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and they were generally (as their name literally imports) men of letters; men of the greatest account for learning that were then in the Jewish nation.
2. The Pharisees were a very, ancient sect, or body of men, among the Jews; originally so called from the Hebrew word ons, which signifies to separate or divide. Not that they made any formal separation from, or division in, the national church: they were only distinguished from others by greater strictness of life, by more exactness of conversation. For they were zealous of the law in the minutest points ; paying tithes of mint, anise, and cummin: and hence they were had in honour of all the people, and generally esteemed the holiest of men.
Many of the scribes were of the sect of the Pharisees. Thus St. Paul himself, who was educated for a scribe, first at the university of Tarsus, and after that in Jerusalem, at the feet of Gamaliel, (one of the most learned scribes or doctors of the law, that were then in the nation,) declares of himself before the council, “ I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee,” Acts xxiii, 6; and before king Agrippa, “ After the straitest sect of our religion, I lived a Pharisee," chap. xxvi, 5. And the whole body of the scribes generally esteemed and acted in concert with the Pharisees. Hence we find our Saviour so frequently coupling them together, as coming in many respects under the same consideration: In this place they seem to be mentioned together, as the most eminent professors of religion; the former of whom were accounted the wisest; —the latter, the holiest of men.
3. What “the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees” really was, it is not difficult to determine. Our Lord has preserved an authentic account, which one of them gave of himself: and he is clear and full in describing his own righteousness; and cannot be supposed to have omitted any part of it. He went up indeed " into the temple to pray;" but was so intent upon his own virtues, that he forgot the design upon which he came. For it is remarkable, he does not properly pray at all : he only tells God how wise and good he was. 6 God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers; or even as this publican. I fast twice in the week; I give tithes of all I possess. His righteousness therefore consisted of three parts: First, saith he, “I am not as other men are ;" I am not an extortioner, not unjust, not an adulterer ; not“ even as this publican:" Secondly, " I fast twice izi the week :" And Thirdly, “ I give tithes of all that I
possess. “I am not as other men are. This is not a small point. It is not every man that can say this. It is as if he had said I do not suffer myself to be carried away by that great torrent, custom. I live not by custom, but by reason ; not by the examples of men, but by the word of God. "I am not an extortioner, not unjust, not an adulterer ;" however common these sins are, even among those who are called the people of God; (extortion in particular,-a kind of legal injustice, not punishable by any human law, the making gain of another's ignorance or necessity, -having filled every corner of the land ;) “nor even as this publican;" not guilty of any open or presumptuous sin; not an outward sinner; but a fair honest man, of blameless life and conversation.
4. “I fast twice in the week.” There is more implied in this, than we may at first be sensible of. All the stricter Pharisees observed the weekly fasts; namely, every Monday and Thursday. On the former
day, they fasted in memory of Moses receiving on that day (as then tradition taught) the two tables of stone written by the finger of God; on the latter, in memory of his casting them out of his hand, when he saw the people dancing round the golden calt. On these days, they took no sustenance at all, till three in the afternoon; the hour at which they began to offer up the evening sacrifice in the temple. Till that hour, it was their custom to reinain in the temple, in some of the corners, apartments, or courts thereof; that they might be ready to assis. at all the sacrifices, and to join in all public prayers. The time between they were accustomed to employ, partly in private addresses to God, partly in searching the Scriptures, in rcading the law and the prophets, and in meditating thereon. Thus much is implied in, “I fast twice in the week ;" the second branch of the righteousness of a Pharisee.
5. “ I give tithes of all that I possess. This the Pharisees did with the utmost exactness. They would not except the most inconsiderable thing; ; no, not mint, anise, and cummin. They would not keep back the least part of what they believed properly to belong to God; but gave a full tenth of their whole substance yearly, and of all their increase, whatsoever it was.
Yea, the stricter Pharisees, (as has been often observed by those who are versed in the ancient Jewish writings,) not content with giving one tenth of their substance to God, in his priests and Levites, gave another tenth to God in the poor, and that continually. They gave the same proportion of all they had in alms, as they were accustomed to give in tithes. And this likewise they adjusted with the utmost exactness ; that they might not keep back any part, but might fully render unto God the things which were God's, as they accounted this to be. So that, upon the whole, they gave away, from year to year, an entire fifth of all that they possessed.
