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HOPIA The Promontory of Lepte Extrema, near Berenice, mouth of the Red Sea, formed by the Promontory ETHIOPIA
(nearly in 24° N.) called by Pliny (ii. 73) the City of called Diré. The last named place was near Berenice
built on different parts of their coast : the first was century,) and it is called the Azanian Sea by Pliny, renice. Berenice, nearly in latitude 24° N., the ruins of which (N. H. vi
. 34,) the name of the adjoining country were visited by M. Belzoni, in 1818, (Travels, 329, 330.) being at that time Azania, a term derived perhaps from It was named after the mother of its founder, Ptolemy the Arabic word Ajan, which exactly corresponds Philadelphus. A little to the South of it was an island with the Greek Bápßapos, (barbarus.) The Southern
first called Ophiodes, from the serpents by which it was Horn, (Noti Cornu,) the next great Promontory, was Noti Cornu pazos. infested, and afterwards Topazos, from the gems found much lower down, and supposed by the Ancients to be
in it, (Diod. iii. 39.) Under the Ptolemies all access South of the Equator. Beyond it were the Ports of
North to South. The last, (in North latitude 19') placed by Ptolemy in 15° South latitude, and all beyond tolemais.
called Ptolemaïs Ferarum, from the elephants taken in it, he says, is terra incognita, (vñ aywotos.) The Island
the same race as the Nobatæ, who were mingled, on Adulis. Adulis was built by runaway slaves from Egypt, the East and North-East, with the Blemmyes, another Blemmyes.
(Pliny, N. H. vi. 34,) and was distant from its Port wild and vagrant race, scattered over the mountains
ETHIOPIA N. H. v. 8.) The first seen at Rome were those who Nile flows onwards, with an uninterrupted stream, to ETHICFIS
appeared in the Triumph of Aurelian, (. D. 272.) Egypt, though, as was before observed, in a tortuous But they must have been more civilized in the next course. The country is mountainous and well-wooded; half century, for they sent ambassadors to the Court and contains mines of copper, iron, gold, and salt. Some of Constantine the Great, (Euseb. Vita Const. iv. 7.) of the inhabitants are migratory, some hunters, and Their fierceness and warlike habits are frequently men- others husbandmen. In their towns, the houses have tioned by the early Christian writers, and we learn walls made of interwoven palm-slats, or of bricks. The from Procopius, (De Bello Persico, i. p. 60,) that they most common trees are the Palm, (Phænir dactylifera,) worshipped Isis, Osiris, and Priapus, (Mendis,) and the Persea, (Balanites Ægyptiaca?) the Ebenus, offered human victims to the Sun; a part of their reli- (Diospyrus Ebenus,) and the Ceratia, (Ceratonia gious belief, therefore, was borrowed from Egypt and siliqua.) The beasts are elephants, lions, and leoEthiopia. Heliodorus (Ethiop. x. p. 495) represents pards; there are also serpents, which attack (eren) them as crowned with garlands of bows and arrows, the elephants, and many other wild beasts ; for (such garnished with serpents' teeth ; and so daring as to animals) fly from the hotter and more parched regions, creep under their enemy's horse, stab him in the belly, to the moist and marshy places."
and massacre his rider, as soon as he was thrown by “ The Libyans occupy the Western, and the Æthi. Bojah or his struggling beast, (Ibid. x. 435.) The Bojah, con- opians the opposite bank of the Nile; but the latter, Bejah.
