. Iliad, book xxiii. stantly with a sufficiency of breathi. This inyeution was the
master-piece of Sir Francis Bacon.

Id. 16.
Mr. Warburton's text, as well as all others, read,
“she would infect to the north-star;"

A ravinous vulture in his open side,
and it is the diffusedness, or extent of her infection which is here

Her crooked beak and cruel talons try'd :
described. Edwards. The Canons of Criticism, canon 22.

Siill for the growing liver digg'd liis breast;
A sentiment, wliich, expressed diffusely, will barely be admitted The growing liver still supply'd the feast.
to be just, expressed concisely, will be adınired as spirited.

Dryden. Virgil. Æneid, book vi.
Blair. Lecture 18. vol. ii.

On that principle, the wedge-like snout of a swine, with its
of a beautiful and magnificent difficsireness, Cicero is, beyond tough cartilage at the end, and little sunk eyes, and the whole
doubt, the most illustrious instance that can be given.

make of the head, so well adapted to its offices of digging and
Id. lb. rooting, would be extremely beautiful.

Burke. On the Sublime and Beautiful.
If I were to choose, I should clearly give the preference to the
style resembling winter snow, that is, to the full and diffusive ; in DIGAMY, Gr. raula, a second marriage;
short, to that pomp of eloquence, which seems all heavenly and Di'gamist. S from ĉoorján-elv, to marry twice or a
Jelmoth. Pliny, to Cornelius Tacitus.

second time. Fr. digame.
Grand reservoirs of public happiness,

Digamy and Bigamy were formerly used indiscrimi-
Through secret streams diffusirely they bless.
Young. Love of Fame, sat. 6.

nately. See Bigasy.
Dician. A. Saronibus est Fossam fo-

Therefore it must probably signifie lier that is departed by

divorce, and then that which followeth of the dig amist will also
Di'gger, -dere : (Lye.) i. e. to dig a ditch.—Som-

concur with it, to interpret his sense to this purpose.
Di’GGING. J ner; To make a trench, ditch, dike or Hammond. Works, vol. ii. fol. 693. Annotations, 1 Epistle
moat. See Dike, and Dircii.

to Timothy, ch. iii.
To dig, as now used, is to raise, turn or throw up,

Then for the other interpretation, that here the digamist, or
or turn over the earth, sc. with a spade or other tool. he that hath had two wives successively one after another, should
Dijkers and delvers diggeden up þe balkes.

be made incapable of holy orders, or be under some reproach for
Piers Plouhman, Vision, p. 134.
so doing, &c.

Id. 16. fol. 693.
And he answered vii. lambes shalte thou take of my hande,

And for the ordinary digamy, the marrying a second after the
that it maye be a wytnesse vnto me, ye I haue dygged this well.

decease of the foriner, that that should be so reproachfull and Bible, Anno 1551. Genesis, ch. xxi.

blameable in any, as to render one incapable of holy orders

(which they are capable of, which have been guilty of some
And trees far under earth, (by daily digging found.) faults) this is not imaginable neither.
Drayton. Poly-olvin, song 28.

Id. 16. sol. j. fol. 597. Of Divorces.


DIGAMMA, Gr. ĉis yeuria, a figurd. The Double the fact that it is still found in ancient documents for Gamma, so named from its form, F. One Gainma set the number 6. In the Code.r Bezæ, we find the characupon another.

ter s used for this number, to denote the Ammonian Wbile tow'ring o'er your alphabet, like Saul,

section in the margin. This explains the paradoxical Stands our digamma, and o'ertops tlem all.

introduction of the character 5, by which this number Pope. The Dunciaıl, book iv.

is usually expressed in MSS., and which is, in reality,
From the same root we have a word for the wild goat of the only a corruption of the more ancient form. As the
mountains, from its climbing upwards ; also for the leaf of a

subject is one on which conjectures have been almost
tree, from its superiour situation; whence, from the f or
digamma prefixed, we have the Latin folium.

