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That a Christian ought to abstain from sin, is most true; but how does it follow from hence that he ought not to abstain from food ? Yea, let him do both the one and the other. Let hirn, by the grace of God, always abstain from sin; and let him often abstain from food, for such reasons and ends as experience and Scripture plainly show to be answered thereby
2. “But is it not better (as it has, secondly, been objected) to abstain from pride and vanity, from foolish and hurtful desires, from peevishness, and anger, and discontent, than from food ?” Without question it is. But here again we have need to remind you of our Lord's words : “ These things ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone." And, indeed, the latter is only in order to the former; it is a means to that great end. We abstain from food with this view, that, by the grace of God conveyed into our souls through this outward means, in conjunction with all the other channels of his grace which he hath appointed, we may be enabled to abstain from every passion and temper which is not pleasing in his sight. We refrain from the one, that being endued with power from on high, we may be able to refrain from the other. So that your argument proves just the contrary to what you designed. It proves, that we ought to fast. For if we ought to abstain from evil tempers, and desires, then we ought thus to abstain from food ; since hese little instances of self denial are the ways God hath chose, wherein to bestow that great salvation.
3. “But we do not find it so in fact:" (this is a third objection :) “ we have fasted much and often; but what did it avail ? We were not a whit better; we found no blessing therein. Nay, we have found it a hinderance rather than a help. Instead of preventing anger, for instance, or fretfulness, it has been a means of increasing them to such a height, that we could neither bear others nor ourselves.” This may very possibly be the case. It is possible, either to fast or pray in such a manner, as to make you much worse than before; more unhappy, and more unholy. Yet the fault does not lie in the means itself, but in the manner of using it. Use it still, but use it in a different manner. Do what God commands, as he commands it; and then, doubtless, his promise shall not fail : his blessing shall be withheld no longer ; but, when thou fastest in secret, “ He that seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.”
4. “But is it not mere superstition, (so it has been, fourthly, objected) to imagine that God regards such little things as these ?" If you say it is, you condemn all the generations of God's children. But will you say, these were all weak, superstitious men ? Can you be so hardy as to affirm this, both of Moses and Joshua, of Samuel and David, of Jehoshaphat, Ezra, Nehemiah, and all the prophets? Yea, of a greate. than all, the Son of God himself ? It is certain, both our Master, and al these his servants, did imagine that fasting is not a little thing, and that He who is higher than the highest doth regard it. Of the same judgment, it is plain, were all his apostles, after they were filled with the Holy Ghost, and with wisdom." When they had the “unction of the Holy One, teaching them all things," they still approved themselves the ministers of God," by fastings,” as well as “ by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left.” After" the bridegroom was taken from them, then did they fast in those days.” Nor would they attempt any thing (as we have seen above) wherein the glory of God was nearly concerned, such as the sending forth labourers into the harvest, without solemn fasting as well as prayer.
5. “But if fasting be indeed of so great importance, and attended with such a blessing, is it not best,” say some, fifthly, “ to fast always ? Not to do it now and then, but to keep a continual fast? To use as much abstinence, at all times, as our bodily strength will bear ?" Let none be discouraged from doing this. By all means use as little and plain food, exercise as much self denial herein at all times, as your bodily strength will bear. And this may conduce, by the blessing of God, to several of the great ends above mentioned. It may be a considerable help, not only to chastity, but also to heavenly mindedness; to the weaning your affections from things below, and setting them on things above. But this is not fasting, scriptural fasting ; it is never termed so in all the Bible. It, in some measure, answers some of the ends thereof; but still it is another thing. Practise it by all means; but not so as thereby to set aside a command of God, and an instituted means of averting his judgments, and obtaining the blessings of his children.
6. Use continually then as much abstinence as you please ; which, taken thus, is no other than Christian temperance; but this need not at all interfere with your observing solemn times of fasting and prayer. For instance: Your habitual abstinence or temperance would not prevent your fasting in secret, if you were suddenly overwhelmed with huge sorrow and remorse, and with horrible fear and dismay. Such a situation of mind would almost constrain you to fast; you would loathe your daily food ; you would scarce endure even to take such supplies as were needful for the body, till God "lifted you up out of the horrible pit, and set your feet upon a rock, and ordered your goings.” The same would be the case if you were in agony of desire, vehemently wrestling with God for his blessing. You would need none to instruct you not to eat bread till you had obtained the request of your lips.