sidered by the Arabs as a Berber race, occupied nearly being the stronger, are masters of the islands, and the the same country, and, in their character and habits, water's edge. They use wooden bows, four cubits
strongly resembled these barbarians. They are now long, and bent by means of fire. They arn their Bishareen. replaced by the Bishárí, (Burckhardt's Nubia, p. 148,) women, most of whom have a copper ring in one of
who were themselves driven from the Northern part of their lips. They wear sheep-skins, but not covered this territory by the Abábideh Arabs, the latter now with wool, for their sheep have hair like goats. Some extending as far as Berenice, and being in possession go naked; others have small sheep-skins, or neatly of the emerald mines, (Belzoni, p. 309,) which for- woven hair-cloths girt (round their loins.) They bemerly belonged to the Bojah, (Macrízi, in Burckh. lieve one God to be immortal, and the cause of all Nubia, p. 503.) Far from being as hideous as the things; another, a mortal, nameless being, not disBlemmyes, “the Bishárin of Atbara,” says Burckhardt, tinctly known. For the most part, however, they con(Ibid. p. 371,) they are a handsome and bold race sider their benefactors as Gods, whether they be private of people.” They are constantly armed, much given to individuals, or persons of Princely dignity: the latter quarrelling, thieving, and drunkenness. This, more- are honoured publicly, as the common saviours and over, " is not the worst part of their character;" for guardians of all; the former privately, by those on
they appear to be treacherous, cruel, avaricious, and whom they confer benefits. Amongst the inhabitants revengeful,” heedless of any laws, human or divine. of the burned country, some are reckoned Atheists, They are as bad Musulmáns as the Negroes are good, and said to abhor the Sun, whom, when they see him and as inhospitable as the latter are liberal. Raw rising, they revile, as scorching and making war upon meat, and blood warm from the animal, are their them ; and they afterwards fly to the marshes. The greatest dainties, (Ibid. p. 149.) They have a dark inhabitants of Meroë also worship Hercules, Pan, and brown complexion, with fine eyes and teeth, (p. 370 ;) Isis, together with another foreign God." Diodorus, but their language, of which Burckhardt and Seetzen who evidently drew his materials from the same sources, formed vocabularies, (Nubia, p. 160 ; Vater's Proben has added some facts omitted by Strabo. “ The Gods Volksmundarten, p. 263 ; Salt's Travels, Append. p. xv.) whom they believe to be eternal and incorruptible are," does not appear to have any affinity with that of the he says, (iii. 9,) “the Sun, the Moon, and the whole Bojahs or Takas, (Takué of Salt ;) who were probably Universe;" those who partake of a mortal nature are dislodged by them, just as they were themselves sup- men, “ who, by their virtue and universal beneficence planted by the Abábidehs.
to mankind, have obtained immortal honours." He Æthiopia The narrow valley through which the Nile seems to names Jupiter as one of the Deities worshipped by the Proper. force its way towards Egypt, and the extensive plains Æthiopians of Meroë, so that this account differs less
lying between that valley and junction of the Nile with from that of Herodotus than his learned translator, the Atbara, form the Northern paii of the region which M. Larcher, (Herod. ii. 217, ed. 1802,) has hastily was peculiarly called Æthiopia by the Ancients.* The affirmed. Some of their dead the Ethiopians threw central and most valuable part of Æthiopia Proper into the river, (Strabo, l. c.; Diodor. ii. 9,) others they was the peninsula, or, (as the Greeks supposed,) preserved in their houses enclosed in glass; others the Island of Meroë, “ reported,” says Strabo, (p. 117, again they buried in coffins (sori) made of eartherned. Casaub.; 565, ed. Almelov.,) " to have the form ware, in the sacred enclosure round their Temples, and of an oblong shield, and to measure—(perhaps the when they swore by them, the oath was considered as account is exaggerated)--3000 stadia (375 miles) most sacred. Their Kings were chosen either for their in length, and 1000 (125 miles) in breadth. On the beauty, excellent management of their cattle, courage, Libyan side it is enclosed by large sand-hills; on the or wealth ; and for many Ages, the government was Arabian, by continual precipices ; on the South, by the entirely under the controul of the Priests, who caused it confluence of the rivers Astaboras," (Tacazzé or At- to be intimated to the King when they thought it was bara ;) Astapus,” (Bahr-el-azrek, Blue River, or time that he should despatch himself, and make way for Abyssinian Nile;) “and Astasobas," (Bahr-el-abyad, his successor. This hierarchical dominion was, howWhite River, or true Nile ;) “ but to the North, the ever, subverted by the determined conduct of Erya.
