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Et nos ergo manum ferulae subduximus, et nos
Cur tamen hoc potius libeat decurrere campo
must bespoilt, mercy would be thrown away: 22. Maevia Tuscum Figat aprum] This I may as well spoil it as others.” [The verse refers to the 'venationes,'or fights with wild *Exspectes.. poeta’ is rejected by Ribbeck, beasts at the circus and amphitheatres. The following thesuggestion of Dobree.] School. beasts fought with each other, or with men boys will not want to be told what manum trained for the purpose and called “bestiarii.' ferulae subducere' means; but it appears Of these many were free men and volunthe commentators are not agreed. It cor- teers fighting for pay, and among them were responds to Horace's“ didicit priusextimuit sometimes found even women (see ii. 53), que magistrum” (A. P. 415). Grangaeus which seems to have happened first in the quotes several authorities for the expression, year A.D. 63, in the reign of Nero. Specwhich passed into a proverb.
tacula gladiatorum idem annus habuit pari 16. Consilium dedimus Sullae] Jahn on magnificentia ac priora : sed faeminarum the authority of many of the MSS. writes illustrium senatorumque plures per arenam “Syllae;' but all inscriptions where the name foedati sunt.” (Tac. Ann. xv. 32.) Suctooccurs have .Sula' or Sulla. The Greek nius mentions the magnificent games of form is Lúxias. The theme on which he Domitian:“Spectacula magnifica assidue et professes to have declaimed belongs to the sumptuosa edidit-venationes gladiatoresorder called “suasoriae orationes,” of which que-nec virorum modo pugnas sed et faemia book was written by the elder Seneca. It narum.” Juvenal refers to them again (S. vi. appears to have been a favourite subject. 216, sq.) and his contemporary, Statius, Quintilian says (Inst. iii. 8), “neque enim does the same, Silv. i. 6. 53, sqq.: ignoro plerumque exercitationis gratia poni
· Stat sexus rudis insciusque ferri, et poëticas et historicas, ut Priami verba apud Achillem, aut Sullae dictaturam depo
Et pugnas capit improbus viriles.
Credas ad Tanain ferumve Phasin nentis in contione.” The advice is, that
Thermodontiacas calere turmas.” Sulla should purchase sleep by laying down his power. He did so, B. c. 79, and The practice was put down more than a died next year in retirement. “Suasoriae' century later by a senatusconsultum, in the were distinguished from controversiae,' reign of Sept. Severus. The boars of Etruand belonged rather to boys' schools. See ria were particularly large. Lucania and note on Pers. iii. 45.
Umbria were also famous for these beasts 20. Auruncae flexit alumnus,] Suessa, in (Hor. S. ii. 3. 234, n.). The women are Campania, the later capital of the Aurunci, said to hunt with their breasts bare like the whose original town Aurunca (five miles Amazons, to whom they are likened by Stafrom Suessa) was destroyed by the Sidicini tius in the above extract. M. and many (Livy viii. 15), was called Suessa Aurunca, other MSS. have Nevia for Maevia. Martial to distinguish it from Suessa Pometia, an has the former name. Alban colony in Latium, from which the 25. Quo tondente] There was a barber, Pomptine inarshes were named. Suessa Licinus, mentioned by Horace (A. P. 301), Aurunca was the birth-place of Lucilius. of whom the Scholiast there says that he was
21. Si vacat et] On the authority of made a senator by C. Julius Caesar. There P. which has . si placat ac,' Jahn has adop- appears to have been some such story conted'ac. All other MSS. and editions have nected with a low man of this name, for it 'et' [except Ribbeck, who has 'ac.'] passed into a proverb. It may or may not
Quum pars Niliacae plebis, quum verna Canopi
have been the man spoken of below, S. i. rors after Tiberius the privilege was given to 109; xiv. 306; Persius ii. 36. See my note the lowest of the people (Hor. S. ii. 7.9, n.). on the above passage of Horace. The verse 30. iniquae Tam patiens Urbis,] “So is repented Sat. x. 226. With the preceding tolerant of the town's iniquities.' it is wanting in some MSS.