7. Again, had you been at Nineveh when it was proclaimed through out the city, “Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste any thing: let them not feed or drink water, but let them cry mightily unto God;"_would your continual fast have been any reason for not bearing part in that general humiliation? Doubtless it would not. You would have been as much concerned as any other not to taste food on that day.
No more would abstinence, or the observing a continual fast, have excused any of the children of Israel from fasting on the tenth day of the seventh month, the great annual day of atonement. There was no exception for these in that solemn decree, "Whatsoever soul it shall be, that shall not be afflicted, (shall not fast,] in that day, he shall be cut off from among
his people. Lastly, had you been with the brethren in Antioch, at the time when they fasted and prayed, before the sending forth of Barnabas and Saul, can you possibly imagine that your temperance or abstinence would have been a sufficient cause for not joining therein? Without doubt,
had not, you would soon have been cut off from the Christian community. You would have deservedly been cast out from among them, as bringing confusion into the church of God.
IV. 1. I am, in the last place, to show, in what manner we are to fast, that it may be an acceptable service unto the Lord. And, first,
let it be done unto the Lord, with our eye singly fixed on him. Let our intention herein be this, and this alone, to glorify our Father which is in heaven; to express our sorrow and shame for our manifold transgressions of his holy law; to wait for an increase of purifying grace, drawing our affections to things above; to add seriousness and earnestness to our prayers; to avert the wrath of God, and to obtain all the great and precious promises, which he hath made to us in Jesus Christ.
Let us beware of mocking God, or turning our fast, as well as our prayers, into an abomination unto the Lord, by the mixture of any temporal view, particularly by seeking the praise of men. Against this our blessed Lord more peculiarly guards us in the words of the text. “Moreover, when ye fast, be ye not as the hypocrites:"—such were too many who were called the people of God; “ of a sad countenance;" sour, affectedly sad, putting their looks into a peculiar form. “For they disfigure their faces," not only by unnatural distortions, but also by covering them with dust and ashes ; " that they may appear unto men to fast;" this is their chief, if not only, design. “Verily I say unto you, They have their reward;" even the admiration and praise of
" But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face:" do as thou art accustomed to do at other times; “ that thou appear not unto men to fast;"—let this be no part of thy intention ; if they know it without any desire of thine, it matters. not, thou art neither the better nor the worse ;- “ but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.'
2. But if we desire this reward, let us beware, secondly, of fancying we merit any thing of God by our fasting. We cannot be too often warned of this; inasmuch as a desire to “ establish our own righteousness," to procure salvation of debt and not of grace, is so deeply rooted in all our hearts. Fasting is only a way which God hath ordained, wherein we wait for his unmerited mercy; and wherein, without any desert of ours, he hath promised freely to give us his blessing.
3. Not that we are to imagine, the performing the bare outward act will receive any blessing from God. “ Is it such a fast that I have chosen, saith the Lord ; a day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him ?” Are these outward acts, however strictly performed, all that is meant by a man's “afflicting his soul ?''-“Wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the Lord ?" No surely: if it be a mere external service, it is all but lost labour. Such a performance may possibly afflict the body; but as to the soul, it profiteth nothing.
4. Yea, the body may sometimes be afflicted too much, so as to be unfit for the works of our calling. This also we are diligently to guard against ; for we ought to preserve our health, as a good gift of God. Therefore care is to be taken, whenever we fast, to proportion the fast to our strength. For we may not offer God murder for sacrifice, or destroy our bodies to help our souls.
But at these solemn seasons we may, even in great weakness of body, avoid that other extreme, for which God condemns those who of old expostulated with him for not accepting their fasts. “Wherefore have we fasted, say they, and thou seest not ?-Behold in the day of your fast you find pleasure, saith the Lord.” If we cannot wholly abstain
from food, we may, at least, abstain from pleasant food ; and then we shall not seek his face in vain.