menes, (contemporary with Ptolemy Philadelphus, * This tract of country was in later times called Nubia, and under
A. D. 235—247,) who entered the sanctuary at the that head the Reader will find a more detailed account of it. head of a faithful band of soldiers, and massacred all
ETHIOPIA the Priests, instead of preparing to kill himself, when- named after his wife, sister, or mother ; but this, he- ETHIOPIA
ever they should please to recommend it. The Ethi- sides being unnoticed by Herodotus, who lived so near
opians were subject. Esar or Sapen on the Western,
It was, according to Bion, twenty days' their children, and were, in fact, according to Diodorus, journey (400 miles) from Meroë. (iii. 3,) the stock whence Egypt was originally peopled, There were, as we learn from Diodorus, (iii. 8,) on Wild by a colony under the direction of Osiris. The agree- each side of the river many other tribes of savages,
Negroes ment of their Laws and Religion, the similarity of the black, flat-nosed, and woolly-headed; the most civilized different Orders of their Priests, and, above all, their of whom had not advanced beyond the Pastoral state. using the same written, or rather painted characters, to We read in the Hebrew Scriptures, (Gen. x. 6; 1 Chron. Cushites. express their words, were, he thought, sufficient proofs i. 8,) that Cush and Mizraim, Phut and Canaan, were of the truth of this assertion. The characters used by all sons of Ham; and that the last settled in Syria, the Egyptians were, he adds, of two sorts; those called the second and third in Egypt, an the first in Arabia; popular, which were taught to all; and those termed whence his descendants crossed over the Red Sea, and sacred, which were known only to the Priests: but the established themselves in Southern Ethiopia. Hence latter were used by all the Ethiopians. Now it is it arose, that Kush was used to express a part of evident, from an examination of the Rosetta Inscrip- Arabia, (Gen. x. 7,8; Numbers, xii, 1,) as well as tion, that the Enchorial or Demotic and Hieroglyphic Ethiopia, though more frequently the latter, as the characters mentioned in it, must be the two kinds proverb, “ Can the Ethiopian change his skin,” (Jer. meant by Diodorus; and his assertion, that the latter xii. 23,) plainly shows. The easy passage from Arabia were used by the Ethiopians, has been confirmed, not to Africa, afforded by the Strait of Báb-el-mandeb, only by the monuments lately examined in Nubia, must have led to emigrations at an early period; and many of which were erected by Egyptian Princes, but the Abyssinians themselves derive the race of their by those found in or near the Island of Meroë itself; Kings from the Queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, and the discovery of the name of Tirhacah, both at and was an Arabian Princess. This is sufficient to show Thebes and in the ruins of Napata, (Merawéh,) or whence they sprang, notwithstanding their persuasion Meroë, (near Shendí,) is certainly not one of the least that she was an African; for their own traditions are curious of the many facts brought to light by the study too vague and imperfect to be put into the balance of that Inscription, (Salt's Phonetic System of the Hiero- against those of the Arabs. Eichhorn has suggested, glyphics.) That King, we know from the most indis- (De Cuschæis, Arnstad, 1774) that the emigration putable evidence, (2 Kings, xix. 9,) had extended his from Arabia to the African coast probably took place Empire beyond the boundaries of Egypt; if, therefore, under Abd Shems, the fourth descendant of Eber; Diodorus was rightly informed, hieroglyphical inscrip- but the story of the army sent to the West by Málik, tions, recording his reign, must have been made, not surnamed Náshiru'n-niâm, and buried there i the sand, only in Ethiopia, but in Egypt likewise; and, accord- seems to indicate the desertion of his troops, and their ingly, his name has been found inscribed on public having established themselves on the Western side
monuments in the Capitals of both those countries. of the Red Sea. If so, a later period may be assigned City of Meroë, the metropolis of the former, was near the for the commencement of the Abyssinian Kingdom ;
Northern extremity of the Peninsula bearing the same and as that Prince was the immediate successor of
from the Red Sea, for an expeditious courier, (Strabo, ful to invade and make themselves masters of Yemen. Automoli. xvi. 4, p. 1115, D.) It was likewise exactly half-way As the plea for this invasion was Dhú Nuwás's cruel
between Elephantine and the Automoli, (Herod. ii. 30,) persecution of his Christian subjects, it is manifest that
therefore, be doubted; but it was either unknown or Abyssinia in most modern languages,) are the present ETHIOMA
unnoticed by the Greeks; and its language, which has names of those divisions of Ethiopia which were best ETI- a close affinity with the Arabic and other Semitic known to the Ancients, and have been in some degree ETON QUETTE. dialects, differs widely from the Ægyptian, (commonly accessible to the moderns. Of ABYSSINIA, an account
called Coptic,) which was, as may be collected from has been already given in its alphabetical place, the
cher, Traduction d'Herodote, Paris, 1802; Rennell's Nubia, Sennár, and Habbesh, (transformed into Geography of Herodotus ; Ludolfi Historia Æthiopica.
ETHNARCH, (Gr. Ovápx": Ovos, a nation, apxw, logy, Menage says, is natural enough! But the inter-
A ticket; delivered not only, as Cotgrave says, for
Not of the Jewish or Christian remonious observance of rank or place; to ceremony.
He cannot drink five bottles, bilk the score,
Then kill a constable, and drink five more;
But he can draw a pattern, make a tart,
And has the ladies' etiquette by heart.
Couper. The Progress of Errour.
It (simplicity] is guilty of ludicrous offences against the laws of
custom, or the ctiquettes of fashion, although by its reasoning wrong,
according to prevailing ideas, it frequently evinces just aud accurate Ben Jonson, Part of the King's Entertainment in passing to his
conceptions of what is right.
Cogan. On the Passions, vol. ii. p. 198. Acquirement, &c.