32. lectica Mathonis] This man is men. 26. verna Canopi Crispinus,] Canopus, tioned below (vii. 129) as a bankrupt, and or Canobus, which gave its name to one of (xi. 34) as a blustering fellow. Martial the branches of the Nile, was about fifteen mentions him repeatedly as a profligate (vii. iniles from Alexandria, and a town of disso. 10), a beggar (viii. 42; xi. 68), a ranter(iv. lute morals, as seaports are wont to be. It 81), a coxcombical speaker (x. 46). He was is for this reason that Juvenal makes his so fat as to fill his litter, which was new as upstart Crispinus a native of Canopus. How his fortunes were, and short-lived. As to he commended himself to Domitian, and the ‘lectica,' or palankeen, see Becker's rose to be an eques, does not appear. One Gallus, Exc.on the Carriages, and Dict. Ant. of the Scholiasts says he was a paper-seller Also Hor. S. ii. 3. 214, n.; and Cic. in Verr. of Alexandria. Juvenal attacks him again, ii. 5. 11, Long. See also the note on ver. 65 in the fourth Satire, in the vilest terms. below. •Causidicus' is a title that Cicero • Verna' was a slave born in his master's nses with more or less contempt. The prohouse: this man was therefore a‘libertinus.' per words for what we call an advocate, or
27. Tyrias humero revocante lacernas,] counsel, are 'orator' and 'patronus;'a 'cauThe lacerna' was a loose cloak worn over sidicus' was one of these of a lower sort. So the 'toga. It was usually of costly dye and Juvenal says below : “nec causidicus nec material, being worn chiefly by the rich. praeco loquatur” (vi. 438), “ nec unquam Stapylton translates the words humero re- Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli” vocante' 'which falling off his shoulders (x. 120), “ nutricula causidicorum Africa” still revoke;' and some commentators take (vii. 148). Forcellini quotes Cic. de Orat. it in this way. Gifford has —
i. 46: “Non enim causidicum nescio quem "Crispinus, while he gathers now, now flings neque proclamatorem aut rabulam hoc serHis purple open, fans his summer rings.”
mone nostro conquirimus.” See Quintilian
xii. 1. He means that the man is showing off the fine 33. magni delator amici,] This may be texture of his cloak; and he quotes Ammia. any low inforiner who betrayed his patron. nus Marcellinus (xiv. 6): “ Alii summum The informer's trade, of which twomembers, decus in ambitioso vestium cultu ponentes Sulcius and Caprius, are mentioned by Hosudant sub ponderibus lacernarum, quas col- race (S. i. 4. 66), reached its height under lis insertas cingulis ipsis adnectunt, nimia Tiberius, and throve under his successors. subtemninum tenuitate perflabiles, expectan- A famous one of the reign of Domitian was tescrebrisagitationibus,maximequesinistra, M. Aquilius Regulus, who under Nero got ut longiores fimbriae tunicaeque perspicere promotion and hatred by informing against luceant.” The words describe the way in M. Crassus (Tac. Hist. iv. 42). Baebius which the cloak was worn, hitched up on the Massa was another of the same tribe, a left shoulder by a brooch or something of freedman probably of some person of the that sort,and floating in the wind, so that the Baebia gens. Tacitus says he betrayed shoulder seems to pullit back. Graevius takes Piso, and was universally hated then (Hist. • lacernas' with ventilet,' and conjectures iv. 50). This was in the reign of Vespasian, "aestivo auro.' This man appears to have had A.D. 70. He was then “e procuratoribus light rings for summer, and heavier for win- Africae.” He became governor of Baetica in ter. That he wore a gold ring does not Spain, and for his oppression of that proprovethat he was an eques, for by the empe. vince was brought to trial, under Domitian,
Et cito rapturus de nobilitate comesa
A. D. 93 (Tac. Agr. 45); and though con- there is nothing in the text about an heredemned it seems that he escaped punishment, ditas.' Juvenal means 'when men elbow for he became one of the most notorious you out of the way who liave got rich by informers in Domitian's time. Carus Met- scandalous means. tius was another of the same sort, of whom 38. summi Nunc via processus,] • ProTacitus says, that at the time of Agricola’s cessus' means advancement; and summi death (A.D. 93), “una adhuc victoria Carus processus' advancement to the highest place. Mettius,” he had only signalized bimself by So Ovid (Trist. iv. 5. 