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Discrepet hinc alius. Geminos, horoscope, varo
Producis Genio: solis natalibus est qui
Tingat olus siccum muria vafer in calice empta,
Ipse sacrum irrorans patinae piper ; hic bona dente
Grandia magnanimus peragit puer. Utar ego, utar,

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sense.

18. Geminos, horoscope, varo] Horo. But this distinction was not always obscopus is the star of one's nativity. He served, for Horace speaks of Catius' says others may not think and feel as he choice sauce being made of sweet olive does, for the star that waits on the birth oil mixed with good rich wine and ‘muria' even of twins sometimes brings them into (S. ii. 4. 65). The stingy lad will let the world with different Genii. This is no one else pepper his mess, like Horace's one of the many ways of putting the same miser, Avidienus (S. ii. 2. 61), “cornu thing. Varro (quoted in my note on ipse bilibri Caulibus instillat veteris non Hor. Epp. i. 7. 94) says the Genius is parcus aceti.”. The pepper is called “Deus qui praepositus est, ac vim habet sacred' for the respect with which he omnium rerum gignendarum,” and Ho- spares it, as the greedy man spares his race reverses Persius' order, and speaks money bags, “congestis undique saccis of a man's Genius as that “natale comes Indormis inhians et tanquam parcere qui temperat astrum, Naturae deus hu- sacris Cogeris (Hor. S. i. 1. 70, sqq. manae.' See above, S. v. 45, sqq.; ii. note). "Tingat' means that he only 8, n.; iv. 27. Producere,' 'to bring moistens the cabbage. He is sparing into life,' is used of the father or mother. even of his cheap sauce. • Irrorat' has See Juv. viii. 271, and Forcellini, who the same sort of force. He sprinkles his gives no other instance of .varus' in this pepper but lightly. “Empta' means that

But it corresponds very nearly to he has none in his closet, but must go S. iv. 12, "vel cum fallit pede regula out and buy a small cup of the sauce when varo.” It is properly applied to legs that he requires it. Magnanimus' is the diverge from the knees downwards, and is same sort of irony as in Horace's “Maeopposed to 'valgus,' bow-legged. See note nius ut, rebus maternis atque paternis on Hor. S. i. 3. 47, "hunc varum distortis Fortiter absumptis, urbanus coepit hacruribus.". Varo Genio,' therefore, is beri” (Epp: i. 15. 26, sqq.). Bona Geniuses that go in different directions. dente peragit' is like Juv. xi. 39, sqq., [Jahn has discrepet his,' which is the “aere paterno Ac rebus mersis in venMSS. reading Heinrich has hinc,' trem.” Peragere' is here used as it is founded on one MS. reading, ‘hic.'] not exactly used elsewhere. It is 'to run

19. solis natalibus est qui] 'Est qui' through, as we say, to come to the end is opposed to ‘hic' (21). On the govern- of his property. Puer,' at the end of ment see Hor. C. i. 1. 3, n. One moistens the sentence, is emphatic, as in Horace his dry cabbage in ‘muria,' which he goes (C. i. 9. 15), “nec dulces amores Sperne out to buy for the occasion, and sprinkles puer, neque tu choreas,” i.e., while you the pepper with his own hand; the other are young (Epp. i. 2. 67), “Nunc adbibe runs through a large property in good puro Pectore verba, puer.” living while he is still a lad. In both 22. Utar ego, utar,] This is imitated cases early vice is meant. Like the sons from Horace, Epp. ii. 2.190: of Horace's Canusian, Servius Oppidius (S. ii. 3. 168, sqq.), the one is a cunning

“Utar, et ex modico quantum res poscet young miser, the other a magnanimous young spendthrift. Muria' was a sauce

Tollam, nec metuam quid de me judicet

heres.” made of the 'thunnus,' and less delicate than "garum,' which was made of the The verb is put absolutely, but the mean

scomber. The one was used by the ing is easily seen. The pronoun though poor, and the other by the rich. Martial emphatic is omitted, whatever others has an epigram on ‘muria '(xiii. 103): may do.' He says he will enjoy his for

tune, which was ample, and yet he is not “Antipolitani, fateor, sum filia thunni ; on that account so extravagant as to feed

