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Natus ad Euphraten, molles quod in aure fenestrae
Arguerint licet ipse negem : sed quinque tabernae
Quadringenta parant. Quid confert purpura major
Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro
Conductas Corvinus oves ? ego possideo plus
Pallante et Licinis." Exspectent ergo Tribuni;


times magistrates (who were now sunk very Torre di Paternò, is near the coast, and low) were among the crowds who waited on about eight miles from Ostia. It was a the rich. The master says, “ Give the winter resort of the Romans, and abounded Praetor first, after him the Tribunus ;” with villas. Large flocks of sheep were fed but a freedman who had come before either there, and the marshes in the neighbourof them, asserts his claim to be served be. hood were famous for wild boars, which fore them; and a long speech is put into Horace, however, does not recommend (S. his mouth, in which he makes himself out ii. 4. 42). Corvinus was a cognomen of the to be richer than the men of office, and Messalae, who were a branch of the Valeria therefore entitled to take precedence of Gens, one of the oldest families in Rome. them, an odd argument at such a time. As (Hor. C. iii. 21, Int.; S. i. 6. 12, n., "conto • libertinus,' see Hor. S. i. 6.6, n. "Sed tra Laevinum, Valeri genus.") This genlibertinus prior est ’is part of the narrative, tleman of old family is supposed to be re. not the words of the • Dispensator,' as Ru• duced to keeping sheep as a 'mercenarius.' perti says.

A person is said conducere rem faciendam,' 101. Natus ad Euphraten,] He may in which case he receives pay ( merces') mean from Cappadocia, from which part or conducere rem utendam,' in which case the Romans got a good many of their slaves he pays another for the thing used. (See (vii. 15). See Martial x. 76 :

note on Hor. C. ii. 18. 17, and Long on

Cic. in Verr. Act. i. c. 6, there quoted.) “Civis non Syriaeve Parthiaeve Nec de Cappadocis eques catastis."

108. ego possideo plus] That' possidere'

was used generally in the sense of possessing 'Fenestrae’are the holes made for earrings, property, and not confined to the “ possesand they are called “molles,' which means sores’ technically so called, is obvious from effeminate. The man says he has five this and many passages. The “

possessores' houses, which he lets out for shops, and of the republican period were occupiers they are worth 400,000 sesterces, which of public lands; and this man could not be was an equestrian fortune ; unless with a possessor' in that sense any more than Heinrich we understand. quinque tabernae' Pallas or Licinus. He makes himself out to be those spoken of by Livy as banking to be vastly rich, and yet he is here houses in the forum: “ Septem tabernae begging. quae postea quinque et argentariae quae

109.° Pallante et Licinis.] The man's nunc Novae appellantur” (xxvi. 27). In speech ends here. Pallas was a freedman that case the man means his transactions at of Claudius, in whose reign he got together the 'quinque tabernae' bring him in this a large fortune, for the sake of which he income. I incline to this interpretation. was put to death by Nero, A.D. 63. Licinus With • quadringenta' sestertia' must be was a Gaulish slave manumitted by C. supplied. See iii. 153, sq.; v. 132 ; xiv. Julius Caesar, and made by Augustus gover323 ; and Hor. Epod. iv, 15, n.

nor of Gallia, which he robbed, and thereby 106. purpura major) That is, (as the grew very rich. The Scholiast says it was Scholiast says) the latus clavus,' or broad to stop people's mouths that he built a purple stripe on the tunic worn by senators, basilica' in the name of C. Julius Caesar as opposed to the 'angustus clavus' worn (the Basilica Julia in the Forum Romanum). by "eqnites.' (See Dict. Ant.; and Hor. S. i. He died in the reign of Tiberius. This, 5. 36, n.; ii. 7. 10, n.) A ‘tribunus mili- the Scholiast says, is the Licinus mentioned tum' of the first four legions was entitled by Persius (S. ii. 36). This inay very to a seat in the senate, and therefore to likely be the person alluded to by Juvenal the • latus clavus ;' but it was allowed to here and at xiv. 306. The authorities for others who were not senators under the his life are quoted in Dict. Biog. The einpire.

commentators refer to members of the 107. si Laurenti custodit in agro] Licinia gens, of which the family of Laurentum, supposed to be at the site of Crassus in particular was very rich. As to


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Vincant divitiae, sacro nec cedat honori
Nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis ;
Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima divitiarum
Majestas, etsi funesta Pecunia templo
Nondum habitas, nullas nummorum ereximus aras,
Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus,
Quaeque salutato crepitat Concordia nido.