ETON, a Town in the County of Bucks, on the
, unnaturall, odions it is connected by a bridge. Population in 1821, 2475. practice of men's putting on women's apparell, even among the eth
Distant from London 22 miles North-West. nickes, that the Lycians when they chanced to mourne, did usually The College of Eton was founded by Henry VI. in put on the woman's garment, that the very deformity and infamy of 1440, and consists at present, with a slight alteration that array might move them the sooner to cast off their foolish sorrow. Prynne. Histrio-Mastir, part ii. act ii sc. 2.
from its original constitution, of a Provost, Vice-ProEthnicke would understand justice itself to have failed, as it is a
vost, seven Fellows, two School-masters, two Conducts, virtue abstract, and may be considered without a person.
seven Clerks, ten Choristers, and 70 Scholars; some of
Eton College, and none, therefore, can partake of the
Foundation, a large number of other Boys (Oppidans)
two Masters, and Chapel ; the innermost, the houses “What means," quoth he, “this Devil's procession
of the Provost, Vice-Provost, and Fellows, and the With men of orthodox profession ?
Library, which is very richly furnished. 'Tis ethnique and idolatrous,
Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, has noticed from a From heathenism deriv'd to us."
MS. in the British Museum, Status Scholæ Etonensis Butler. Hudibras, part ii. can. 2.
1560, (Donat 4843,) numerous customs observed at ETHULIA, in Botany, a genus of the class Synge- Eton College. The Boys on the first of January used nesia, order Æqualis, natural order Corymbifere. Ge- to play for New Year's gifts, and to present verses neric character: calyx equal, nearly globose, squarrose; to their Masters, and to one another. On Shrove Monflorets variously formed, those of the disk five-cleft, of day, also, they wrote verses in praise of Bacchus, to the radius subulate, toothless; receptacle naked; down whose tutelage Poets were assigned. On the following
Tuesday they played through the whole day, from Four species, natives of the East Indies. Persoon. eight o'clock in the morning; and the Cook fastened
ETIQUETTE, Fr. etiquette; Sp. etiqueta. Bourdelot a Pancake to a Crow, near the School door, while its and Huet derive from Gr. stixos, order ; thus, otiyos, young were calling upon the unhappy Bird. On Ash stichus, stichellus, stichetta, etiquette. And this Etymo- Wednesday they confessed themselves to such of their
ETON. ETON. Masters or Chaplains as they thought fit. On the First Warton (Hist. of Eng. Poetry, ii. 375, 4to ed.) says, of May, if it were fair weather, and the Master granted that this custom originated from the ancient and
ETY. leave, those who chose it might rise at four in the popular practice of theatrical processions in Collegiate MOLOGY. morning to gather May branches, if they could do so Bodies.” Brand, on the contrary, traces it to the election without wetting their feet. On that day, also, they of Boy Bishop in many similar foundations on St. Niadorned the windows of the Dormitory with green cholas's day, a custom which, as a profanation of things leaves. On Midsummer eve they hung pictures upon sacred, was abolished by Henry VIII. in 1542. It is their beds, and affixed to their bed-posts copies of plain that a Boy Bishop used to be elected by the Eton verses, transcribed in a fair hand, in honour of the Bap- Scholars, and Brand supposes that from a natural reluctist. On Midsummer day, at the close of the morning tance to lose their holyday they substituted playing at prayers, they approached a fire lighted in the Eastern Soldiers for playing at Priests. In order to strengthen end of the Chapel, and after the performance of three this very probable conjecture, he shows, that the MonAntiphonies were dismissed to luncheon, (merenda.) tem is known to have existed as far back as the reign of The same practice occurred on the Feast of St. Peter ; Elizabeth ; that within the memory of man, it was kept on the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas they just before the winter holydays ; that St. Nicholas's day made a Bonfire, and had a holyday, (si placet Præcep- (Dec. 6) is still observed as a gaudy day in the College, tori.) On a certain day in September, (Brand conjec- and that the procession is (or till of late years was) tures the 14th, Holy Cross day, because a similar custom accompanied by a mock Chaplain and Clerk. He adds is observed on that day elsewhere,) they were employed many authorities to prove that Salt is emblematical of as follows. It would be unjust to our readers if in this Learning; and he thus paraphrases the cry of the Saltinstance we omitted to give the original words. Si bearers, (“Salt,” “ Salt,”) while they are demanding