Essem si scombri, non tibi missa his liberti' upon turbot, or such an forem.”

epicure as to distinguish the delicate taste

aceryo

Nec rhombos ideo libertis ponere lautus,
Nec tenuem sollers turdarum nosse salivam.
Messe tenus propria vive, et granaria, (fas est,)

25
Emole. Quid metuas ? occa, et seges altera in herba est.
Ast vocat officium ; trabe rupta Bruttia saxa
Prendit amicus inops, remque omnem surdaque vota
Condidit Ionio; jacet ipse in litore et una
Ingentes de puppe Dei, jamque obvia mergis
Costa ratis lacerae. Nunc et de cespite vivo
Frange aliquid, largire inopi, ne pictus oberret
Caerulea in tabula.–Sed coenam funeris heres

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of a hen thrush or fieldfare. The differ- Dryden and Gifford give the same sense, ence of taste between a cock and a hen which is not that of Persius. He supwas imaginary perhaps, but the masculine poses a case in which a particular duty here would have no force. Though the calls for greater generosity. A friend is MSS. differ therefore, and the masculine wrecked, his property and the vows he is the vulgar reading, there is no doubt offered for its safety all buried alike in the the feminine is right. This the Scholiast waves; he is cast on shore, and lies grasprecognizes and explains : "turdarum' ing the rocks with the ship's gods lying abusive posuit cum turdorum' dicere by him, and the gulls dying over the scatdebuerit." Nearly all the MSS. have tered timbers as they float on the waters. tenues salivas,' which no editor bas In this case, he adds, you may go further, adopted that I am aware of, except Dueb- and give the poor man a piece of your land ner, who has introduced it into Casaubon's to save him from begging. “Trabe' is text. “Saliva' is equivalent to sapor,' used for a ship, as in S. v. 141, and Horace, as in Propertius (v. 8. 38, Paley), "et Me C. i. 1. 13, “trabe Cypria.” By way of thymnaei Graeca saliva meri," where it giving reality to the picture, he fixes the seems Hertzberg disputes this meaning. place of the wreck on the south coast of There is no doubt about it here. •Lautus Italy, where he lies like Palinurus in the ponere,' 'sollers nosse,' is a construction Aeneid. vi. 360, Prensantemque uncis noticed on Prol. 11. This sense of 'lautus' manibus capita aspera montis." "Surdus' is common. Forcellini gives examples. is not used elsewhere in this sense exactly. See Juv. xi. 1, “Atticus eximie si coenat It means vows to which the gods are deaf. lautus habetur.”

Where it means 'silent,' as in Juv. vii. 71 ; 25. Messe tenus propria vive,] We xiii. 194, it is as being unheard, which is should call this living up to one's in- an analogous use. As to Ionio, see Juv. come. He adds, 'don't hoard, but grind vi. 93, n. Images of gods were carried in all your grain. What have you to fear ? the stern of a ship. Ovid, describing a only harrow your ground, and you get storm he encountered on his voyage from another crop.

• In herba' is in the Rome, says, blade.' Horace, Epp. ii. 2. 161, has“Cum “Monte nec inferior prorae puppique resegetes occat tibi mox frumenta daturas," where see note on occare.' 'Quid metuas' is better than ‘metuis,' which Jahn adopts,

Insilit, et pictos verberat unda Deos."

(Trist. i. 4. 7, sq.). and it has more MSS. authority. 'Quid metuas' occurs in iii. 26.