Ovid says,

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the plural Licinis, where only one person where the declivity commenced called is meant, see note on Horace, S. i. 7. 8. (Horace, C. iv. 2. 35) Sacer Clivus, which

110. sacro nec cedat honori] The person led down to the Forum Romanum. It of the 'tribunus plebis’ was inviolable, ‘sa- was begun by Claudius and finished by crosanctus' (Liv. ii. 33). Martial has (viii. Vespasian, who deposited in it the spoils of 66) “ Et Caesar genero sacros honores;" Jerusalem brought to Rome by Titus. and Virgil (Aen. iii. 484), “ Nec cedit hono. (Joseph. B. J. vii. 37.) It was burnt down ri.” Some editions have' ne cedat.' in the reign of Commodus, about 120 years

111. pedibus qui venerat albis ;] The after it was built. Fides had a temple on Scholiast has a note here, which need not Mons Capitolinus, which was said to have be attended to. Slaves newly imported been founded originally by Numa, and was are generally said to have been chalked on afterwards restored in the consulship of M. the soles of their feet when exposed for sale. Aemilius Scaurus, A. U. c. 639. No less (See Dict. Ant., Art. “Servus,' 872, b.) than three temples of Victoria are men

Gypsati crimen inane pedis” tioned, one of which was in the Forum, (Am. i. 8. 62); and Propertius speaks of another on Mons Palatinus, and a third on slaves for sale,

Mons Aventinus. That on the Palatine -quorum titulus per barbara colla pe- built by Evander. In his first consulship

was said by tradition to have been originally pendit

M. Marcellus built a temple to Virtus near Cretati medio cum saluere foro”

the Porta Capena, from which the Via (iv. 5. 51); but what could have been the Appia began. use of chalking their soles is not obvious 116. crepitat Concordia nido.] “Conto me. They may have worn white slippers cordia, who twitters when the birds salute perhaps, or something of that sort. their nest ;" that is, her temple sounds with

112. divitiarum Majestas,] This con- the twittering of the birds. There was a denses Horace’s “Virtus, fama, decus, di. beautiful temple to Concordia in the Carinae, vina humanaque pulchris Divitiis parent originally built by Furius Camillus after the (s. ii. 3. 95).

expulsion of the Gauls, A. U. c. 364, and 113. funesta Pecunia) Compare Horace, restored by Livia, Augustus' wife. See Ovid, Epp. i. 6.37, “Et genus et formam regina Fast. vi. 637 : Pecunia donat," where I have quoted the Christian writers on whose authority Pe

“ Te quoque magnifica, Concordia, dedicat

aede cunia is said to have been worshipped. Seneca (de Provid. c. 5) says, “ Non sunt

Livia quam caro praestitit illa viro." divitiae bonum. Itaque habeat illas et See also Fast. i. 639, sq.

There was Ellius leno : ut homines Pecuniam cum in another that stood between the Capitol and templis consecraverint videant et in for the Forum, in which the senate sometimes nice.” From which it would seem there held their meetings. Sall. B. Cat. 49. Cic. were statues of Pecunia in the temples. Phil. ii.8. Some say that the crow, others

115. Ut colitur Pax atque Fides,] This that the stork was the bird sacred to Congroup is found in Horace, C. S. 57 : cordia. John of Salisbury says (Nugae, &c.i. “ Jam Fides et Paxet Honos Pudorque