boundless, we think we shall best consult the interests
Horne. Works, vol. i. p. 436. Letter on the Use of the Hebrew of knowledge by setting down such information on

this point as antiquity has left us.
The DIGAMMA, DIGAMMOS, or DIGAMMON, was the Dionysius of Halicarnassus, (Antiq. Rom. lib. i. cap.
sixth letter of the ancient Pelasgic or Grecian Alpha- 20,) speaking of the aboriginal inhabitants of Italy,
bet. Its form and power have given rise to great dis- says "To the Pelasgians they gave lands in the neigh-
cussion among scholars. The Phænician or Sama- bourhood of the sacred lake, the greater part of which
ritan letters appear to have been originally exactly the were marshy, (eduên,) which are still called Velia,
same with those of the Pelasgians in form, order, power, Ovédia,) after the ancient form of the language ; for it
and name. Aleph or Alpha, Beth or Beta, Gimel or was the general custom of the ancient Greeks to pre-
Gamma, Daleth or Delta, He, Vau. That this last fix to words beginning with a vowel the syllable où
name was given to the Digamma by the Greeks we written in a single letter. This letter resembled a l',
know from Priscian, (de Litt. ;) and that it occupied the with two cross lines joining one straight one, as
sixth place in the Alphabet we may also conclude from Fedém, Fivut, Foixos, Favip, and many similar."


Mr. Payne Knight is of opinion that the Digamma ment, wherein the Digamma should appear: and in the DIGAMMA. fell into general disuse about the time of the Persian XVIth century, Goltz published several coins supposed of

GAMMA. war, But long after this letter had become obsolete the Falisci with the inscription FAAEINN. This testiwith the other nations of Greece, it was retained mony, although well authenticated, was little regarded, among the Æolians; and therefore we frequently find as, the word being written in Latin with an F, it was it mentioned in ancient writers under the title of “the supposed that it had been adopted into the Greek to Æolian Digamma." It had, however, long since express a sound which that language did not possess. ceased to be used even among them in the time of But it is probable that these coins belonged to the Dionysius ; and Priscian mentions as a curiosity an Eleans, as that nation is termed FAAEIOI on the inscription on a tripod at Constantinople which he Elean inscription. In 1708, however, Montfaucon had himself seen, and which ran thus :

(Palæographia Græca, lib. ii. 1,) published a fac simile ΔΗΜΟΦΟ FΩΝ ΛΑFOKOFΏΝ. .

of an inscription on the pedestal of a statue of Apollo

in the Island of Delos, which was given him by TourIt became therefore an object of interest with anti- nefort, and runs thus : quaries to discover some inscription, or ancient docu


This, Montfaucon reads ....oa év tự low elui åvąpids advantage of being the most ancient inscription ever
kai opéras: mistaking the third letter for a mu- copied in Greece, or brought to this country; it
tilated E. Chishull, in his Antiquitates Asiaticæ, has contains FRATPA for propa, FAAEIOIE for 'Helois,
clearly shown that this letter is really no other than EY FAOΙOΙΣ for Εύαοίοις, FΈTEA for έτεα, FEΠΟΣ
the Digamma : and thus the passage will stand : for έπος, ΓΑΡΓΟΝ apparently for έργον, and FΕΤΑΣ

for έτης.

From all this unexceptionable testimony we derive a in more modern Greek,

very fair notion of the several forms of the Digamma,
και αυτά λίθα είμι ανδριάς και το σφέλας. .

and of the manner in which it was formerly employed.
The next discovery of the Digamma was in 1783, when we will now proceed to collect from ancient autho-
a brazen tablet was found at Petilia, in the country of rity the mode of its pronunciation.
the Brutti, which contains the word FOIKIAN. And

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, as we have already seen,
in 1795, Mr. Morritt discovered, near Olympia, a

attributes to the Digamma the force of the Greek où: brazen helmet with an inscription, of which a copy is and that the Greek où corresponds nearly, though not given in the Classical Journal, vol. i. p. 323, and of entirely, with the Roman V, whether vowel or consowhich Bishop Marsh has offered a most satisfactory nant, is obvious from the manner in which the two account in his Horæ Pelasgicæ, (part i. ch. iii.) The nations respectively wrote the names of each other. inscription is

Thus the Romans rendered ’AplozóBOY los by Aristo

Vlus; and the Greeks, Virgilius and Varro by OYipyiTADT | ||1||| OI ANEOENTOIAIFITONKOPINOOOEN. deos and OY appwr: yet that the Greeks had no letter That is ταργειοι (fort. ταργει Foι) ανεθεν τοι ΔιFι τον precisely corresponding to tlie Latin V, may be inΚορινθοθεν,-οι Αργέιοι ανέθεσαν τω Δι των Κορινθόθεν. ferred from the words Νόμας, Σύλλα, Βιργίλιος, Βαρρων, Besides these, the Orchomenian Marble, in the collec- by which they also expressed the Roman names, tion of Lord Elgin, contains the words Fikari, Fetia, Numa, Sulla, Virgilius, Varro. Oủ, therefore, is rather and Fedatın, for eľkool, étea, and Elatera' and an in- to be considered an approximation to the Latin V, scription copied by Gropius from a marble near the site than the sound itself; and the nearest which Dionysius of the ancient Crissa, on the Corinthian bay, exhibits could employ to express the sound in question. KnowFOMA probably for our.

