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coane good modes to others; and particularly that they be always ready to celebrate the sacred offices, to communicate proper instructions to the people, and to comfort the sick with their assistance ; that they by all means avoid public assemblies of idle men, and taverns...... The Vicars themselves are particularly charged to punish in such manmer as they can, but severely, all those who do not speak of the public government with respect.

“ England herself can witness the deep-rooted impressions such admonitions have made on the minds of Catholics. It is well known that in the late war, which had extended to the greater part of America, when most flourishing provinces, inhabited, almost by persons separated from the Catholic church, had renounced the government of the King of Great-Britain; the province of Canada alone, filled as it is almost with innumerable Catholics, although artfully tempted, and not yet forgetful of the old French government, remained most faithful in its allegiance to England. Do you, most excellent Prelates, converse frequently on these principles; often remind your suffragan Prelates of them: when preaching to your people, exhort them again and again to honour all men, to love the brotherhood, to fear God, to honour the king.

“ Those duties of a Christian are to be cherished in every kingdom and state, but particularly in your own of Great-Britain and Ireland, where, from the benevolence of a most wise king, and other most excellent rulers of those kingdoms towards Catholics, no crue!and grievous burden is imposed; and Catholics themselves experience a mild and gentle government. If you pursue this live of conduct unanimously ; if you act in the spirit of charity; if, while you direct the people of the Lord you have nothing in view but the salvation of souls, adversaries will be ashamed (we repeat it) to calumniate, and will freely acknowledge that the Catholic faith is of heavenly descent, and calculated not only to procure a blessed life, but likewise, as St. Augustin observes in his 138th letter, addressed to Marcellinus, to promote the most lasting peace of this earthly city, inasmuch as it is the safest prop and shield of kingdoms. Let those who say (the words are those of the holy Doctor) that the doctrine of Christ is hostile to the Republic, produce an army of such soldiers as the doctrine of Christ has required; let them furnish such inhabitants of provinces, such husbands, such wives, such parents, such children, such masters, such servants, such kings, such judges, finally such payers of debts and collectors of the revenue, as the doctrine of Christ enjoins ; and then they may dare to assert that it is inimical to the republic: rather let them not. hesitate to acknowledge that it is, when practised, of great advantage to the republic. The same holy Doctor, and all the other fathers of the church, with one voice, most clearly demonstrate by inviucible argnments, that the whole of this salutary doctrine cannot exist with permanent consistency and stability; or flourish except in the catholic society, which is spread and preserved all over the world by cominupion with the See of Rome as a sacred bond of union, divinely con-
necting both. From our very high esteem and affection for
earnestly wish that the great God may very long preserve you safe.

you, wé

Rome, 23 June, 1791.

As your Lordship's most affectionate brother,




The following Canto, taken from the Latin of J. Vaniere, and beauti

fully rendered into English by Arthur Murphy, esq. (latest edition printed at Middletown, Connecticut, for I. Riley, New-York) will present a just and faithful portrait of the Religious Order of the Jesuists, and will enable the public to form a very different opinion of this learned and ill-requited society from that derived from prejudiced and ill informed writers.



Torn by convulsions while the nations groan,
Astræa has not yet resign’d her throne.
A moral race on earth she still maintains,
Where with sound policy fair virtue reigns.
Wish you that happy region to survey?
Cross the Atlantic; sail to * Paraguay.

* Paraguay is a province of South America, bounded by Brazil on the east, and by Peru and Chili on the west. It is sometimes called La Plata, from the river of that name, which rises in Peru, and running a long course, falls into the Paraguay near Buenos Ayres, where their united stream discharges itself into the Atlantic Ocean. The author of the European Settlements in America (who, Doctor Robertson says, ought not to remain unknown, as his work would do honour to any man in England) informs us, that, early in the last century, the Jesuists represented to the court of Spain, that the empire of the gospel might be extended into the most unknown parts of America, and that all those countries might be reduced to his Catholic Majesty's obedience, without expense, and without force. The remonstrance was listened to with attention ; the sphere of the Jesuits was marked out ; an uncontrolable, liberty was given to them within those limits; and the governors of the adjacent provinces had orders not to interfere. The Jesuits entered upon the scene of action, and opened their spiritual campaign. They began by gathering together about fifty wandering families, whom they persuaded to settle, and they united them into a little township. Upon this slight foundation they built a superstructure, which has amazed the world,


Mark how the people and their manners please;
He paints them best, who paints the tribe of Bees.
See from the hive how they transplant their laws,
Like Bees, industrious in their country's cause.