visum fuerit Preceptori liberrimè ludendi facultas pueris contributions, “Ladies and Gentlemen, your subsidy conceditur: et itur collectum avellanas, quas domum money for the Captain of the Eton Scholars. By this cum onusti reportaverint, veluti nobilis alicujus prædæ Salt, which we give as an earnest, we pledge ourselves portionem, Præceptori, cujus auspiciis susceptum illius to become proficients in the Learning we are sent hither diei iter ingressi sunt, impartiunt ; tum vero communi- to acquire, the well-known emblem of which we now cant etiam Magistris. Priusquam vero Nuces legendi present you with in return.” potestas permittetur, carmina pangunt, Autumni pomi- ETTEN, Dr. Leyden says, “ettyn, a giant; A. S. feri fertilitatem et fructuosam abundantiam pro virili eten. Hence Red-Ettyn, the Red-Giant; forte a A. S. describentes, quinetiam adventantis Hyemis durissimi etan, to eat; hence an Anthropophagus.” Gloss. to Anni temporis lethalia frigora, quâ possunt lamentabili Complaint of Scotland; and Benson, etan, edere, eten, oratione deflent et persequuntur : sic omnium rerum comestus, gigas. Somner says, perhaps from Oetus. vicissitudinem jam a pueris addiscentes, tum Nuces (ut Wife. Faith, husband, and Ralph says true, for they say the King in proverbio est) relinquunt, id est, omissis studiis ac of Portugal cannot sit at his meat, but the giants and the ettins will
come and snatch it from him. nugis puerilibus, ad graviora magisque seria convertun
Beaumont and Fletcher. Knight of the Burning Pestle, act i. sc. 1. tur. On the Election Saturday, the Butcher of the
ETYMO'LOGY, College was used to give a Ram, to be hunted by the
Fr. etymologie; It. and Sp. Scholars. This rational and amusing pastime having
EtymoʻLOGER, ethimo, etimologia; Lat. etybeen found to be attended with some danger to health,
ETYMO'LOGIST, mon, etymologia; Gr. etuuo.o.
ETYMOLOGIZE, from the violent exertion sometimes required in the
Σγία, (έτυμος, and λόγος,) sermo
EtymoLO'GICAL, pursuit, the Ram was afterwards hamstrung, and with
de etymis, that is, oratio, quâ
EtymOLO'GICALLY, large clubs knocked on the head in the stable yard.
nominis ratio erponitur; a disBut this, as the narrator (Huggett) observes, “ carry
course in which the reason or ing some show of barbarity in it," the custom was cause of the noun or name is explained, or, in the entirely left off in 1747, but the Ram is still (1760) words of Cicero, qua de causâ quæque (verba) essent served up in pasties at the High Table. Finally, during ita nominata, quam Etymologiam appellabant. the Christmas Holydays, the Eton Boys were used to
Gr. etvuos, from étòs, verus, and hence, etymologia, act Plays.
sive de verâ vocum origine. T. H. in Lennep, (Tiberius These customs are extinct in the present day, but Hemsterhuysius.) there is one yet remaining, the ad Montem, concerning
The true origin of words ; of the meaning of words. the origin of which Antiquaries have differed.
The first part of this name we haue found,
Let vs ethimologise the secound.
Chaucer. The Remedie of Loue, fol. 321. occurred every second year,) the Scholars, dressed in
Ransake yet we would if we might regimentals, the Seniors as Officers, the Juniors as
Of this worlde the true ortographie Privates, assemble with music and standards in the
The verie discent of ethimologie. school yard. After marching three times round it, they But how aptlie and trulie the same [chance and clere] may stand move in procession to Salt Hill, a rising ground in the to make the etymon of chancellor, I leave to others to consider. neighbourhood, (Mons puerili religione Ætonensium sacer
Holinshed. Scotland, Anno 1578 as it is styled in the MS. quoted above.) Hence, after
The superstitious man is afraid of the gods, (said the etymologist,) certain ceremonies, they return home, and the day is
δεδιως τους θεους ώσπερ τους τυράννους, fearing of God as if the were a
tyrant, and an unreasonable exacter of duty upon unequal terms, and concluded with festivity. In the mean time some of disproportionable, impossible degrees, and unreasonable, and great the Boys, richly attired in Fancy Dresses, scour the and little instances.
Taylor. Sermon 9. part i. neighbourhood to collect Salt from the numerous visi- The author of the Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with the tors who are attracted to the procession : and a sum Modern, (which many years since I made English) had at the end of exceeding £1000, has been sometimes obtained for the his treatise, began to explain a few of the hard words, technical terms
belonging to the art, the etymologies whereof he thought necessary to benefit of the Captain of the year, who is proceeding to interpret. Cambridge.
Evelyn. Misc. Writ. Account of Architects and Architecture, p. 353.