13), “Ciconia quoniam avis Concordiae est

concordiam invenit et concordiam facit." Priscus et neglecta redire Virtus

Aelian (de Animalibus, l. ii.) gives this Audet,"

honour to the crow. Whichever it was where I have a note on each of these divi- Juvenal supposes some bird to have built its nities. The temple of Pax was one of the nest on the temple of Concordia. Some handsomest buildings in Rome, and was MSS. have "ciconia, the first syllable of situated on the Via Sacra, about the point which is short, and it would have no mean

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quum summus honor finito computet anno
Sportula quid referat, quantum rationibus addat,
Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est
Et panis fumusque domi? Densissima centum
Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque maritum
Languida vel praegnans et circumducitur uxor.
Hic petit absenti, nota jam callidus arte,
Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam.
“Galla mea est," inquit; "citius dimitte; moraris.” 125
Profer, Galla, caput.” “Noli vexare, quiescit.”
Ipse dies pulcro distinguitur ordine rerum :
Sportula, deinde forum, jurisque peritus Apollo


ing here. M. has it in the margin. It pro- was invented, As far as it goes this divibably arose from Ovid's “crepitante ciconia sion of the day corresponds with Martial's rostro” (Met. vi. 97).

(iv. 8). The two first hours, he says, were 117. Sed quum summus honor) “But given uptothe 'salutatio,' the next three to when the highest magistrates take account the courts, the sixth to sleep and the 'pranat the end of the year what the 'sportula' dium,' the seventh to business again, the brings them in, and how much it adds to eighth to exercise, and the ninth to dinner, their income, what will their followers do which went on ad libitum till bed-time. who get every thing, clothes, and victuals, (See Hor. Epp. i. 7. 47, n.) It is here said and firing (fumusque) from that source ?” that the sportula' was the first business. • Referre' is the proper word for entering Becker says the dole itself was taken away money in an account book, and 'rationes in the afternoon, though the ‘salutatio'took are the accounts themselves.

place in the morning (Gall. p. 29, n.). We 119. Quid facient comites,] That is, have a scene below (iii. 249, sqq.) of slaves those parasites whose profession it was to carrying away hot viands in the afternoon ; wait upon the rich. See above, v. 46. and Martial (x. 70. 13) says he has to go at

120. Densissima centum Quadrantes] the tenth hour for his bath or his 'sporSee note on v. 95. • Densissima lectica’ is tula;' “ Balnea post decimam lasso cenequivalent to plurima lectica.' Men are tumve petuntur Quadrantes.” It appears, not satisfied with going themselves, but therefore, that people could take the earnthey must take their wives with them to ings of their servility either in the morning get a double allowance, though they be sick or the afternoon. or in the family way. Another takes his 128. jurisque peritus Apollo] As to the wife's empty chair, with the curtains drawn Forum Augusti, which is here alluded to, round. “It's my wife's Galla,” says he; see Hor. Epp. i. 16. 57, n. There was in “We are in a hurry, don't detain us." “ Put it a statue of Apollo inlaid with ivory (Plin. out your head, Galla, that we may see H. N. vii. 53). In this forum were two you're there,” says the balneator.' “Don't porticos, in one of which were statues of disturb her, she's asleep;” and so he takes Aeneas and the Roman kings, and in the a second dole. As to the difference between other of distinguished soldiers. Compare ·lectica' and sella' see note on v. 64. Sueton. (Aug. 31): “Statuas omnium (qui

127. Ipse dies pulero] Here follows an imperium populi Romani ex minimo mexiaccount of the divisions of the day, which mum reddidissent) triumphuli effigie in he calls a 'fair ordering 'ironically. The utraque fori sui porticu dedicavit,” with distribution of the dole is the first thing in Ovid (Fast. v. 563, sqq.): the morning; then the great man goes to

“Hinc videt Aenean oneratum pondere sacro the forum and the law courts, and returns

Et tot luleae nobilitatis avos. home about dinner time, still attended by

Hinc videt Iliaden humeris ducis arma his clients, who, after seeing him to his

ferentem door, retire wearied, and disappointed, because he does not ask them to dinner, as

