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The design is to procure three aditional Burial Grounds, on different sides of Oxford, for the parishes respectively which are most conveniently situate in regard to each ground; the new grounds to be placed precisely on the footing of the existing church-yards. Two of these grounds have been obtained, and negociation is in progress for a third.

The sum already subscribed for is 3,3391. 19s., exclusive of gifts of land from the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church, and the Warden and Fellows of Merton College. The whole may be stated at about 4,0001.; and the additional sum required at 3,0001.

At a Meeting held on Thursday, Nov. 6th, at the rooms of the Venerable the Archdeacon of Oxford, in Christ Christ, and which was attended by the Lord Bishop of Oxford and the Vice-Chancellor of the University, it was Resolved, “ That a fresh appeal for Subscriptions be made in furtherance of the design of the Oxford Parish Burial Grounds."

The Committee therefore make this appeal; and wish it to be known, that they are in correspondence with persons in different parts of the kingdom, desiring to accomplish the same end as that now attempted in Oxford. Their method of proceeding indeed has already been adopted elsewhere; and if the design be well carried out in this City, it will be of great importance, there is reason to think, as a precedent for other places.

John LEY,
C. Page Eden,

Secretaries. Oxford, Nov. 27, 1845.

STATE OF EDUCATION IN THE COUNTIES OF BEDFORD, CAMBRIDGE,

AND HUNTINGDON.

41

The County of Bedford contains 123 parishes; of these, for educa

tional purposes, the five parishes in the town of Bedford (as all
partaking in the benefits of the Harpur Charity) may be classed
together; of the remaining 118 parishes, the number of parishes

in which schools were inspected, was
The number of parishes in which I had reason to believe that my in:

spection would not be acceptable, was
The number of parishes in which schools existed, but which from the

absence of the children at the time of my visit, or from other

causes were not inspected, was The number of parishes in which no schools, or only schools of the

very humblest class, were in existence, was

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65

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The County of Cambridge contains 164 parishes, from which number,

deducting the 14 parishes of the borough of Cambridge, which for
educational purposes, as being united under a common board, will
most conveniently be classed together, we have 150 : of these the

number of parishes in which schools were inspected was
The number of parishes in which I had reason to believe that my in-

spection would not be acceptable, was
The number of parishes in which daily schools existed, but which

from the absence of the children at the time of my visit, or from
other causes were not inspected, was
The number of parishes in which 'no daily schools, or only schools of

the very humblest class, were in existence, was

8

10

57

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The County of Huntingdon contains 104 parishes ; of these the four

parishes in the town of Huntingdon for educational purposes may
be classed together, and the three parishes in Sawtry may be
classed as one ; of the remaining 97, the number of parishes in

which schools were inspected, was
The number of parishes in which I had reason to believe that my in-

spection would not be acceptable, was
The number of parishes in which daily schools existed, but were not

inspected from absence of children or other causes, was
The number of parishes in which no daily schools, or only schools of

the very humblest class, were in existence, was

5

.

3

49

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This deficiency in the means for the education of the poor of these counties will be still more apparent, when it is added that of the 41 rural parishes in which daily schools were inspected in Bedfordshire, the number in which any reasonable measure of intelligent and really valuable instruction was communicated, cannot, in my judgment, be rated' higher than 24, and that consequently the number of parishes practically without daily schools of value for the poor must be raised to 82: and that similarly in Cambridgeshire, the number of rural parishes in which daily schools were inspected, that seemed to me of value, cannot be rated higher than 49; while the number of parishes in which no such schools of worth are in existence for the poor, rises to 83 : and similarly in Huntingdonshire, the number of rural parishes in which schools of worth were found, must according to the same rule be depressed to 26, while the number of deficient parishes proportionably rises to 61.

In Cambridgeshire there are more than 30 parishes joining each other (except where they are broken by the line of Sawston, Great Abington, Linton, Horseheath, Shudy Camps, and Castle Camps), that edge the south and south-eastern limits of the county, sadly deficient in daily schools of value

In Huntingdonshire, north of St. Neot's, and west of Graffham Leighton and Old Weston, there is a strip of land which, taking in the interlacing corners of Bedfordshire, contains from 14 to 16 parishes, and is without daily schools of worth for the poor. From this district, however, Kimbolton should be excepted, in which there is at present a school for little children, under a mistress, capable of improvement, and where the Duke of Manchester has recently built, and is about to open, schools for older children. At Great Staughton, there is an endowment of 181. 10s., but the school has been closed temporarily for want of funds ; similarly north-west of Steeple Gidding, Sawtry, and Conington, there are 18 parishes lying together, and forming a corner of the county, without, as I believe, a single teacher trained to the work, or fitted by natural gifts and intelligence to have charge of a school.- From Rev. J. Allen's Report to the Privy Council.

for the poor.

