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Frontis nulla fides. Quis enim non vicus abundat
Tristibus obscoenis ? Castigas turpia quum sis
Inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinaedos.
Hispida membra quidem et durae per brachia setae
Promittunt atrocem animum: sed podice levi
Caeduntur tumidae medico ridente mariscae.

tuted, in two of the old editions (Nürnberg, 9. Tristibus obscoenis ?] Tristibus’is 1497, and Ascensius of Paris, 1498), “pu- bere ' grave,' serious.' Horace opposes it teum,' probably through inadvertence. But to 'jocosus,' s. i. 10. 11: “ Et serinone the word has been taken up by commenta- opus est modo tristi saepe jocoso.” The tors (Valesius, Graevius, Heinsius, are men- two adjectives are not commonly joined tioned by Ruperti) and a new sense given together. 'Obscoenus' signifies that which to the passage. Cleanthes is reported to is common or unclean. It is said to conhave earned the means of living by drawing tain the Greek koivos, which is doubtful. water; and he is said to have been called It is applied to things, persons, words, &c., in consequence φρεάντλης. Wherefore of ill omen; but also as here, and as we these critics have supposed Juvenal to have use it, to the lewd.—'quum sis :' although meant that these men set up images of you are. Quintilian (Inst. xii. 3. fin.) Cleanthes to guard their wells, puteum throws light upon the subject of this Satire, servare.' More consideration has been when(writing in Domitian'stim:e) he speaks given to this suggestion than it deserves. of inen “ pigritiae arrogantioris, qui subito * Archetypos’ is usually rendered original. fronte conficta immissaque barba veluti deτο αρχέτυπον, το πρωτότυπον signify the spexissent oratoria praecepta,paulum aliquid model or pattern from which copies are sederuntin scholis philosophorum, ut deinde, taken. Archetypum’ was the same ; but in publico tristes, domi dissoluti, captarent the word is not found as early as Augustus. auctoritatem contemtu ceterorum. Philoso• Prototypia’ occurs in the Codex Theo- phia enim (he adds) simulari potest, elodos. (see Forcell.), in the same sense. The quentia non potest.' adjective archetypus' is found only here 10. Inter Socraticos] The commentators and in Martial vii. 11, where he says to his and translators, old and modern, are divifriend, Aulus Pudens, who had asked him ded as to the meaning of Socraticos.' for a copy of his poems corrected with his The sense is the same as in “fictos Scauown hand : “O quam me nimium probas ros' (v. 34, n.); these men carried on their amasque Quivis archetypas habere nugas?” vile practices under the disguise of moSee also xii. 69 : “Sic tanquam tabulas ralists. The Socratics they would affect to scyphosque, Paulle, Oines archetypos habes imitate were Antisthenes and the Cynics. amicos."

They are called Stoics below, v. 65 (see 8. Frontis nulla fides.]. Some of the Int.). Others, like the Scholiast, suppose oldest editions and four of the MSS. quoted that Juvenal adopted the libel against Soby Achaintre, have · fronti,' which Ruperti crates, which made him as bad in that readopts. Most of the editions, and all the spect as they. Of Socrates personally Juvenal other MSS. appear to have the genitive. speaks with respect (xiii. 185, sq.). SotaThe difference is not important. *Fronti dicos' has been suggested as an emendation, nulla fides' would mean - there is no trust derived from one Sotades, who, according to to be put in the outside ;' frontis,' that Athenaeus and others, was the first who the outside has nothing trustworthy in it; practised this abomination. But no MSS. in the one case ' fides' is ' faith, in the support the word ; nor have any editors, I other that on which faith is exercised. The believe, adopted it, though it has always expression of the brow represents as much been thought necessary to notice it. as any part of the face the working of the 12. atrocem animum:] 'A bold, manly mind, and “frons' appears with every epi- mind.' 'Atrox'commonly has the meaning thet that expresses character and feeling. of a dogged courage, as in Horace, C. ii. But the face may be tutored and expression 1. 23 : assumed, and the lewdest villain may wear the most modest brow. μή κρίνετε κατ' “ Et cuncta terrarum subacta όψιν, αλλά την δικαίαν κρίσιν κρίνατε, Praeter atrocem animum Catonis.” is the divine command.

