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D. JUNII JUVENALIS

SA TIR A R U M

LIBER PRIMUS.

SATIRA I.

INTRODUCTION.

This satire, for reasons stated in v. 47, could not have been written before A.D. 100 and was probably not written long after that date. Heinrich, whose judgment I have a great respect for, says it is not so much a satire as a preface or introduction to a volume of satires. It is certainly a satire as severe as any in the book. Juvenal had probably written others before it, but I do not see enough in this poem to entitle it to be called a preface. He says all the passions of men from the flood downwards are the hodge-podge of his book — " nostri farrago libelli” (v. 86)—and he has touched upon a good many of them in this satire, which may be the libellus ’he means. If not, he must have been intending to publish a collection; for • libellus’ must mean something definite, either one poem or a collection. He begins with supposing himself persuaded by some person not to write, as Horace pretends with Trebatius (S. ii. 1). But the times are such, he says, that he cannot help it; and while there are so many indifferent poets spouting their lines every where, he may as well write as others. He then goes into a detail of some of the vile features of society; among which are the voluntary degradation of women; their lewdness; the preferment of slaves and inforners; the impunity of robbers, and forgers, and murderers; men selling the honour of their wives ; women poisoning their husbands; incest and adultery undisguised ; avarice, gambling, extravagance, gluttony; the contempt and neglect of the poor by the rich; magistrates degraded into beggars. The burst about the poets and their recitations is only a way of introducing humorously the graver matters that follow. A good deal of what was recited was no doubt bad enough ; but Juvenal's quarrel was not with his literary brethren, whose cause he takes up, as well as their recitations, in the seventh satire. They have in reality nothing to do with the satire as such, though Juvenal pretends they have. The arguments prefixed to the MSS. treat this satire as a preface to the rest. Ruperti, on the other hand, thinks it was written before all the others, and Dryden that it is “the natural groundwork of all the rest;" for “ herein he confines himself to no one subject, but strikes indifferently at all men in his way; in every following satire he has chosen some particular moral which he would inculcate, and lashes some particular vice or folly." I see no proofs one way or the other. It might have been written first or last for any evidence I can find in the poem itself, irrespective of the sign of the date noticed above, which puts it later perhaps than

some.

ARGUMENT, Am I always to be a listener, and shall I never pay these poets back in their own coin ? I know all their subjects by heart; all of them, bad and good, handle the same, till the

B

very marble is split with their noise. I too have been to school; I too have learnt to

declaim; and if paper must be wasted, why should not I write too ? V. 19. My reason for following in Horace's steps is this—when eunuchs are marrying

wives, and women are exhibiting in the arena, when a barber is challenging with his wealth all the nobility, and slaves are clad in purple and affecting their summer rings, it is impossible to abstain from satire. Who can restrain himself when fat Matho comes by in his litter, and the great informer after him, the terror of all little informers; when you are thrust from your rights by wretches who get your inheritance by satisfying an old woman's lewdness? Is it not enough to make one's blood boil to see the robber treading on people's heels with his crowd of sycophants, while his ward is left to prostitution ? and Marius going off into exile to enjoy himself with the spoils of his province ? What does he care for infumy if he keeps his plunder ? Are these not fit themes for the muse of Venusia ? What have I to do with the old hackneyed topics when wretches are found to wink at their wives' intrigues, and take the property of the adulterer which the law will not give to the woman ; when a spendthrift expects to be promoted to high places for the skill with which he handles the reins while the great man lounges with his minion behind ? Does not one feel inclined to take out one's tablets in the very street when the forger comes lounging along in his open litter, and the great lady meets him who has drugged her husband's wine and has taught her young neighbours shamelessly to do the same ? You must be a bold miscreant if you want to be somebody. Honesty is praised and left to starve. To crime men owe all their fine gardens, and houses, and furniture. Who can sleep for the incest and adultery that is going on? If nature refuses, indignation

draws the pen, though it be but such as mine or Cluvienus'. V. 80. All the passions of men from the deluge to this day are the motley subjects of my

book. When was the harvest of vice more abundant? when did avarice so fill its bags ? When had the die such spirit as now when men play not for the contents of their purse but of their chest ? Look at the hotness of the encounter! A hundred sestertia lost and the poor shivering slave without a tunic; is not this something more than madness ? Which of our ancestors ever built such villas, or dined by himself off seven courses ? Now-a-days the poor client has to scramble for paltry dole grudgingly and cautiously given, and from this he is elbowed by some great pauper wlio must have his share first; or else some well-to-do freedman cries, “ I came first, and must be first served; I am rich too, and riches are better than rank.” And of course the claim must be allowed; the rich slave before the poor magistrate, for though money has not yet had a temple and altars, her majesty is above all others sacred. But if our high officers are not above reckoning upon the sportula, what will their followers do who get all they have from this source ? Crowds of litters come up for the