325

EARLY HISTORY OF THE SCOTCH CHURCH:- LYON'S

S. ANDREWS. History of S. Andrews, Episcopal, Monastic, Academic, and Civil, &c.

By the Rev. C. J. Lyon, M.A., formerly of Trinity College, Cambridge, and now Presbyter of the Episcopal Church, S. Andrews.

(Tait, Edinburgh.) We have much pleasure in calling the attention of our readers to Mr. Lyon's work. It is well written, and in the main impartial. It has all the merits of a local history, care and minute detail, while it incidentally treats of matters which claim a more extended interest. There is perhaps a little narrowness in his views where the question is at issue between the Church and the established religion of the land, and we cannot help seeing that he is influenced by the traditionary prejudices against the faith of the middle ages; but with this abatement, Mr. Lyon's work is done well and scholarly, and we heartily wish it the success it deserves.

On the north side of a low bleak promontory, running far out into the German Ocean, unsheltered by any intervening object from the pitiless - blasts of the east wind, stand the shrivelled remains of the ancient city

of S. Andrews. The skill and capital of man has mitigated the austerity of nature, for while cultivated fields extend close down to the low sandy hills which fringe the sea in those places where rocks do not oppose a barrier to the waves, an absence of trees bears witness to the general inclemency. Three long converging streets meeting at the precincts, form the main part of the town, and on the most eastern point next the ocean, still lofty objects “to men at sea,” stand all that has been left of the metropolitical cathedral of Scotland. One western tower, a side of the nave, two eastern towers, and a very remarkable square campanile in proportion not unlike those of the eighth and ninth centuries attached to Italian Churches, are all that remain of the edifice, which seems to have been of the Transition period. A castle, once the palace of the Archbishops, and, with the cathedral, the scene of the tumultuary violence of the ecclesiastical sans-culottes of the sixteenth century, adds a further object of mediæval interest to the vicinity, and the whole scene, one of desolation and ruin, is furnished with fitting accidents in the hoarse noise of the winds and waves, and the wild cries of the sea birds.

It was on this barren shore, in the year of grace 307, says Tradition, that S. Regulus and his companions, trusty guardians of the relics of S. Andrew the Apostle, were wrecked. They were hospitably received by Hergustus king of the Pights, and by him gifted with lands whereon they built a church. We are told by Martene " that the good and holie lives of Regulus, his companions and successors, living in cells at S. Rewle's church, was the occasion and proved the effectual meane, both for the kindly reception and good opinion, veneration, and entertainment of the Christian religion, and these religious men amongst that bloody savage and barbarous people the Pights." Whatever may be the valu. No. VI.-JUNE, 1846.