Verius ergo

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Rarus sermo illis et magna libido tacendi
Atque supercilio brevior coma.
Et magis ingenue Peribomius : hunc ego fatis
Imputo, qui vultu morbum incessuque fatetur :
Horum simplicitas miserabilis ; his furor ipse
Dat veniam. Sed pejores qui talia verbis
Herculis invadunt et de virtute locuti

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Clunem agitant. “Ego te ceventem, Sexte, verebor ?”
Infamis Varillus ait: quo deterior te ? "
Loripedem rectus derideat, Aethiopem albus.

14. Rarus sermo illis] Many will be re- and face, and as he was at any rate more minded of Gratiano's description in the honest, Juvenal lets him alone, and charges Merchant of Venice (Act i. sc. 1): him (by which he means his wickedness) on

the fates, supposing him to be mad, 0eo“ There are a sort of men whose visages Babins, as Heinrich says. “Imputare'is

Docream and mantle likea standing pond, a word used in accounts, for putting to a And do a wilful stillness entertain, person's credit, as “acceptum referre,' or With purpose to be dress'd in an opinion (as expensum referre ') to his debit. To Of wisdom, gravity, profound conceit; 'impute’ a thing to any one is to lay it to As who would say, I am Sir Oracle, his charge. The openness ( simplicitas') And when I ope my lips let no dog bark. of such persons, and their blind madness, O my Antonio, I do know of those he says, may excite compassion and get Who therefore only are esteemed wise them some indulgence. Heinecke justly For saying nothing,"

reproves Ruperti for substituting 'quem

for 'qui, as if 'morbum' was the object which is all an expansion of what Solomon of imputo. Morbum' means his vi says: Even a fool when he holdeth his ‘mentis morbum’es Horace has it (S. ii. peace is counted wise; and he that shut- 3. 80). teth his lips a man of understanding 19. qui talia verbis Herculis invadunt] (Prov. xvii. 28).

•Who attack such vices with big words, 15. brevior coma.

a.] Their short-clipped stout, terrible language, such as Hercules hair was another affectation of wisdom, fol- might use. There is no allusion to the lanlowing, it is said, the fashion of the Stoics. guage of disdain with which Hercules reSee Pers. iii. 54: "detonsa juventus Invi- jected the addresses of Pleasure in Prodicus' gilat.” Britannicus quotes in Latin what story. Ruperti has taken this notion up he says is a Greek proverb : “ nullus coma- from Britannicus, who tells the whole story. tus qui idem cinoedus non sit.” But the But Heinrich thinks Hercules is mentioned Stoics had a bad name in this matter; and because the Cynics professed to imitate him yet Lucian (Hermotimus c. 18, quoted by in dress and voice. Ruperti, and referred to by Turnebus, Adv. 21. Sexte,] The Scholiast says this was 1. xv. c. 17) speaks of them as èv xpq some senator, which is not improbable. kouplas toùs alelotovs, most of them with The name Varillus’ is varied in some their hair clipped down to the skin. Ruperti MSS. but is so written in most. has a long note upon 'supercilium,' which 22. quo deterior te?] So Davus addresis not worth attending to.

ses his master (Hor. S. ii. 7. 40): 16. Peribomius :] The Scholiast says he was an Archigallus,' or chief among the Tu, cum sis quod ego et fortassis nequior, priests of the Galatian Cybele' (Hor. S. ultro i. 2. 121, n.), but followed an infamous Insectere velut melior verbisque deeoris trade. Ruperti supposes the name to be Obvolvas vitium ? Quid, si me stultior taken from βωμός. περιβώμιος is used in

ipso,” &c. the Septuagint translation for a sacred grove (2 Kings xxiii. 4, and elsewhere). 23. Loripedem rectus derideat,] •Lori* Peribonius' is the reading of M. and many pes' is the same as ιμαντόπους. Pliny other MSS. This man made no conceal- (vii. 2) speaks of a tribe among the Indians ment of his trade, but showed it in his gait who were “anguium modo loripedes." See