6. This was “the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees;" a righteousness which, in many respects, went far beyond the conception which many have been accustomed to entertain concerning it. But perhaps it will be said, “ It was all false and feigned; for they were all a company of hypocrites.' Some of them doubtless were ; men who had really no religion at all, no fear of God, or desire to please him ; who had no concern for the honour that cometh of God, but only for the praise of men. And these are they whom our Lord so severely condemns, so sharply reproves on many occasions. But we must not suppose, because
many Pharisees were hypocrites, therefore all were so. Nor indeed is hypocrisy by any means essential to the character of a Pharisee. This is not the distinguishing mark of their sect. It is rather this, (according to our Lord's account,) “ They trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others." This is their genuine badge. But the Pharisee of this kind cannot be a hypocrite. He must be, in the common sense, sincere; otherwise he could not “trust in himself that he is righteous.” The man who was here commending himself to God, unquestionably thought himself righteous. Consequently he was no hypocrite; he was not conscious to himself of any insincerity. He now spoke to God just what he thought, that he was abundantly better than other men.
But the example of St. Paul, were there no other, is sufficient to put this out of all question. He could not only say, when he was a Christian,
“ Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence, towards Gw, and towards men,” Acts xxiv, 16; but even conceruing the time when he was a Pharisee, “ Men and brethren, I have lives in all good conscience before God until this day,” Acts xxiii, 1. He was therefore sincere when he was a Pharisee, as well as when he was a Christian. He was no more a hypocrite when he persecuted the church, than when he preached the faith which once he persecuted. Let this then be added to “ the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees,'
,"-a sincere belief that they are righteous, and in all things doing God service.”
7. And yet, “ Except your righteousness," saith our Lord, “ shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.” A solemn and weighty declaration, and one which it behoves all, who are called by the name of Christ, seriously and deeply to consider. But before we inquire, how our righteousness may exceed theirs, let us examine, whether at present we come up to it?
First. A Pharisee was " not as other men are.” In externals he was singularly good. Are we so ? Do we dare to be singular at all ? Do we not rather swim with the stream ? Do we not many times dispense with religion and reason together, because we would not look particular? Are we not often more afraid of being out of the fashion, than being out of the way of salvation ? Have we courage to stem the tide ? To run counter to the world ? “ To obey God rather than man ?" Otherwise the Pharisee leaves us behind at the very first step. It is well if we overtake him any more.
But to come closer : Can we use his first plea with God ?—which is, in substance, “I do no harm : I live in no outward sin: I do nothing for which my own heart condemns me.” Do you not ? Are you sure of that? Do you live in no practice for which your own heart condemns you? If you are not an adulterer, if you are not unchaste, either in word or deed, are you not unjust ? The grand measure of justice, as well as of mercy, is, “Do unto others as thou wouldest they should do unto thee." Do you walk by this rule? Do you never do unto any what you would not they should do unto you? Nay, are you not grossly unjust ? Are you not an extortioner? Do you not make a gain of any one's ignorance, or necessity ? Neither in buying nor selling ? Suppose you were engaged in trade: do you demand, do you receive, no more than the real value of what you sell ? Do you demand, do you receive, no more of the ignorant than of the knowing,—of a little child, than of an experienced trader? If you do, why does not your heart condemn you? You are a barefaced extortioner! Do you demand no more than the usual price of goods, of any who is in pressing want,-—who must have, and that without delay, the things which you only can furnish him with? If you do, this also is flat extortion. Indeed you do not come up to the righteousness of a Pharisee.
8. A Pharisee, secondly, (to express his sense in our common way,) used all the means of grace. As he fasted often and much, twice in every week, so he attended all the sacrifices. He was constant in public and private prayer, and in reading and hearing the Scriptures. Do you go as far as this ? Do you fast much and often? Twice in the week ? I fear not. Once at least, on all Fridays in the year ?"
(So our church clearly and peremptorily enjoins all her members to do; to observe all these, as well as the vigils and the forty days of Lent, as days of fasting or abstinence.) Do you fast twice in the year? I am afraid some among us cannot plead even this !-Do you neglect no opportunity of attending and partaking of the Christian sacrifice? How many are they who call themselves Christians, and yet are utterly regardless of it,—yet do not eat of that bread, or drink of that cup, for months, perhaps years together! Do you, every day, either hear tho Scriptures, or read them and meditate thereon ? Do you join in prayer with the great congregation, daily, if you have opportunity; if not, whenever you can; particularly on that day which you“ remember to keep it holy ?” Do you strive to make opportunities ? Are you glad when they •ay unto you, “ We will go into the house of the Lord ?” Are you zealous of, and diligent in, private prayer? Do you suffer no day to pass without it? Rather, are not some of you so far from spending therein (with the Pharisee) several hours in one day, that you
think one hour full enough, if not too much? Do you spend an hour in a day, or in a week, in praying to your Father which is in secret ? Yea, an hour in a month? Have you spent one hour together in private prayer ever since you was born? Ah poor Christian ! shall not the Pharisee rise up in the judgment against thee, and condemn thee? His righteousness is as far above thine, as the heaven is above the earth!