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of this legend, the probabilities are in favour of the fact, that the conversion of the early inhabitants of these lands was effected by mission. aries from the Eastern Church. No doubt S. Ninian went to Rome as early as A.D. 394, to be consecrated bishop by Pope S. Siricius; doubt Pope Celestine commissioned S. Palladius to evangelize the Scots; no doubt the Italian Bonifacius founded the churches of Tealing, Res. tenneth, and Rosemarkie, still the observance of the Wednesday fast, the error in keeping Easter, and the fact of the Bishop residing in the monastery, rather savours of an eastern origin. Much confusion prevails with regard to the early ecclesiastical polity in Scotland. No doubt great anomalies existed, e.g. the primacy of the presbyter-abbot of lona, the long-continued want of regular dioceses, &c., &c., still the supposition that it was a presbyterian religion cannot be supported, for we hear constantly of Bishops in the fifth century, and we have only to remember the tone of feeling prevalent in those ages with regard to that sacred order, to be convinced that any material deviation from the usual rule would have drawn down the censures of the rest of Christendom. Even as it was, so irregular was the state of matters, that in 816, the Council of Caelchithe issued a canon“ Ut Scoti non ad. mittendi sacra ministrare.” Much has been written with regard to the Culdees. Some writers identify them with the old Irish monks who evangelized the west of Scotland, --some maintain them to be different from those, and similar to the Secular Canons of the continent. Their name occurs both in Scotland, England, and Ireland, and they appear to have been married priests, compelled by the necessities of the times, and the rude state of civilization, to live in common; with these the Bishop lived, and by these he was elected. S. Andrews was the first regular see erected in Scotland. S. Adrian, martyred by the Danes in A.D. 870, was the first prelate. He was succeeded by Kelach I., in whose episcopate King Constantine III., wearied with the cares of empire, after thirty years' endurance of them, ended his days in the sacred retirement of the Culdees. Then came Fothad I., in whose time parishes began to be made, and tithes paid. About the year A.D. 1000, we find the Church standing in the graceful attitude of reconciler in a bloody civil war. After these were the holiest days of the Scottish Church, for the sixteenth Bishop was Turgot, the confessor of the sainted Margaret, for a most interesting account of whom, we refer the reader to the pious and learned Mr. Alban Butler's life. Then came the English monk Eadmer, who was never consecrated, and after him, Bishop Robert, in whose time the strange feudal investiture of the church of S. Andrews by King Alexander, by the gift of his war-horse at the high altar, took place. This was the most important era in the formation of the spiritual kingdom. The holiness of S. Margaret was being crowned in the obedient devotion of her sons. Scotland, hitherto a savage land, was being brought in as an integral part of the rest of Christendom, and Italian influences began to be beneficially exercised upon that remote country. It still remains to be shown by the historian, the wonderful power of the Church in curbing the rude Scotch, and the sagacity of King David in all that he did, for prejudice has sadly defaced the truth in these matters. The introduction of the Saxons skilled in the arts of peace, the interposition of the large abbey halidomes between his own country and England, the raising up a power to check the overweening insolence of a robber nobility, were all master strokes of policy, and though we cannot estimate the spiritual advantages, we need but mention the erection of four new dioceses in addition to the six previously founded, and the constitution of many religious houses, both of Benedictines and Austin Canons throughout the land. Scotland was now a Christian country, and S. Andrews shared in the prosperity, by the foundation of the celebrated priory of Regular Canons according to the rule of S. Augustine. In the next Episcopate, that of Bishop Arnold, the foundation-stone of the cathedral was laid ; it was not finished till 158 years from its commencement. During the pontificate of Bishop Richard, many disputes took place with regard to the metropolitical power in Scotland. That country, in spite of the much vaunted independence claimed by its authors, seems to have been a fief of the English king, and it was not unnatural that the Archbishop of York should claim authority over it. Pope Anastasius IV. constituted Archbishop Roger metropolitan of Scotland ; this was much resisted by the Scots, and at the convention of Northampton, to settle the matter, in spite of a spirited defence of the national liberties by Gilbert, a Canon of Moray, they were obliged to appear to yield: afterwards, on a further appeal to Rome, according to the chronicler Wyntoun, they obtained a recognition of their independence. After this, in the reign of King William, we find a collision between the tiara and the crown. On the death of Bishop Richard, the Chapter elected John Scott, Archdeacon of S. Andrews, an English graduate of Oxford and Cambridge. The king on the other hand insisted on the election of his own chaplain, Hugh, Upon this, Scott appealed to Pope Alexander III., who deciding in his favour, ordered him to be consecrated and installed in Holyrood. In retaliation, the king seized the temporalities, and obliged the Archbishop to appeal again to the Pope, who excommunicated the intruding cleric, and authorized the Archbishop of York and Bishop of Durham, in the event of King William remaining obstinate, to lay the country under an interdict, in answer to which William threatened to banish every one who should obey the Papal requisition, John now offered to withdraw his pretensions, but the Pope kept him to his point, Both parties were fully committed. William banished those who paid obedience to hn, and the prelates intrusted with that awful condition, were compelled to lay the country under interdict. And now the king had time for reflection, and coming to a sense of his conduct, sent ambassadors to Rome offering a compromise : this the Pontiff refused, but soon after dying, the new Pope (as usual of opposite sentiments to his predecessor) listened to King William's prayer, matters were compounded at the earnest intercession of Bishop John himself, and, both parties resigning their claims to the Holy See, Hugh received S. Andrews, and John the Bishoprick of Dunkeld, to which the king added the Chancellorship and an annual pension. But the matter did not rest here, for two years afterwards, on the death of Pope Lucius, Scott put in his old claim, which was listened to at Rome ; but finding himself hated by the king,

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