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Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes?
Quis caelum terris non misceat et mare caelo
Si fur displiceat Verri, homicida Miloni,
Clodius accuset moechos, Catilina Cethegum,
In tabulam Sullae si dicant discipuli tres ?
Qualis erat nuper tragico pollutus adulter

Forcellini, who explains it of those who in of Bona Dea,' in pursuit of his mistress. walking twist their legs about like a thong Catiline and Cethegus, fellow-conspirators, of leather, or whose legs are naturally dis- are mentioned together again viii. 231; torted. He quotes also Plautus (Poen. iii. X. 287. C. Cornelius Cethegus was not 1. 7): “Nequicquam hos fuscos mihi elegi inferior to Catiline in bloody violence, loripedes tardissimos.” The soft word for and next to Lentulus was his chief supsuch appears to have been 'varus,' or 'scau- porter. rus' (Horace, S. i. 3. 47, n.). The Scho- 28. In tabulam Sullae] The "tabula' liast explains “loripedem'as ‘solutum pedi- means the proscription table or lists of bus aut curvis.'

Sulla; and they who are here called his 24. Quis tulerit Gracchos] This might three disciples are Antonius, Caesar Octastand ‘si Gracchi querantur, quis tulerit ?' vianus, and Lepidus, whose proscription 'If the Gracchi were to complain, who would (A.U.c. 711) was more bloody than Sulla's, bear it?' (See Key's Lat. Gr. 1209.) Every thirty-eight years before. It is said to have one will understand the charge of sedition included 3000 equites and 300 senators, and laid upon the Gracchi (Tiberius and Caius), among them were Cicero and others of the the friends of the poor, and feared by the first distinction. Lucan calls Cn. Pompeius aristocracy. It is not surprising that their a pupil of Sulla (Phars. i. 325): names passed into proverbs under the empire.

“ Bella nefanda parat suetus civilibus arinis 25. Quis caelum terris] See below, vi. Et docilis Sullam sceleris vicisse magis283: “clames licet et mare caelo Confundas

trum.” homo sum. He means, who would not cry out invoking heaven and earth at such As to 'tabulam Sullae' Grangaeus quotes hypocrisy? as Stasimus cries out in Plautus Florus (iii. 21): "proposita est illa ingens (Trinum. iv. 3. 63): “Mare, terra, caelum, tabula, et ex ipso equestri ordinis flore ac di vostram fidem, Satin' ego oculis plane senatu duo millia electi qui mori juberenvideo ?The words of Juvenal are bor- tur.” • Dicere in ’ is used in the sense of rowed from Virgil (Aen. v. 790): “maria dicere contra. Cicero has “multa praeomnia caelo miscuit,” who, as Grangaeus sens in praesentem et diserat et fecerat” remarks, may have got his from Lucretius (Ad Att. xi. 12). (iii. 854): "non si terra mari miscebitur et 29. Qualis erat nuper] He here alludes mare caelo.”

to the adulterous intercourse of Domitian 26. Si furdispliceat Verri,] That is, if the with his niece Julia Sabina, a daughter of plunderer of a province were offended with Titus, who was married to Flavius Sabinus, a common robber. “Furtum’included all her father's and Domitian's first cousin. theft and robbery, with or without violence; Suetonius (Domit. 22) relates that she was but where a distinction is meant it is opposed offered Domitian in marriage while yet a to rapina,' which is ‘furtum'attended virgin, and that he refused her because he with force. See note on Hor. S. i. 3. 122, was married already to Domitia. But not • Furta latrociniis. Cicero's seven orations long after her marriage (to Sabinus), and have made Verres immortal. His iniquities before he came to the throne, he seduced are enshrined in the finest specimens of her; and when he was emperor, murdered forensic eloquence that have come down to her husband on the pretext (mentioned by us from antiquity. Milo's murder of Clo- Suetonius, c. 10) that when they were prodius, his adversary and Cicero's (A. U.C. claimed consuls together (A.D. 82), the year 702), and the blood he and his followers after Domitian's accession, the herald proshed in his contests with that person, made claimed Sabinus imperatorinstead of consul. bis name proverbial. Clodius was, besides, The true reason no doubt was the eminfamous for his intrigue with Caesar's wife, peror's lust for Julia; and Juvenal therefore Pompeia, and his violation of the mysteries calls his connexion with her 'tragicus con

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Concubitu, qui tunc leges revocabat amaras
Omnibus atque ipsis Veneri Martique timendas,
Quum tot abortivis fecundam Julia vulvam
Solveret et patruo similes effunderet offas.
Nonne igitur jure ac merito vitia ultima fictos
Contemnunt Scauros et castigata remordent?

