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Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold, Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumpet. Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar'd, and


For nothing but his majesty's approach.
Flourish of Trumpets. Enter King RICHARD, who

takes his seat on his Throne; Gaunt, and several Noblemen, who take their places. A Trumpet is sounded, and answered by another Trumpet within. Then enter Norfolk in armour, preceded by a Herald. K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion The cause of his arrival here in arms : Ask him his name; and orderly proceed To swear him in the justice of his cause. Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who

thou art,

And why thou com'st, thus knightly clad in arms:
Against what man thou com’st, and what thy quarrel:
Speak truly, on thy knighthood, and thy oath;
As so defend thee heaven, and thy valour!
Nor. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of

Who hither come engaged by my oath,
(Which heaven defend, a knight should violate !)
Both to defend my loyalty and truth,
To God, my king, and my succeeding issue,
Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me;
And, by the grace of God, and this mine arm,

Holland) officiated. Shakspeare has made a slight mistake by introducing that nobleman as a distinct person from the marshal in the present drama. Edward duke of Aumerle (80 created by his cousin-german Richard II. in 1397,) who was the eldest son of Edward duke of York, fifth son of Edward III. officiated as high constable at the lists of Coventry. He was killed at the battle of Agincourt, in 1415.

2 The duke of Hereford, being the appellant, entered the lists first, according to the historians.

3 His succeeding issue is the reading of the first folio: the quartos all read my.

To prove him, in defending of myself,
A traitor to my God, my king, and me:
And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!

[He takes his seat. Trumpet sounds. Enter BOLINGEROKE, in armour;

preceded by a Herald. K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither Thus plated in habiliments of war; And formally according to our law Depose him in the justice of his cause. Mar. What is thy name? and wherefore com'st

thou hither, Before King Richard, in his royal lists? Against whom comest thou; and what's thy quarrel? Speak like a true knight, so defend thee heaven!

Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Am 1; who ready here do stand in arms, To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's valour, In lists, on Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous, To God of heaven, King Richard, and to me; And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!

Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold, Or daring-hardy, as to touch the lists; Except the marshal, and such officers Appointed to direct these fair designs. Boling. Lord marshal, let me kiss my sovereign's

hand, And bow my knee before his majesty: For Mowbray, and myself, are like two men That vow a long and weary pilgrimage; Then let us take a ceremonious leave, And loving farewell, of our several friends. Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your high

ness, And craves to kiss your hand, and take his leave. K. Rich. We will descend, and fold him in our


Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,
So be thy fortune in this royal fight!
Farewell, my blood; which if to-day thou shed,
Lament we may, but not revenge thee dead.

Boling. O, let no noble eye profane a tear
For me, if I be gored with Mowbray's spear;
As confident, as is the falcon's flight
Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.---
My loving lord [To Lord Marshal], I take my leave

of you;

Of you, my noble cousin, Lord Aumerle;
Not sick, although I have to do with death;
But lusty, young, and cheerly drawing breath.---
Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet
The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet:
Othou, the earthly author of my blood,-

Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,
Doth with a twofold vigour lift me up
To reach at victory above my head, -
Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers;
And with thy blessings steel my lance's point,
That it may enter Mowbray's waxen coat,
And furbish new the name of John of Gaunt,
Even in the lusty ’haviour of his son.
Gaunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee

prosperous ! Be swift like lightning in the execution; And let thy blows, doubly redoubled, Fall like amazing thunder on the casque Of thy advérse pernicious enemy: Rouse up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live. Boling. Mine innocency, and Saint George to thrive!

[He takes his seat. Nor. [Rising.] However heaven, or fortune, cast

my lot, There lives or dies, true to King Richard's throne, A loyal, just, and upright gentleman : Never did captive with a freer heart Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace

His golden uncontrolld enfranchisement,
More than my dancing soul doth celebrate
This feast of battle with mine adversary-
Most mighty liege,—and my companion peers,-
Take from my mouth the wish of happy years:
As gentle and as jocund, as to jest,
Go I to fight; Truth hath a quiet breast.

K. Rich. Farewell, my lord: securely I espy
Virtue with valour couched in thine eye._.
Order the trial, marshal, and begin.

[The King and the Lords return to their seats. Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Receive thy lance; and God defend the right! Boling. [Rising.] Strong as a tower in hope, I

cry-amen. Mar. Go bear this lance [To an Officer] to Tho

mas duke of Norfolk. 1 Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself, On pain to be found false and recreant, To prove the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, A traitor to his God, his king, and him, And dares him to set forward to the fight. 2 Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, duke

of Norfolk, On pain to be found false and recreant, Both to defend himself, and to approve Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal; Courageously, and with a free desire, Attending but the signal to begin. Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, combatants.

[A Charge sounded. Stay, the king hath thrown his warders down.

4 To jest, in old language, sometimes signified to play a part in a masque. Thus in Hieronymo:

'He promised us, in honour of our guest,

To grace our banquet with some pompous jest." Add accordingly a masque is performed

5 A warder was a kind of truncheon or staff carried by persons who presided at these single combats; the throwing down of which seems to have been a solemn act of prohibition to stay proceedings A different movement of the warder had an opposite effect. In Drayton's Battle of Agincourt, Erpingham is represented throwing it up as a signal for a charge.

Draw near,

K. Rich. Let them lay by their helmets and their

spears, And both return back to their chairs again: Withdraw with us:- and let the trumpets sound, While we return these dukes what we decree.

[A long flourish.

[To the Combatants. And list, what with our council we have done. For that our kingdom's earth should not be soil'd With that dear blood which it hath foster'd; And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect Of civilé wounds plough'd up with neighbours'

swords; [And for we think the eagle-winged pride Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts, With rival-hating envy, set you on To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep?;] Which so rous'd up with boisterous untun'd drums, With harsh resounding trumpets' dreadful bray, And grating shock of wrathful iron arms, Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace, And make us -wade even in our kindred's blood;Therefore, we banish you our territories: You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death, Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields, Shall not regreet our fair dominions, But tread the stranger paths of banishment. Boling. Your will be done: This must my com

fort be, That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on me; And those his golden beams, to you here lent, Shall point on me, and gild my banishment.

6 Capel's copy of the quarto edition of this play reads of cruel wounds, &c. Malone's-copy of the same edition, and all the other editions read 'Of civil wounds,'&c.

7 The five lines in brackets are omitted in the folio.

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