ing, therefore, that the sound of the Roman V did not In all these inscriptions, the Digamma resembles exist in the Greek language in the time of Dionysius ; more or less the Roman F, the only difference ex- that the Digamma was also lost; that the place which isting in the inclination of the cross lines to the he calls Ovelia was actually written in Latin Velia ; stem. There is, however, another form under which and that this name originally had the Digamma; it sometimes appears, resembling an upright and it seems difficult to come to any other conclusion than inverted Gamma united, C. This form was supposed that the Digamma was no other in power than the to be confined to Italy; but coins have been found in- Latin V. We shall see how far this opinion is supscribed CASION as well as FAEINN, and the latter ported by ancient' testimony. The authority of the are generally referred to Axus in Crete. The C is learned and laborious Varro, far more important than used on the Heraclean Tables, which exhibit CEIKATI that of Dionysius, comes first to be noticed, who obfor eľkoor, [Ez for F, CETOS for éros, [E for é, serves, (de Ling. Lat.) Tempus secundum Ver, quod tum [EIKATIAEIQ for civatiôćw, CEKTA for frT9, CIKATI virere incipiunt virgulta, et vertere se tempus anni; also for cřkool. Beside these words, the Digamma is nisi quod Iones dicunt BHP.” That the Ionians did not found in all others derived from them.

write BHP, we know from their works; and indeed The most important inscription, however, for illus- Varro's statement only implies that this was the trating the use of the Digamma is one which was Ionian pronunciaton. B therefore appears to be used by brought from Elis by Sir William Gell, in 1813. It Varro as an approximation to the Æolic Digamma, is a brazen tablet, and relates to a treaty between the as it is used by the Greeks themselves as an approxEleans and Evæans, entered into, as Mr. Payne Knight imation to the Latin V. Suetonius (Claud. xlv.) and conjectures, about the XLth Olympiad. It has the Tacitus (Annal. xi. xiv.) inform us, that the Emperor

" V

DI- Claudius added three letters to the Roman alphabet, it is purely conjectural and analogical, and has no DI-
GAMMA. and wrote a Treatise on their necessity. Such an au- positive support, except what is afforded it by the GAMMA.

thority as Claudius would be of little value, had we single, equivocal, and even self-contradictory testimony
not the opinion of Quinctilian, that the Æolic Di- of Priscian.
gamma, which was one of these, was by no means an More fortunate, however, is the learned Prelate
useless addition. In the inscriptions of that Emperor when contending against Dawes and tos augi Aavorov,
the Digamma makes its appearance inverted, as in the who would express the Digamma by the English W.
words AMPLIA JIT, TERMINALITQ, and uniformly for There is no evidence whatever that either the Digamma
V. The advantage of this introduction appears to or the Latin V was thus pronounced. It is quite
have been the distinction of the consonant and vowel enough to picture to our minds the honey-tongued
V, which hitherto had been expressed by the same Nestor beginning an oration :
letter. The Digamma of Claudius was discontinued

ώ πόποι, η δη παισι Wewoίκοτες αγορέψεσθε.
after his death. Marius Victorinus (de Litteris) ex-
pressly declares that the Æolian Digamma was pro- Mr. Payne Knight, however, has defended the
nounced similarly to the Latin V; and Priscian is very theory of Dawes with great ingenuity, in his Prolego-
copious on the subject, (lib. i. Cap. de Litteris.)

mena in Homerum, wherein he contends, from the testi-
consonant in Latin (says the latter author) had always mony of Terentianus concerning the Latin V, that the
the force of the Æolic F, and therefore it takes the Æolic Digamma was not remarkably melodious.
same name Vau, formed from its sound, as Varro and

We will now endeavour to ascertain somewhat of
Didymus testify, who show that this was its appella- the purposes which the Digamma served in the early
tion.” “ So true is it that the Æolic Digamma is language of Greece. The Phænician characters which
represented by our V, that we find Astyages writing

were first used in Greece, ended with the letter T. Oιόμενος Γέλεναν ελικόπιδα:

