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Because he is totally ignorant of him : if not saying in his heart, " There is no God;" or, that" he sitteth on the circle of the heavens, and humbleth not himself to behold the things which are done on earth;" yet, satisfying himself as well, to all epicurean intents and purposes, by saying "God is merciful;" confounding and swallowing up all at once, in that unwieldy idea of mercy, all his holiness and essential hatred of sin; all his justice, wisdom, and truth. He is in no dread of the vengeance denounced against those who obey not the blessed law of God, because he understands it not. He imagines the main point is, To do thus, to be outwardly blameless; and sees not that it extends to every temper, desire, thought, motion of the heart. Or he fancies that the obligation hereto is ceased; that Christ came to destroy the law and the prophets;" to save his people in, not from their sins; to bring them to heaven without holiness : notwithstanding his own words, “ Not one jot or tittle of the law shall pass away, till all things are fulfilled;" and, “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord ! shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven."

3. He is secure, because he is utterly ignorant of himself. Hence he talks of“ repenting by and by;" he does not indeed exactly know when, but some time or other before he dies; taking it for granted, that this is quite in his own power. For what should hinder his doing it, if he will ? If he does but once set a resolution, no fear but he will make it good!

4. But this ignorance never so strongly glares, as in those who are termed men of learning. If a natural man be one of these, he can talk at large of his rational faculties, of the freedom of his will, and the absolute necessity of such freedom, in order to constitute man a moral agent. He reads, and argues, and proves to a demonstration, that every man may do as he will; may dispose his own heart to evil or good, as it seems best in his own eyes. Thus the god of this world spreads a double veil of blindness over his heart, lest, by any means," the light of the glorious gospel of Christ should shine" upon it.

5. From the same ignorance of himself and God, there may sometimes arise, in the natural man, a kind of joy, in congratulating himself upon his own wisdom and goodness : and what the world calls joy, he may often

may have pleasure in various kinds ; either in gratifying the desires of the flesh, or the desire of the eye, or the pride of life; particularly if he has large possessions; if he enjoy an affluent fortune; then he may“ clothe” himself" in purple and fine linen, and fare sumptuously every day.” And so long as he thus doeth well unto himself, men will doubtless speak good of him. They will say, " He is a happy man.” For, indeed, this is the sum of worldly happiness; to dress, and visit, and talk, and eat, and drink, and rise up to play.

6. It is not surprising, if one in such circumstances as these, dozed with the opiates of flattery and sin, should imagine among his other waking dreams, that he walks in great liberty. How easily may he persuade himself, that he is at liberty from all vulgar errors, and from the prejudice of education, judging exactly right, and keeping clear of all extremes. “I am free (may he say) from all the enthusiasm of weak and narrow souls; from superstition, the disease of fools and cowards, always righteous over much; and from bigotry, continually incident to those who have not a free and generous way of thinking.” And too sure it is, that he is altogether free from the “wisdom which cometh

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from above," from holiness, from the religion of the heart, from the whole mind which was in Christ.

7. For all this time he is the servant of sin. He commits sin, more or less, day by day. Yet he is not troubled : he “is in no bondage,” as some speak; he feels no condemnation. He contents himself, (even though he should profess to believe that the Christian revelation is o: God,) with,“Man is frail. We are all weak. Every man has his infirmity." Perhaps he quotes Scripture: “Why, does not Solomon say,—The righteous man falls into sin seven times a day!-And, doubtless, they are all hypocrites or enthusiasts who pretend to be better than their neighbours." If, at any time, a serious thought fix upon him, he stifles it as soon as possible, with, “Why should I fear, since God is merciful, and Christ died for sinners ?” Thus, he remains a willing servant of sin, content with the bondage of corruption; inwardly and outwardly unholy, and satisfied therewith ; not only not conquering sin, but not striving to conquer, particularly that sin which doth so easily beset him.

8. Such is the state of every natural man; whether he be a gross, scandalous transgressor, or a more reputable and decent sinner, having the form, though not the power of godliness. But how can such a one be convinced of sin ? How is he brought to repent? To be under the law ? To receive the spirit of bondage unto fear? This is the point which is next to be considered.

II. 1. By some awful providence, or by his word applied with the demonstration of his Spirit, God touches the heart of him that lay asleep in darkness and in the shadow of death. He is terribly shaken out of his sleep, and awakes into a consciousness of his danger. Perhaps in a moment, perhaps by degrees, the eyes of his understanding are opened, and now first (the veil being in part removed) discern the real state he is in. Horrid light breaks in upon his soul ; such light as may be conceived to gleam from the bottomless pit, from the lowest deep, from a lake of fire burning with brimstone. He at last sees the loving, the merciful God is also " a consuming fire;” that he is a just God and a terrible, rendering to every man according to bis works, entering into judgment with the ungodly for every idle word, yea, and for the imaginations of the heart. He now clearly perceives, that the great and holy God is

of purer eyes than to behold iniquity;" that he is an avenger of every one who rebelleth against him, and repayeth the wicked to his face; and that " it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.'