Claraque dispositis acta subesse viris.” rich men used to do before the sportula' Amongst others a colossal one of Augustus

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Atque triumphales, inter quas ausus habere
Nescio quis titulos Aegyptius atque Arabarches,
Cujus ad effigiem non tantum meiere fas est.
Vestibulis abeunt veteres lassique clientes
Votaque deponunt, quanquam longissima coenae
Spes homini : caulis miseris atque ignis emendus.
Optima silvarum interea pelagique vorabit
Rex horum, vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit.
Nam de tot pulcris et latis orbibus et tam


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(Mart. viii. 44. 7). Among all Apollo's Pers. i. 113.) Heinrich quotes several inattributes law was not one, and he is only stances of non tantum' used in this ellipcalled “juris peritus' because he was always tical way, as Liv. x. 14, “Non vero tantum listening to lawyers. So Martial says (ii. metu,” where we are to add " sed etiam 64), “ Ipse potest fieri Marsya causidicus,” ficto;" Plin. Epp. iii. 14, init., “ Rem atrobecause his statue was in the Forum Ro. cem nec tantum epistola dignam,” where manum. (See Hor. S. i. 6. 119, n.) Gesner supplies "sed historia vel tragoedia

130. Aegyptius atque Arabarches,] This adeo.” title has caused a good deal of trouble. It 132. Vestibulis abeunt] The' vestibuoccurs in Cicero(Ad Att. ii. 17) where, as here, lum’ was a porch leading from the street the MSS. differ, some having 'Arabarches,' to the door of the house. These porches and others • Alabarches.' Ernesti (Clavis) were only attached to large houses. In says the sense and MSS. both favour • Ala- them the retainers sat.

And Juvenal says barches' (see end of this note). So also in when they came home with their patron, the Codex Justin., iv. 61. 9, a duty upon they got no further than the porch, and, cattle imported from Arabia into Egypt is receiving no invitation to dinner, they laid variously written‘vectigal Alabarchiae’and aside their hopes for the first time, and • Arabarchiae.' The reading, however, is not went away to buy a poor supper and firing of much importance, for the meaning must to dress it, while their lord and master went be the same even if the r became corrupted in to a fine dinner which he enjoyed by into l. The title must have been that of himself. “Rex,' as applied to the rich, is some Roman officer of consideration in the very common in Horace. See C. i. 4. 14, province of Egypt, whatever his duties may n.; and below, v. 14. He says that of all have been. They were discharged in one the hopes men feed upon, they are least instance, at least, by the governor of a dis- willing to part with that of a good dinner. trict, as appears by the inscription on Mem- Rigalti quotes a good answer of Epictetus to non's statue quoted by Mr. Mayor, where Hadrian: “ Hadriano interroganti, quid est Claudius Aemilius is said to be åpaßápxns longissimum ? Epictetus respondit, Spes.” και επιστράτηγος Θηβαΐδος. Juvenal is 134. caulis miseris atque ignis emendus.] indignant that a provincial officer should See above v. 120. have had a public statue, with his services 137. et latis orbibus]

These were inscribed on the pedestal (titulos), set up round tables made of various costly woods. for him among the great men in the forum. (Hor. S. i. 2. 4, n.) They came into The notion of Alabarches' being derived fashion in Cicero's time; and some may from óraßa which Hesychius says means have been preserved from that day, and ink, and therefore that the officer was would justly be called 'antiqui. (See 'scripturae praefectus,' or collector of the below, S. xi. 122.) The use of round tax upon cattle, was first propounded, ac- tables introduced a change in the distribucording to Pullmann, by his contemporary tion of the company usual in Horace's time, Cujacius, and son.elatereditors have adopted which was on the triclinium, or three it (Ernesti does so in his • Clavis' on Cicero, long couches round a table of three sides to mentioned above). Otherwise it would not correspond to them. The round tables did be worth noticing.