dole, and all kind of fraud goes on. V. 127. The first event of this day is this sportula : then they sally forth to the forum,

with its statues of heroes, among whom some paltry Arabarch has got himself set up. In the afternoon they come home; and at the porch the hungry clients take leave of their patron and their long-cherished hope of a dinner, and retire to buy their bit of cabbage, while the great man sits down to the fat of the land and the sea, and eats up a whole fortune off a single table. Who can endure this beastly selfishness ? What a belly that sits down to a whole boar by itself! But the penalty follows quick when you go down to bathe with your meat crude upon your stomach—sudden death and

intestacy, the gossip of every dinner-table, and the delight of your angry friends. V. 147. Our sons can add nothing to our vices, which have climbed to the highest point;

so set your sails, my Muse, and bear down upon the enemy. “But where is your talent for such great themes ? where are you to get your liberty of speech ? Mucius unay have pardoned his satirist, but mark down a Tigellinus and you will share the Christians' fate.” “ Is the murderer then to ride on high and to look down upon us ?” “ Aye, when he meets you shut your lips, or the informer's finger will be upon you. You may write of Aeneas, and Achilles, and Hylas as much as you please. When Lucilius draws his weapon and rushes on to the attack, every hearer with sore conscience blushes, and this is why they are angry; so you had better think of this before you put on your armour, for after that it will be too late.” “Well then I must try what I can do with those who are sleeping by the Flaminian and the Latin roads."

SEMPER ego auditor tantum ? nunquamne reponam
Vexatus toties rauci Theseide Codri?
Impune ergo mihi recitaverit ille togatas,
Hic elegos ? impune diem consumpserit ingens
Telephus, aut summi plena jam margine libri
Scriptus et in tergo, nec dum finitus, Orestes ?

bus;

1. Semper ego auditor tantum ?] See In. of Horace's Larbitas (Epp. i. 19.15). The troduction. In the time of Augustus it had story of Theseus furnished subjects for epic become common for all sorts of writers, but poems and tragedies, and this may have been particularly poets, to recite their productions either, probably an epic, as comedy, elegy, in public places, baths, colonnades, and so and tragedy come after. forth; or to get their friends and acquaint- 3. Impune ergo mihi] •Impune' reminds ance together to hear them in private houses us of Horace's “ Obturem patulas impune or rooms hired for the purpose. The prac- legentibus aures” (Epp. ii

. 2. 105), and tice was adopted by literary men of character "nobilium scriptorum auditor et ultor as well as the inferior sort; the example (Epp. i. 19. 39). He paid his friends in having been first set, as is said, by Asinius their own coin. This is expressed in 'repoPollio, the friend and patron of Horace and nam,' which means to repay.' Pliny, in the others. Horace refers to it familiarly, and epistle quoted above, has a good-humoured many of the authorities are quoted on S. i. sentence which illustrates this : “ Possum 4. 73. It was considered a nuisance in his jam repetere secessum et scribere aliquid day; and the last of his poems ends with a quod non recitem, nevidearquorum recitatistroke at these reciters :

onibus affui non auditor fuisse sed creditor. “Indoctum doctumque fugat recitator acer

Nam ut ceteris in rebus ita in audiendi officio

perit gratia si reposcatur.” “Togatae' were Quem veroarripuit tenet occiditque legendo, comedies with Roman plots and characters, Non missura cutem nisi plena cruoris hi

as opposed to‘palliatae,' which were Grecian. rudo."

(A. P. fin.) See Hor. Epp. ii. 1. 57, n.; and as to ele

gos’ see A. P. 75, n. Heinrich adopts from Pliny the younger, writing about the time of one MS. cantaverit' for 'recitaverit,' which this satire, speaks with a good deal of indul- appears in every other MS. and edition. gence of the practice, and regrets that the Juvenal uses cantat' below, x. 178, and reciters are not encouraged by larger audi- might have used it here. ences. He says he attended them all and

4. ingens Telephus,] Telephus, king of made friends with them (Epp. i. 13). Mysia, was a son of Hercules, and a fertile

2. Theseide Codri?] The Scholiast writes subject for tragedy. (See Hor. A. P.96, n.) Cordi, and P.has the same. Servius on Virg. His strength is said to have approached that xi. 458, as well as all the other MSS., has of his father, and no doubt was magnified Codri. Cordus is a Roman name. Codrus by the poets Juvenal refers to. “Ingens' is used below, S. iii. 203. 208, and is so Ruperti, Heinrich, and others correctly refer written in the same MS., except that a later to the length of the poem ; others to the band has introduced Cordus. Codrus is used prowess of the man. by Martial, ii. 57; v. 26, and by Virgil, Ecl. 5. summi plena jam margine libri] This v.113; vii. 26. It is in every case, as here, a is meant to show the length of the poem. fictitious name; though Servius on the latter The back of the papyrus, or parchment place says, “Codrus poëta ejusdem temporis (membrana), was not usually written upon, fait ut Valgius in Elegis suis refert.” “Cor- but stained; whence Juvenal speaks below dus is said to have been the Roman name croccae membrana tabellae” (vii. 23).

of

Nota magis nulli domus est sua quam mihi lucus
Martis, et Aeoliis vicinum rupibus antrum
Vulcani. Quid agant venti, quas torqueat umbras
Aeacus, unde alius furtivae devehat aurum

10
Pelliculae, quantas jaculetur Monychus ornos,
Frontonis platani convulsaque marmora clamant
Semper et assiduo ruptae lectore columnae.