2. The inward, spiritual meaning of the law of God now begins to glare upon him. He perceives“ the commandment is exceeding broad," and there is “nothing hid from the light thereof." He is convinced, that every part of it relates, not barely to outward sin or obedience, but to what passes in the secret recesses of the soul, which no eye but God's can penetrate. If he now hears, “Thou shalt not kill,” God speaks in thunder, “ He that hateth his brother is a murderer;" he that saith unto his brother, “Thou fool, is obnoxious to hell fire.” If the law say, “ Thou shalt not commit adultery,” the voice of the Lord sounds in his ears, “ He that looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart." And thus in every point, he feels the word of God “ quick and powerful, sharper than a two edged sword.” It" pierces even to the dividing asunder of his soul and spirit, his joints and marrow.. And so much the more because he is conscious to himself of having neglected so great salvation; of having "trodden under foot the Son of God,” who would have saved him from his sins, and “ counted the blood of the covenant an unholy,” a common, unsanctifying thing.

3. And as he knows, “ all things are naked and open unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do,” so he sees himself naked, stripped of all the fig leaves which he had sewed together, of all his poor etences to religion or virtue, and his wretched excuses for sinning against God. He now sees himself like the ancient sacrifices, Tergaxnalouevov, cleft in sunder, as it were, from the neck downward, so that all within him stands confessed. His heart is bare, and he sees it is all sin, deceitful above all things, desperately wicked;" that it is altogether corrup and abominable, more than it is possible for tongue to express ; that there dwelleth therein no good thing, but unrighteousness and ungodlineks only; every motion thereof, every temper and thought, being only evil continually.

4. And he not only sees, but feels in himself, by an emotion of soul which he cannot describe, that for the sins of his heart, were his life without blame, (which yet it is not, and cannot be; seeing

" an evil tree cannot bring forth good fruit,'') he deserves to be cast into the fire that never shall be quenched. He feels that the wages, the just reward of sin, of his sin above all, is death; even the second death; the death which dieth not; the destruction of body and soul in hell.

5. Here ends his pleasing dream, his delusive rest, his false peace, his vein security. His joy now vanishes as a cloud ; pleasures, once loved, delight no more. They pa!l upon the taste : he loathes the nauseous sweet; he is weary to bear them. The shadows of happiness flee away,

and sink into oblivion : so that he is stripped of all, and war ders to and fro, seeking rest and finding none.

6. The fumes of those opiates being now dispelled, he feels the anguisn of a wounded spirit. He finds that sin let loose upon the soul (whether it be pride, anger, or evil desire, whether self will, malice, envy, revenge, or any other) is perfect misery. He feels sorrow of heart for the blessings he has lost, and the curse which is come upon him ; remorse for having thus destroyed himself, and despised his own mercies; fear, from a lively sense of the wrath of God, and of the consequences of his wrath, of the punishment which he has justly deserved, and which he sees hanging over his head ;-fear of death, as being to him the gate of hell, the entrance of death eternal ;-fear of the devil, the executioner of the wrath and righteous vengeance of God ;-fear of men, who, if they were able to kill his body, would thereby plunge both body and soul into hell ;-fear, sometimes arising to such a height, that the poor sinful, guilty soul, is terrified with every thing, with nothing, with shades with a leaf shaken of the wind. Yea, sometimes it may even border upon distraction, making a man“ drunken though not with wine,” suspending the exercise of the memory, of the understanding, of all the natural

faculties. Sometimes it may approach to the very brink of despair; so that he who trembles at the name of death, may yet be ready to plunge into it every moment, to “choose strangling rather than life." Well may such a man roar, like him of old, for the very disquietness of his heart. Well may he cry out, “The spirit of a man may sustain bis infirmities; but a wounded spirit who can bear ?",

7. Now he truly desires to break loose from sin, and begins to struggle with it. But though he strive with all his might, he cannot conquer : sin is mightier than he. He would fain escape ; but he is so fast in prison, that he cannot get forth. He resolves against sin, but yet sins on : he sees the snare, and abhors, and runs into it. So much does his boasted reason avail, only to enhance his guilt, and increase his mi sery! Such is the freedom of his will; free only to evil; free to“ drink in iniquity like water ;" to wander farther and farther from the living God, and do more"despite to the Spirit of grace !"