• De cespite vivo frange aliquid' is only 27. Ast vocat officium ;] This is by a way of expressing 'give the man a piece some taken to be an objection of the man, of land.' Vivus cespes' is used by Howho does not like parting with his grain. race twice for a turf altar, C. i. 19. 13 ; ii. So Halliday translates it,

8. 4. As to the sailor and his picture, see

Juv. xiv. 302, Pers. i. 89.
Why, I should thus spend,

33. Sed coenam funeris heres] He supBut duty hinders me: for my poor poses the man to be afraid of the revenge friend,

his heres' will take if he curtails his proHis ship being split,” &c.

perty for such a purpose. •Coena funeris '

curvae

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35

Negliget iratus, quod rem curtaveris; urnae
Ossa inodora dabit, seu spirent cinnama surdum
Seu ceraso peccent casiae nescire paratus.
Tunc bona incolumis minuas ? Et Bestius urget
Doctores Graios: “Ita fit, postquam sapere urbi

is a dinner given to the friends of the de- in “male ominatis ” (Horace, C. iii. 14. ceased after the funeral. It has nothing to 11). If this is right, as I incline to think do with the 'silicernium,' concerning which it is, the poet asks ironically, and then see Juv. v. 85, “ feralis coena.” The friends would you not be mad to curtail your met and speeches were commonly made on estate ?' that is, with such a terrible such occasions as at wedding breakfasts prospect after your death. • Incoluwith us, the chief subject being the merits mis' is used in this sense of 'sanus' by of the principal person concerned. The Horace, S. ii. 3. 132, “Incolumi capite dinner was sometimes mentioned in the es ?” He also has “male tutae mentis' will. See Hor. S. ii. 3, 86, n. “ epulum in the same satire (137). arbitrio Arri.”

Et Bestius urget] 'And then 34. urnae Ossa inodora dabit,] There is' with the airs of a Bestius he (the & variant inhonora,' but the other is the 'heres') will go on to attack the Greek true word. It was usual to sprinkle odonrs doctors.' Persius has obviously borrowed on the ashes when they were put into the this name from Horace (Epp. i. 15. 37, urn. Tibullus, giving directions for his n.). burial (iii. 2. 23), begs, that, when his bones are placed in the urn, all manner of per. “Scilicet ut ventres lamna candente nepofumes may be brought,

tum

Diceret urendos, corrector Bestius." “ Illuc quas mittit dives Panchaia merces,

Eoique Arabes pinguis et Assyria.” Nothing is known of this man, whose Ovid also says (Trist. iii. 3. 65. 69),

name was proverbial for severe censure,

either in a public or private character. “Ossa tamen facito parva referantur in For 'et' most MSS. have ‘sed,” which

does not give any good sense. urna, Atque ea cum foliis et amomi pulvere

38. Ita fit, postquam sapere urbi] misce."

* This is always the way, ever since this

taste of ours was imported with pepper •Surdus,' like k@pos; has reference properly and palins.' Sapere hoc' is like 'nosto the failure of hearing either actively or trum vivere,' &c. (S. i. 9, n.) Pepper passively. (See note on 28.) But it came and palins came from the coast of Syria to be applied more generally to any thing (v. 136), from whence Juvenal's man Ümdull and spiritless. (See Forcellini.) *Spi- bricius complains that the Romans got so rent surdum' means they give no scent much vice (iii. 62, sqq. n.), "Jam pridem at all,' or a flat one: “acutum odorem non Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes." The reddunt” (Schol.). The adulteration of commentators are much troubled by mathe olive oil with oil of casia is referred to ris expers.' Casaubon was the first who above (ii. 64). That of casia with an ex- thought of ‘maris’ being the genitive of tract from the cherry-tree is nowhere else •mas,' and the sense being ‘emasculated.' mentioned. Nescire paratus,” he is pre- Weber approves this interpretation, and pared not to know,' is a sarcastic way of compares i. 103, “si testiculi vena ulla paspeaking.

terni Viveret in nobis ?” Our translators 37. Tunc bona incolumis minuas ?] Halliday and Gifford so render the words. These words are usually attributed to the But it is manifest that Persius, in whose 'heres,' abusing the man after his death. mind the words of Horace were continually In that case the reading supposed is running, thought of " Chium maris ex'tune' (which Jahn has]. Heinrich with pers” (s. ii. 8. 15), and whatever he may a few MSS. reads tunc,' and says they have taken the meaning to be there, he are the words of the poet. He takes meant here. One of the interpretations of no notice of the metrical difficulty, but ‘maris expers' in the passage of Horace is I think the hiatus may be got over, as without salt water,' which was mixed with