5. But let us take care to afflict our souls, as well as our bodies. Let every season, either of public or private fasting, be a season of exercising all those holy affections, which are implied in a broken and contrite heart. Let it be a season of devout mourning, of godly sorrow for sin ; such a sorrow as that of the Corinthians, concerning which the apostle saith, “I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but that ye sorrowed to repentance. For ye were made sorry after a godly manner, that ye might receive damage by us in nothing. For godly sorrow, n xota sov Quan,—the sorrow which is according to God, which is a precious gift of his Spirit, lifting the soul to God from whom it flows,“worketh repentance to salvation, not to be repented of.” Yea, and let our sorrowing after a godly sort work in us the same inward and outward repentance; the same entire change of heart, renewed after the image of God, in righteousness and true holiness; and the same change of life, till we are holy as he is holy, in all manner of conversation. Let it work in us the same carefulness to be found in him, without spot and blameless; the same clearing of ourselves, by our lives rather than words, by our abstaining from all appearance of evil; the same indignation, vehement abhorrence of eve y sin ; the same fear of our own deceitful hearts; the same desire to be in all things conformed to the holy and acceptable will of God; the same zeal for what. ever may be a means of his glory, and of our growth in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ; and the same revenge against Satan and all his works, against all filthiness of flesh and spirit, 2 Cor. vii, 9, &c.
6. And with fasting let us always join fervent prayer, pouring out our whole souls before God, confessing our sins with all their aggravations, humbling ourselves under his mighty hand, laying open before him all our wants, all our guiltiness and helplessness. This is a season for enlarging our prayers, both in behalf of ourselves and of our brethren. Let us now bewail the sins of our people; and cry aloud for the city of our God, that the Lord may build up Zion, and cause his face to shine on her desolations. Thus, we may observe, the men of God, in ancient times, always joined prayer and fasting together ; thus the apostles, in all the instances cited above; and thus our Lord joins them in the discourse before us.
7. It remains only, in order to our observing such a fast as is acceptable to the Lord, that we add alms thereto; works of mercy,
after power, both to the bodies and souls of men: "With such sacrifices (also] God is well pleased." Thus the angel declares to Cornelius, fasting and praying in his house, “ Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God," Acts x, 4. And this God himself expressly and largely declares : “ Is not this the fast that I have chosen ? To loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke? Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? When thou seest the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh? Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily; and thy righteousness shall go before thee; the glory of the Lord shall be thy rereward. Then shalt thou call, and the Lord shall answer : thou
shalt cry, and he shall say, Here I am.- If (when thou fastest] thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall thy light rise in obscurity, and thy darkness be as the noon day. And the Lord shall guide thee continually, and satisfy thy soul in drought, and make fat thy bones: and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not,” Isa. lviii, 6, &c.
SERMON XXVIII.-Upon our Lord's Sermon on the Mount.
“ Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal :
“ But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal :
“For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
"The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.
“But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness !" Matt. vi, 19-23,
1. From those which are commonly termed religious actions, and which are real branches of true religion, where they spring from a pure and holy intention, and are performed in a manner suitable thereto, our Lord proceeds to the actions of cominon life, and shows that the same purity of intention is as indispensably required in our ordinary business, as in giving alms, or fasting, or prayer.
And without question, the same purity of intention," which makes our alms and devotions acceptable, must also make our labour or employ ment a proper offering to God. If a man pursues his business, that he may raise himself to a state of figure and riches in the world, he is no longer serving God in his employment, and has no more title to a reward from God, than he who gives alms that he may be seen, or prays that he may be heard, of men. For vain and earthly designs are no more allowable in our employments, than in our alms and devotions. They are not only evil when they mix with our good works,” with our religious actions, “ but they have the same evil nature when they enter into the common business of our employments. If it were allowable to pursue them in our worldly employments, it would be allowable to pursue them in our devotions. But as our alms and devotions are not an acceptable service, but when they proceed from a pure intention, so our common employment cannot be reckoned a service to him, but when it is performed with the same piety of heart."
2. This our blessed Lord declares in the liveliest manner, in those strong and comprehensive words which he explains, enforces, and enlarges upon, throughout this whole chapter : "The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. The eye
is the intention : what the eye is to the body, the intention is to the soul. As the one guides all the motions of the body, so does the other those of the soul. This eye of the soul is then said to be single, when it looks at one thing only; when we have no other design, but to