Non tulit ex illis torvum Lauronia quendam
Clamantem toties : “ Ubi nunc lex Julia ? dormis ?”
Ad quem subridens : “Felicia tempora quae te
Moribus opponunt! Habeat jam Roma pudorem :
Tertius e caelo cecidit Cato. Sed tamen unde

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cubitus. Julia afterwards died in an at. perti supposes Juvenal may mean that these tempt forced upon her by Domitian, to men were like Scaurus in his dissimulation. procure abortion, which is alluded to in v. But whatever Sallust may have thought of 32, sq. Pliny (Epp. iv. 11. 6), speaking of Scaurus, he was classed with the noble and Domitian, says he put to death a Vestal for honest citizens of Rome by others. Juvenal incest and was as bad himself: “Quum says that the lowest characters, who made ipse fratris filiam incesto non solum pollu- no concealment of their vices, despised these isset verum etiam occidisset, nam vidua hypocrites, and when they attacked them abortu periit.” According to Dion Cassius returned their bite, as Horace says (Epod. (67. 3) this happened A.D. 83; the same

vi. 3): year, probably, as the murder of Sabinus. At the same time Domitian was engaged in “Quin huc inanes, si potes, vertis minas the reforining of public morals (Sueton. Vit. Et me remorsurum petis ? " c. 8. “Suscepta morum correctione,” &c.), having taken upon himself the censorship 36. Lauronia] This is any woman of for life; he being the first of the emperors the town. The name is said, without any who had nominally assumed that office (see probability, to be taken from Lauron, a S. iv. 12). The lex Julia de Adulteriis' town of Hispania Tarraconensis (Beck, may have been loosely observed, and Sue- quoted by Ruperti in his Var. Lect.). tonius speaks of Domitian having enforced Some MSS. have Laronia, which occurs in with severity, and on several occasions, the inscriptions. The woman smiles quietly at law against unchaste Vestals, “a patre suo these hypocrites crying out pathetically for quoque et fratre neglecta” (c. 8); see below, the ‘lex Julia' (see note on v. 29), and says iv. 9, n. In that loose age the ‘lex to one of them : Lucky times are these, Julia de Adulteriis' above mentioned (see which present such a barrier to immorality Dict. Ant.) would be called “amara omni- as you. Let the town blush at her lewd. bus,' and a terror to the adulterous Mars ness; another Cato has dropped from the and Venus. *Abortivis' signifies means of skies. But where did you buy your perabortion. •Tunc' means that he was re- fumery?' And then she breaks out in a storing the laws at the very time when he fierce invective against men, and a defence was carrying on his intrigue.

of her own sex. •Subridens' expresses 34. vitia ultima] The most vicious of bitterness, as in Aen. x. 742: "Ad quem men, ‘res pro persona;' as 'servitium’ for subridens mista Mezentius ira.” The taunt

servus,' remigium for ‘remiges,' &c. about the ointment is sarcastic enough; and * Fictos Scauros' are those villains who pro. the speech, which passes from quiet irony fess to be as virtuous as M. Aemilius Scau. to the utmost scorn, is well managed. rus, who is alluded to again (xi. 91) in con- 40. Tertius e caelo cecidit Cato.] This junction with the Fabii, Cato and Fabricius. seems to be an allusion to Domitian'scensor. See Horace, C. i. 12. 37, n., “Regulum ship spoken of above (v. 29. n.). Some comet Scauros animaeque magnae Prodigum mentators do not see why there should be Paullum,” where the plural is used as here. three, that is, why Cato of Utica should be See note on S. i. 109; and above, on vv. 3. associated with the Censor. But Juvenal 10. Because Sallust (B. Jug. 18) speaks has put them together, and the younger of Scaurus as 'callide vitia occultans, Ru. was an honest man.