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Cum pipere et palmis venit nostrum hoc maris expers,
Foenisecae crasso vitiarunt unguine pultes."
Haec cinere ulterior metuas ? At tu, meus heres,
Quisquis eris, paulum a turba seductior audi.
O bone, num ignoras? missa est a Caesare laurus
Insignem ob cladem Germanae pubis, et aris

some Greek wines ; and Heinrich supposes He then by way of showing his own mind that Persius means 'salis expers,' insul- in this matter, turns and addresses his sum.' This is an ingenious solution of the heres,' and asks for a word in his ear. difficulty. So it would be this witless, By ‘meus heres ' he means his heres legi. silly taste of ours. The expression would timus,' who would succeed to his property be far-fetched; but I think, though it in the event of his dying intestate, and who would not have occurred to the writer might probably expect to be named 'heres' himself, it is not improbable he may have if he made a will. Persius so far identifies thus applied it. Jahn, taking Horace's himself with his subject that he assumes meaning in the same sense, follows close the speaker to have no sui heredes' (Juv. upon Heinrich's interpretation. But he x. 237), Persius having no children or wife takes the sense to be corrupt,' that is, himself. wanting in that salt which preserves all 43. O bone, num ignoras ?] 'My good things from corruption. The other inter- friend, haven't you heard ?' as the doctor pretation of Horace's meaning is, that the says, “Heus, bone, tu palles” (iii. 94). wine had never crossed the seas, and so Caesar has sent tidings of a great victory some interpreters take this place as a taste over the Germans, and arrangements are of home growth. This is the interpretation being made for a grand celebration: he of Turnebus (Adv. 30. 7), and of Meister, therefore intends to offer a hundred pairs who has written a treatise on this passage. of gladiators, and asks who shall prevent (Ueber A, Persii S. vi. 37–40. Leipzig, him. The Caesar he means is Caligula, 1810.). The words as they stand in the whose ridiculous pretence of an expedition text will not bear this meaning, and to sus. against the Germans, B.C. 40, is related by tain it the critics separate ‘nostrum hoc Suetonius (Caligula, 43, sqq.). Tacitus maris expers' from what goes before. When speaks of it and a pretended expedition I wrote my note on Horace (1. c.) I thought against Britain as “ Čaianarum expeditiothis was the meaning of Persius and of num ludibrium” (Hist. iv. 15). His object Horace. But on farther reflection I do not was plunder, of which he was insatiate. think it is, but that 'maris expers ' here The son of Cunobellinus, a British king, means ' without salt' (wit), as there it is flying from his father, came to Caligula without salt water.'

and surrendered himself, which the Em40. Foenisecae crasso] Foenisices' peror considered as a cession of the island, is the more common form. It means and thereupon sent a flaming letter to 'mowers. He uses it generally for country announce the fact to the Senate. After. labourers, as he uses “fossor' (v. 122). wards he got up a sham engagement in a Heinrich and Jahn have 'ae' in the first wood by the Rhine, sending some German syllable on the authority of the MSS. prisoners across the river to represent the Orelli has ‘oe,' and Forcellini says that is enemy, who were then reported as coming the right diphthong. Unguine' here is down in great force. He marched his like 'uncto' in 16. Horace has crassum army down to the sea-shore, and when they unguentum' (A. P. 375); but he means got there ordered them to pick up shells as perfumes. Here coarse oil is meant for spoils of the ocean, to be dedicated in the mixing with the porridge; as to which see Capitol and Palatium, and built a lightJuv. xiv. 171, “grandes fumabant pultibus house to commemorate this victory. He ollae."

then made arrangements for a triumph on 41. Haec cinere ulterior metuas ?] The a magnificent scale, for which he ordered poet drops his irony and asks in scorn, contributions to be collected from every Are you to fear such stuff as this when quarter. As to laurus,' see note on Jur. you are dead ?'

We say beyond the iv. 149, “ venisset epistola penna.” grave;' Persius says " beyond the burning.'