not suit this arrangement, and semicircular 131. non tantum] Non tantum’is excouches were introduced, with fewer people plained by Horace S. i. 8.38. Juvenal says on them. In large houses there would be that a man may foul this fellow's statue in several of these in a room. Whoever wishes any way he pleases without oflence. (See to see how much inight be spent on a Ro


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Antiquis una comedunt patrimonia mensa.
Nullus jam parasitus erit : sed quis ferat istas
Luxuriae sordes ? Quanta est gula quae sibi totos
Ponit apros, animal propter convivia natum !
Poena tamen praesens, quum tu deponis amictus
Turgidus et crudum pavonem in balnea portas.
Hinc subitae mortes atque intestata senectus.
It nova nec tristis per cunctas fabula coenas :
Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis.

Nil erit ulterius quod nostris moribus addat
Posteritas; eadem cupient facientque minores;
Omne in praecipiti vitium stetit. Utere velis,
Totos pande sinus. Dicas hic forsitan, Unde
Ingenium par materiae ? unde illa priorum
Scribendi quodcunque animo flagrante liberet



man's dinner may read the ninth chapter and his friends, angry at missing the legaof Becker's Gallus, and the description of cies they expected, are glad to hear of his Trimalchio's dipner by Petronius, on which death.' As he made no will his property Becker's fiction is founded. [These two would go to his ‘heredes.' The peacock first verses, 137, 138, are ejected from the text came into fashion in Cicero's time. (Hor. by Ribbeck, and indeed they do not seem S. ii. 2. 21, n.) The common practice of to be genuine; at least they convey no bathing immediately after meals, though in clear meaning, and they interrupt the con. hot baths, might well lead to sudden deaths text.)

and to frequent intestacy, as Juvenal ex139. Nullus jam parasitus erit :) We presses it. See Persius, S. iii. 98, sqq., shall soon have no parasites; but wbo shall where there are some powerful lines on this bear to see this selfish gluttony of yours ?' subject. “Ducere funus' is one of the many He addresses the man. •Luxuriae sordes' applications of that verb, of which a great means avarice and luxury combined. “Po variety will be found in Horace. [Ribbeck nere' is the word used for putting dishes has * Ět nova nec tristis, &c.' with no stop on the table. See Hor. S. ii. 4. 14, n., and after senectus’and coenas.'] elsewhere. At large banquets a boar served 149. Omne in praecipiti vitium stetit.) up whole, and sometimes stuffed with all “All vice is at its height” (Stapylton). “All manner of forced meat and rich things, was vice is at its zenith ” (Gifford). “All vice usually the chief dish. (Hor. S. ii. 3. 234, is at its pitch-pole” (whatever that may be) n., and 8. 6, n.) Grangaeus says Juvenal is Holyday's version. The notion is, that has taken ‘animal propter convivia natum' vice is at a point from which it can climb from Varro, de Re Rust. ii. 4: “Suillum: no higher, and that the age is on the brink pecus donatum ab natura dicunt ad epul- of a precipice, and likely to be ruined through andum.” Juvenal means more than Varro its vices. The stone was still rolling in did. He says it is so big as only to be Horace's days : meant to be eaten when several are collec

“Damnosa quid non imminuit dies ? ted at a feast. He might have said the same of the peacock. Natum’is used like

Aetas parentum pejor avis tulit

Nos nequiores, mox daturos Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis' (Hor. C. i. 27.1). For "ferat’some MSS. have feret :'

Progeniem viticsiorem.”

C. ii. 6, fin. either will do. Heinrich has the future.

112. Poena tamen praesens,] ‘But the Rigalti quotes Velleius (lib. ii. 10): “adeo penalty follows hard after the crime, for mature a rectis in vitia, a vitiis in prava, a when he goes to bathe with his stomach full pravis in praecipitia pervenitur.” and his hard meat undigested, he gets a fit -Utere velis, Totos pande sinus.] He of apoplexy which puts an end to him. The addresses his Muse as a ship, and bids her news gets about from one house to another, set all sail. But he supposes one to ask


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