The Greeks, however, possessed a sound in their lan

guage, inexpressible by the Phænician character, conand we also say,

cerning which it is in vain now to conjecture. To At Venus haul animo nequicquam erterrita mater."

express this sound, the character V, afterwards Y, was To the same purpose Terentianus,

invented at a very early period in the history of the

language; but before this invention, when the rules si prior sit V, sequatur illa (littera I)

of pronunciation were less definite, the language less
Quum dico Vide, contulit I sonum priori,

settled, and practice less restricted, it appears that
Ast ipsa manet tempore quo sonabat ante ;
Vocalibus hoc eo reliquis prædita servat,

they sometimes employed the Digamma as the best
Ut Vade, Veni, vota refer, teneto vultum,


The Delian inscription appears to
Crevisse sonum perspicis, et coïsse crassum.

have been written when the use of the V was scarcely
Unde Æoliis littera fingitur Digammos,

determined, for there we find AFYTO for AFTO or
Quæ de numero sit magis una consonantúm

AVTO. The modern Greeks have now two pronun-
Vocalis in istum mage quàm versa sit usum.

ciations of the Y; when it occurs in a diphthong,
In addition to this evidence, Papirian and Adaman- they pronounce it like a V; but otherwise like their
tius Martyrius, as cited by Cassiodorus,(de Orthographid, own I or the English E. That the Romans also gave
iv. v.) and Donatus, and Sergius his commentator, all the V the consonant sound in what we call diphthongs,
ascribe to the Digamma the power of the Roman V. appears from the circumstance of the word cauneus

Strong as appears to be this body of testimony, being mistaken by the soldiers of Crassus for cave ne
Bishop Marsh, in his Horæ Pelasgicæ, contends that eas. (Cic. de Div. lib. ii. cap. xl.) In the Sigean in-
the Digamma was not pronounced like the V, but scription, there can be little doubt that V stands for
like the F of the Roman alphabet. For this hypothesis the Digamma in the word EITEVEVEI,“where, if we
the learned Prelate is unable to allege any ancient consider each ev as a diphthong, the word is very un-
evidence except a passage of Priscian, who, as has couth, both in pronunciation and in grammatical form.
been already seen, has himself vindicated the contrary But if we divide the word thus, FITE-VEV-SI, and
opinion. In the beginning of the Chapter de Numero consider V as a consonant, substituted for Fat a time
litterarum apud veteres, the Grammarian observes, when F was fallen into disuse, the inconvenience is at
the Æolic Digamma, among the early Latins had once removed. We may thus also account for the two
the power of the Greek P. P with the aspirate ex- forms which appear in this inscription, ΣΙΓΕΙΕΣ and
presses nearly the same sound which F now has ; as EITEYEYTI, which Dawes (Miscellanea Critica, p.
we find even among the early Greeks nl for 0. In 122) considered as irreconcilable. If EI-SE-FEFE was
writing Greek words we retain the ancient ortho- the original nominative, EI-TE-FE F-EI, and (when V
graphy, as Orpheus, Phaëthon ; but in Latin words was substituted for F) SI-LE-VEV-XI would, of
F was afterwards employed for P and I, as Fama, course, be the dative plural: Again, if at a period
Filius, Facio ; but instead of the Digamma, V conso- when orthography was subjected to little or no rule,
nant, because that letter appeared to bear an affinity we suppose that the termination was indifferently
of sound to the Digamma." This testimony is certainly written FE FE or FIFE, (FETIA is for FETEA on the
explicit and positive ; but even this admits that the Orchomenian marble) the nominative plural of Si-
Latin V, although not the same with the Digamma, TE-FIFE would be SI-TE-FIFEX, or, without the
was used as its substitute, and will bear no compa- Digamma, which was not then used at Sigeum, SI-
rison with the early evidence of Varro.

TE-I-EE. We see, therefore, in what manner EIT-
The argument of Bishop Marsh will not admit of EIEE might become the nominative plural of a word
abridgement, nor have we the means of stating it at which had produced XITEVEVEI for the dative
length: from what has been said, however, it will be plural." (Marsh's Horæ Pelasgica, part i. ch. iv. note.)
evident, that, although highly learned and ingenious, In the Elean inscription we have EFAOIOIS for

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