Frigidus excutitur cinis, ac jam postibus arma,

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Jam chlamydes regum, jam lutea gausapa captis
Essedaque, ingentesque locat Caesonia Rhenos.
Dis igitur Genioque ducis centum paria ob res
Egregie gestas induco; quis vetat ? aude;
Vae, nisi connives ! oleum artocreasque popello 50
Largior; an prohibes ? dic clare ! “Non adeo (inquis) :
Exossatus ager juxta est.” Age, si mihi nulla

45. Frigidus excutitur cinis,] The old the Empire till a hundred became a small ashes were removed, he means, to make show. (See Dict. Ant., Gladiatores.) way for fresh sacrifices. Caesonia (Cali- 50. Oleum artocreasque popello] He gula's wife, whom he had married two threatens to add to his extravagance by a years before, having had her for his mis. largess of oil and bread and meat to the tress) contracts for arms to hang up at people. Artocreas' (đptos, kpéas) is not the temple doors, hires shawls for the found elsewhere. It seems to be a comkings to wear whom he is to bring home pound of visceratio,' a distribution of captive, and shaggy auburn beards for meat, and 'frumentatio,' of corn, which his pseudo German prisoners, and war were both common on great occasions. chariots, and stout Gauls from the banks (See note on Horace last quoted.) Vae' of the Rhine. Suetonius (c. 47) says is a threatening exclamation, 'Woe betide that besides his German prisoners and you ! deserters he chose out the tallest Gauls 51. Non adeo (inquis):] ‘Not at all,' he could get, those who would best adorn say you, your land is pretty well exhis triumph, and some Gaulish chiefs too, hausted ;' like a body without the bones, and ordered them to dye their hair red, it is worthless. So he supposes the man and let it grow, and to learn the German to turn up his nose at the inheritance. language, and bear Gerinan names. "Gau. Forcellini's interpretation of exossatus sapum' or 'gausape' is a rough woollen as land that bas been well looked after cloth. But it is used in iv. 37, an obscene and cleared of stones, is certainly wrong. passage on which I have not commented, [Jahn has a full stop at 'inquis,' and as a shaggy beard, and that is probably he makes · Exossatus . . . juxta est' part the meaning here. As to locare,' which of the poet's answer. As the reading ‘non signifies to let work to be done or some- adeo' may not be the genuine text, and thing to be used, see note on Hor. C. ï. as the sense of "exossatus’ is not certain, 18. 17, “Tu secanda marmora Locas.” it is impossible to say what this passage Forcellini understands Rhenos to mean

Heinrich interprets ‘non adeo' 'statues of the Rhine,' such as were thus : I do not accept the inheritance, carried in triumphal processions. So the non adeo heriditatem. He takes ‘juxta ' river Jordan is represented on the arch of as equivalent to 'paene.'] Titus. Jahn so understands it too. But 52. Age, si mihi nulla] He goes on, there is no reason to suppose a number of Very well, if you don't want my inheritsuch statues would be carried in the pro- ance, and if I have not a relation left, I cession, and the above passage of Suetonius can go and pick up a heres among the shows what Caligula's orders were. The beggars,' who were numerous on the Via form Rhenos is Greek, 'Pîrvoi. Rhenanos Appia. • Bovillae' was on that road, and is the Latin form.

about twelve miles from Rome, and so 48. Centum paria] A hundred pairs of the poets speak of it as a suburb. Prop. gladiators, whom he intends to send into v. 1. 33, "Quippe suburbanae parva minus the arena (inducere in arenam) in honour urbe Bovillae." Ovid, Fast. iii. 667, of Caligula's Genius. A hundred pairs “Orta suburbanis quaedam fuit Anna was the number to which Staberius' Bovillis.” This old woman employed herheredes were condemned if they did not self in making cakes for the poor people, carry out the provisions of his will (Hor. with whom her neighbourhood abounded. S. ii. 3. 85).* The number exhibited on The clivus Virbi’ is the clivus Aricinus,' great occasions went on increasing during where the Appia Via enters Aricia, about

means.

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