9. The Pharisee, thirdly, paid tithes and gave alms of all that he possessed. And in how ample a manner. So that he was (as we phrase it) só a man that did much good.” Do we come up to him here? Which of us is so abundant, as he was, in good works? Which of us gives a fifth of all his substance to God, both of the principal and of the increase? Who of us, out of (suppose) a hundred pounds a year, gives twenty to God and the poor ; out of fifty,—ten; and so in a larger or a smaller proportion? When shall our righteousness, in using all the means of grace, in attending all the ordinances of God, in avı iding evil, and doing good, equal at least the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees?
10. Although if it only equalled theirs, what would that profit? “For verily I say unto you, Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.” But how can it exceed theirs ? Wherein does the righteousness of a Christian exceed that of a scribe or Pharisee? Christian righteousness exceeds theirs, first, in the extent of it. Most of the Pharisees, though they were rigorously exact in many things, yet were emnboldened, by the traditions of the elders, to dispense with others of equal importance. Thus they were extremely punctual in keeping the fourth commandment,--they would not even rub an ear of corn on the sabbath day; but not at all in keeping the third ; making little account of light, or even false, swearing. So that their righteousness was partial; whereas the righteousness of a real Christian is universal. He does not observe one, or some parts of the law of God, and neglect the rest; but keeps all his commandments, loves them all, values them above gold or precious stones.
11, It may be, indeed, that some of the scribes and Pharisees endeavoured to keep all the commandments, and consequently were, as touching the righteousness of the law, that is, according to the letter of
it, blameless. But still the righteousness of a Christian exceeds all this righteousness of a scribe or Pharisee, by fulfilling the spirit as well as the letter of the law; by inward as well as outward obedience. In this, in the spirituality of it, it admits of no comparison. This is the point which our Lord has so largely proved, in the whole tenor of this dis
Their righteousness was external only; Christian righteousness is in the inner man. The Pharisee “ cleansed the outside of the cup and the platter;" the Christian is clean witha. The Pharisee laboured to present God with a good life; the Christian with a holy heart. The one shook off the leaves, perhaps the fruits of sin; the other “lays the axe to the root;" as not being content with the outward form of godliness, how exact soever it be, unless the life, the spirit, the power of God unto salvation, be felt in the inmost soul.
Thus, to do no harm, to do good, to attend the ordinances of God, (the righteousness of a Pharisee,) are all external; whereas, on the contrary, poverty of spirit, mourning, meekness, hunger and thirst after righteousness, the love of our neighbour, and purity of heart, (the righteousness of a Christian,) are all internal. And even peace making, (or doing good,) and suffering for righteousness' sake, stand entitled to the blessings annexed to them, only as they imply these inward dispositions, as they spring from, exercise, and confirm them. So that whereas the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees was external only, it may be said, in some sense, that the righteousness of a Christian is internal only: all his actions and sufferings being as nothing in themselves, being estimated before God only by the tempers from which they spring.
12. Whosoever therefore thou art, who bearest the holy and venerable name of a Christian, see, first, that thy righteousness fall not short of the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees. Be not thou as other men are! Dare to stand alone; to be, against example, singularly good.” If thou follow a multitude at all, it must be to do evil. Let not custom or fashion be thy guide; but reason, and religion. The practice of others is nothing to thee: “ every man must give an account of himself to God.” Indced if thou canst save the soul of another, do: but at least, save one; thy own. Walk not in the path of death, because it is broad, and many walk therein. Nay, by this very token thou mayest know it. Is the way wherein thou now walkest, a broad, well frequented, fashionable way? Then it infallibly leads to destruction. Oh be not thou "damned for company!” Cease from evil ; Hy from sin as from the face of a serpent! At least, do no harm. “ He that committeth sin is of the devil." Be not thou found in that number. Touching outward sins, surely the grace of God is even now sufficient for thee. Herein,” at least, “ exercise thyself to have a conscience void of offence, towards God and towards man.'
Secondly: let not thy righteousness fall short of theirs, with regard to the ordinances of God. If thy labour or boc'ily strength will not allow of thy fasting twice in the week, however deal faithfully with thy own soul, and fast as often as thy strength will permit. Omit no public, no private opportunity of pouring out thy soul in prayer. Neglect no occasion of eating that bread and drinking that cup, which is the communion of the body and blood of Christ. Be diligent in searching the Scriptures; read, as thou mayest, and meditate therein day and night.