8. The more he strives, wishes, labours to be free, the more does he feel his chains, the grievous chains of sin, wherewith Satan binds and “ leads him captive at his will :" his servant he is, though he repine ever so much; though he rebel, he cannot prevail. He is still in bondage and fear, by reason of sin : generally, of some outward sin, to which he is peculiarly disposed, either by nature, custom, or outward circumstances; but always, of some inward sin, some evil temper or unholy affection. And the more he frets against it, the more it prevails; he may bite but cannot break his chain. Thus he toils without end, repenting and sinning, and repenting and sinning again, till at length, the poor, sinful, helpless wretch, is even at his wit's end; and can barely groan, “Oh wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?"

9. This whole struggle of one who is under the law, under the spirit of fear and bondage, is beautifully described by the apostle in the foregoing chapter, speaking in the person of an awakened man. “1,"saith he, was alive without the law once,” ver. 9 : I had much life, wisdom, strength, and virtue ; so I thought: “but, when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died :” when the commandment, in its spiritual meaning, came to my heart, with the power of God, my inbred sin was stirred up, fretted, inflamed, and all my virtue died away. the commandment which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me,” ver. 10, 11: it came upon me unawares; slew all my hopes; and plainly showed, in the midst of life I was in death. “ Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just and good,” ver. 12: I no longer lay the blame on this, but on the corruption of my own heart. I acknowledge that "the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin,” ver. 14: I now see both the spiritual nature of the law, and my own carnal, devilish heart sold under sin, totally enslaved: (like slaves bought with money, who were absolutely at their master's dispo

“For that which I do, I allow not; for what I would, I do not; but what I hate, that I do," ver. 15: such is the bondage under which I groan; such the tyranny of

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hard master. To will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not. For the good that I would, I do not; but the evil which I would not, that I do, ver. 18, 19. “I find a law, [an inward constraining power,] that when I would do good, evil is present with me. For I delight in (or consent to] the law of God, after the inward man,” ver. 21, 22: in my mind : so the apostle explains himself in the words that immediately follow: (and so o sow av&pwtos, the inward man, is understood in all other Greek writers :) " But I see another law in my members, [another constraining power,] warring against the law of my mind, or inward man, and

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bringing me into captivity to the law [or power] of sin,” ver. 23: dragging me, as it were, at my conqueror's chariot wheels, into the very thing which my soul abhors. Oh wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?" ver. 24. Who shall deliver me from this helpless, dying life, from this bondage of sin and misery? Till this is done,“ I myself” (or rather, that I, autos &yw, that man I am now personating) " with the mind,” or inward man, " serte the law of God;' my mind, my conscience is on God's side ;“ but with my flesh,' with my body," the law of sin," ver. 25, being hurried away by a force I cannot resist.

10. How lively a portraiture is this of one under the law! One who feels the burden he cannot shake off; who pants after liberty, power, and love, but is in fear and bondage still ; until the time that God answers the wretched man-crying out, “ Who shall deliver me” from this bondage of sin, from this body of death ?—“The grace of God, through Jesus Christ thy Lord.” III. 1. Then it is that this miserable bondage ends, and he is no

under the law, but under grace.' This state we are, thirdly, to consider; the state of one who has found grace or favour in the sight of God, even the Father; and who has the grace or power of the Holy Ghost, reigning in his heart: who has received, in the language of the apostle, the “Spirit of adoption, whereby” he now cries," Abba, Father!"

2.“ He cried unto the Lord in his trouble, and God delivers him out of his distress.” His eyes are opened in quite another manner than before, even to see a loving, gracious God. While he is calling, "I beseech thee, show me thy glory!"—he hears a voice in his inmost soul, "I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of the Lord : I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy.” And, it is not long before " the Lord descends in the cloud, and proclaims the name of the Lord.” Then he sees, but not with eyes of flesh and blood,“ The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth; keeping mercy for thousands, and forgiving iniquities, and transgressions, and sin.”

3. Heavenly, healing light now breaks in upon his soul. He “looks on him whom he had pierced;" and "God, who out of darkness commanded light to shine, shineth in his heart." He sees the light of the glorious love of God, in the face of Jesus Christ. He hath a divine "evidence of things not seen” by sense, even of "the deep things of God;" more particularly of the love of God, of his pardoning love to him that believes in Jesus. Overpowered with the sight, his whole soul cries out, “ My Lord and my God!" For he sees all his iniquities laid on Him, who “bare them in his own body on the tree;" he beholds the Lamb of God taking away his sins. How clearly now does he discern, that “God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself; making him sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God through him ;"—and that he himself is reconciled to God, by that blood of the covenant !

4. Here end both the guilt and power of sin. He can now say, “I am crucified with Christ; nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, (even in this mortal body,) I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and gave VOL. I.

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