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Haec emis hirsuto spirant opobalsama collo
Quae tibi ? Ne pudeat dominum monstrare tabernae.
Quod si vexantur leges ac jura, citari
Ante omnes debet Scantinia. Respice primum
Et scrutare viros; faciunt hi plura : sed illos
Defendit numerus junctaeque umbone phalanges.
Magna inter molles concordia. Non erit ullum
Exemplum in nostro tam detestabile sexu.
Tedia non lambit Cluviam, nec Flora Catullam :
Hispo subit juvenes et morbo pallet utroque.
Numquid nos agimus causas, civilia jura
Novimus, aut ullo strepitu fora vestra movemus?

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41. spirant opobalsama] "Spirare' is bus.” “Junctaeque umbone phalanges’ is commonly used with respect to perfumes, as expressed by the Greek military term ouvVirgil (Aen. i. 407): “Ambrosiaeque comae aanlouds, which was the closest order of the divinum vertice odorem Spiravere.” 'Opo- phalanx in charging : or it represents in balsamum' is the juice (orós) of the 'bal- the Roman warfare the 'testudo,' or intersamum' (amyris Gileadensis), the balm of lacing of shields, which formed the most Gilead mentioned in Scripture, of which a effectual shelter against the darts and other correct description is given by Pliny, H. N. missiles of the enemy. The ‘umbo,' or xii. 25. He says that its scent was preferred oupands, was the boss in the centre of the to every other; and he gives the same ac- 'clipeus' or 'parma,' which helped to throw count that Bruce the traveller gives of the off the darts that struck the shield, and extraction of the juice by an incision in the being furnished with a spike, or else by its bark, and how it was collected in very small own projection, was itself a weapon of of. quantities, so that it took a long summer's fence. So Martial says (iii. 46): "In turbam day to fill a small bottle. It was therefore incideris, cunctos umbone repellet.” The very rare and costly, as it is still. There Scholiast quotes Lucan: “Quicquid multis was a tax upon the tree Pliny says (l. c.): peccatur inultum est.”. “Servit nunc haec et tributa pendit cum 47. Magna inter molles concordia.] John sua gente.”

of Salisbury quotes this (Nugae, &c. iii. 12) 43. Quod si verantur leges ac jura,] •If on the question whether friendship can exist you are to disturb laws that have gone to between the bad, which he decides in the rest, you should call up the Scantinia.' negative, and goes on, “Magna utique inter Citare,' a form of cieo,' means bere 'to molles et malos concordia, sed ea tantum a wake up,' alluding to‘dormis' (v.37). The caritate discedit quantum lux distat a tene

lex Scantinia’ was a law for the suppres- bris.” “Molles' are effeminate, in the worst sion of unnatural crimes. Domitian did revive this law, according to Suetonius : 51. Numquid nos agimus causas,] She “ Quosdam ex utroque ordine (equites and says, • Do we meddle with men's business senators) lege Scantinia condemnavit” (c.8). as they do with ours. Horace has (S. i. 9. In a large number of the MSS. the read. 38): “Inteream si Aut valeo stare aut novi ing is ‘Scatinia.' This law existed in Cicero's civilia jura." For the component parts of time. The penalty of death was first im- 'Jus Civile,' which included things human posed on these crimes by the Christian em- and things divine, see Dict. Ant. Art. perors Constantine and Constans. As to 'Jus;' and v. 72, n. * leges et jura,' see below, v. 72, n.; and for 52. fora vestra] There were several “fora' the distinction between them the reader is in Rome at this time; but the three in which referred to Smith's Dict. Ant. and to Hor. most legal business was done were the FoEpp. i. 16. 41, n. [Ribbeck has ‘leges, at rum Romanum, Forum Julium, and Forum jure citari.']

Augusti. The last is particularly referred 45. faciunt hi plura :] It seems as if to in the last satire (v. 128), and was that Juvenal remembered that line of Horace in which most judicial business was trans(A. P. v. 432), “Et faciunt hi plura dolenti. acted.

sense.

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