Exspectes eadem a summo minimoque poeta. Martial has this epigram on one Picens, a mention of the Aeoliae Insulae, one of which bad poet :

is said to have been the abode of the gover“Scribit in aversa Picens epigrammata

nor of the winds. Strabo says it was Stroncharta,

gyle (Stromboli), ενταύθα δε τον Αίολον Et dolet averso quod facit illa deo.”

oixñoal pavi (vi. p. 276). See Pliny, H. N. (viii. 62.)

iii. 9; Heyn. Exc. i. on Aen. i.

10. unde alius] Jason from Colchis. Such writings were called 'Opisthographi.' Horace uses the form “pellicula' (S.ii. 5.38); * Liber' properly belongs only to books of and Persius (v. 116). It has no diminutive papyrus ("chartae'); but it was not confined force, and is only used for convenience. to those see Dict. Ant. Liber'). It was usual 11. jaculetur Monychus ornos,] In Ovid to have a wide margin ; and the larger the (Met. xii. 510, sqq.) Nestor relates how book the wider the margin. Priscian (vi. 3. Monychus and the other centaurs tore up 16, p. 684) quotes this passage to show that the trees from Othrysand Pelion, and hurled ‘margo' is sometimes of the feminine gen. them upon Caeneus at the marriage of his der. The Scholiast makes the same remark, friend Peirithous. and quotes Ov. Met. i. 13 for the mascu- 12. Frontonis platani] The gardens and line. [It is difficult to give a satisfactory corridors of private persons were lent, it meaning to summi libri,' unless it can appears, for this purpose. Fronto is a mean a very large liber.']

name which occurs often under the empire. 7. lucus Martis,] These are such subjects The most distinguished was M. Cornelius as Horace speaks of, A. P. 16.sq. : “lucus et Fronto the orator, who was one of the ara Dianae, Et properantis aquae per amoe- tutors of M. Aurelius Antoninus. The man nos ambitus agros,” &c. The Scholiast re. in the text may be any body. The exaggefers to a grove of Mars on the Appian Way, ration of the speaker's powers, and the apto anotherin which Ilia brought forth Romu- plause of his friends, are amusing, and the lus and Remus, and that in Colchis where the verses very forcible. In the peristylia of golden fleece was kept. Any grove of Mars large houses trees of considerable size were will do, and there were many. Of the group grown. “Inter varias nutritur silva columof islands north of Sicily called Aeoliae, Vul- nas” (Hor. Epp. i. 10. 22). The plane tree caniae, or Liparaeae Insulae, the most sou- was much cultivated by the Romans. Comtherly is that now called Volcano, by the pare Hor. C. ii. 15. 4: “platanusque Romans Hiera or Vulcani Insula, and by the caelebs Evincet ulmos.” “Convulsa' and Greeks 'lepà 'Hpalotou. Virgil describes ruptae Grangaeus says are medical words, it in language which leaves little doubt that as if the pillars were in a state of convulsion this is the place Juvenal refers to (Aen. viii. and bursting blood-vessels: “Rupticonvulsi416—422). Ruperti thinks Aetna must be que dicuntur qui nervorum affectione et meant, because the cave is said to be 'near' spasmo laborant ; sed et eadem ratione sic the Aeolian rocks, whereas Hiera is one of apellantur qui nimio clamore venis tumes. them; which is not worth considering. This centes offenderunt.” As to the construction island was in early times a very active vol. ‘ruptae lectore,' see Hor.i. 6. 2, n. Servius cano(See Smith’s Dict.Geog., Aeoliae Ins.'). quotes this verse on Virgil : "Et cantu Heinrich says that in 'lucus Martis,' and querulae rumpent arbusta cicadae” (Georg. the cave of Vulcan, and 'Quid agant venti,' iii. 328). Juvenal had his eye upon Valerius Flaccus, 14. Exspectes eadem] “You may look for whose Argonautica

were written about this the same stuff from all sorts of poets, from time. See lib. i. 573, sqq. ; v. 252, sq. the greatest to the least: I then (ergo) must

9. Quid agant venti,j . What the winds write, for I too have been to school and been are about. The winds follow naturally the whipped and declaimed; and since paper

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