Their fields and pastures know no separate bounds,
And no litigious fences mark the grounds.
For tracts of land no title deeds are shown,
And vile ejectments, there are things unknown.
No bonds, no mortgages for money lent,
And no proud landlord can distrain for rent.
All lies in common ; what their crops produce
Is stor'd in magazines for public use,
All have their province in the general toil;
These guide the state and those manure the soil.
Some tend the fold their milk-white flocks to sheer;
Along the vale the lowing herds to hear.
The shepherd plods with joy; th' industrious hind
Works at the mill, the ripen'd corn to grind.
With Vulcan's skill some at the forge attend,
To shake the sickle * or the plough-share bend.
True social concord all their actions show,
Aud with warm sympathy their bosoms glow,
To every rank affection they extend,
Their neighbour's interest with their own they blend.

and added 80 much power, that it has brought great envy and jealousy on their society. When they had made a beginning, they laboured with such indefatigable pains, and with such masterly policy, that, hy degrees, they mollified the minds of the most savage nations ; fixed the most rambling, and attracted the most averse to gove ernment. They prevailed upon thousands of various dispersed tribes of people to embrace their religion, and submit to their government. When they had submitted, the Jesuists left nothing undone, that could induce them to remain in subjection, or that could tend to increase their number. It is said, that from such inconsiderable beginnings, their subjects, several years ago, amodnted to three hundred thousand families. They accomplished a most extraordinary conquest over the bodies and minds of so many people, without arms or violence, and differently from the methods of all other conquests ; not by cutting off a large part of the inhabitants, to secure the rest, but by multiplying the people, whilst they extended their territory.

European Settlements, Vol. II. p. 278. * The Indians, under the Jesuists, lived in towns; they were regularly clad ; they laboured in agriculture ; they exercised manufactures.

Ibid. Vol. II. p. 280.

While the swain toils abroad, with anxious care
They view his cottage, and the works repair.
The swain at night finds all defects redress’d,
And with his door unlock'd sinks careless down to rest.

Of sovereign sway the laws no system know;
The chiefs to wisdom all their influence owe.
To their sage counsels* men obedience pay,
And walk secure where virtue leads the way.
No code of laws they want, no statesman's art;
Their law is gravid by nature on the heart.
While private wealth no individuals hold,
They feel vo love of ill-persuading gold.
The generous mind pale envy never stings;
Their only strife from emulation springs.

Though here the young may bridle their desires
By that best rule, th’ example of their sires;
Yet still their minds to polish and refine,
And give the grace that bids each action shine,
They call the masters of each liberal art,
Men, who can truly philosophy impart;
Who teach the rules, which long the test have stood,
Of that best science to be wise and good,
The chiefs elected by the public voice
By wisdom strive to justify the choice;
While the inhabitants for work design'd,
Practise the arts that form the laboring hind.
No vain pre-eminence of rank they know,
No Lords, no Commoners, nor high, por low.
The ploughman's industry, the soldier's fame
To praise and honour give an equal claim.

Though Ceres spreads her gifts with lavish hand,
And peace her olive branch waves o’er the land:
Though grim-eyed war sleeps in his iron cave,
And their foes dread them, for they know them brave
Yet this wise people watchful of alarms
Are vigilant and prompt to rise in arms.
But still they joy in bidding discord cease,
Ready for war, yet readier far for peace;
In that firm attitude their state protect,
From insult safe, while valour gains respect.

* The country of Paraguay is divided into forty-seven districts : in each mission a Jesuit presides in chief: the magistrates are always Indians, elected by the people, and approved by the presiding Jesuit. Nothing can equal the obedience of the people of the several missions, except their contentment under them.

European Settlements, Vol. 11. p. 283,

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