25): “Haec tua proone great victory in his profession ; which cessus habeat fortuna perennes.” Rigault ineans that he afterwards became highly quotes an inscription, “OB SPEM PROCESdistinguished. Martial mentions him pro- SUS EJUS.” It was by these means that verbially (xii. 25). The words ' delator ami. Otho got into favour with Nero (Sueton. ci’ are so like S. iii. 116, that it might be Otho, c. 2), “libertinam aulicam gratiosam supposed Egnatius Celer was meant, as the quo efficacius coleret etiam diligere simulaScholiast suggests ; but he was dead. See vit, quamvis anum ac paene decrepitam: note on that place. Thymele and Latinus per hanc insinuatus Neroni facile summum were an actress and actor, to whom Domi- inter amicos locum tenuit." tian was partial; wherefore Martial begs him 40. Unciolam Proculeius habet] Procuto look on his books as kindly as he looked leius has twelfth part of the estate left at these two persons on the stage (i. 5). him, and Gillo eleven-twelfths : the first is Latinus is often mentioned by Martial, who heres ex uncia;' the second heres ex wrote an epitaph for him, and flattered Do- deunce. The divisions of the ‘as' repremitian through him, as he did through his sented the portions of the estate devised to favourites generally. He is mentioned by each heres' (Hor. S. ii. 5. 53, n. fin.). name below, vi. 44, and alluded to in viii. The men are unknown. • Unciola' does not 197, in conjunction with the same Thymele. occur elsewhere. It does not mean, as RuThe Scholiast here and on iv. 53, on the perti says, 'less than an uncia ;' but 'a authority of Marius Maximus, who wrote poor uncia,' as we say. the lives of some of the emperors, says that 42. Accipiat sane] There is contempt Latinus was an influential informer. These in this : “Let him take it with all my informers were all afraid of the great man heart.” of their craft, and did what they could to 43. pressit qui calcibus anguem,] Heinmake friends with him. Latinus lent bim rich thinks this is an allusion to Homer Thymele, who was either his mistress or his (Il. iii. 33): wife. This is the Scholiast's explanation. és 87€ tís te Spákovta idày Tailvopoos Heinrich supposes some scene is referred to,
απέστη in a farce acted by these people Heisobliged άψ τ' ανεχώρησεν, ωχρός τε
παρto change'et' into ‘ut’ to support this ex
37. Quum te summoveant] “ De heredi. 44. Aut Lugdunensem] Suetonius relates tate justa tanquam de via; proprie enim (Vit. Calig. c. 20) that Caligula instituted ósummovere' verbum lictorum." This is games, 'ludos miscellos' (see S. xi. 20, n.) Grangacus' note; and it is true as respects at Lugdunum (Lyon), where there was an the lictors. (Hor. C. ii. 16. 10, n.) But altar, dedicated to Augustus on the day that
Quid referam quanta siccum jecur ardeat ira,
Claudius was born in that city, 1st of Au- together. Marius Priscus, proconsul of gust, B.c. 10. (Suet. Vit. Claudii, c. 2.). Africa, was convicted (A.D. 100) of repeDion Cassins relates that games were cele- tundae,' and banished from Italy. Marius brated there in the life-time of Augustus was compelled to refund a part of his bad (l. 46.c. 50). If so, it was reserved for Ca- gains, and retired with the remainder to live ligula to establish a rhetorical contest in comfortably, though not at home. The Greek and Latin, in which those who, in offence of · repetundae,' which was that of the Emperor's judgment, had acquitted a magistrate getting money by illegal means themselves worst, ("ii qui maxime displi- from the provincials under his government, cuissent") were obliged to lick out what was punished with different penalties at difthey had written with their tongue, or to be ferent times. The latest •lex'on the subject flogged, or plunged in the nearest stream. was the · lex Julia,' passed in the dictatorTo this two epigrams in the Anthologia, ship of C.Julius Caesar, which abolished the quoted by Scaliger on the above passage of punishment of exile; but it appears to have Suetonius, are said by him to relate. been revived under the empire. The reτου σου γάρ πάσχω νεκρού χάριν οία funding of the money proved to have been πάθοιεν
received was always part of the penalty ;
and in this instance it appears that 700 οι καταλείξαντες βιβλία και καλάμους.
Lib. ii. 40.7. sestertia (about 55001. sterling) were paid ουχ ότι τον κάλαμον λείχεις διά τούτό σε
by Marius into the treasury. An interesting μισώ,
account of the whole affair is given by the åax 6TI TOÛTO TOLEîs kal gixa toll kará- younger Pliny, who, with C. Cornelius
Tacitus, the historian, acted for the proμου.
Ib. 12. 8.
vincials (Epp. ii. 11). See Long's Excursus Juvenal seems to refer to the competitors on on Cic. in Verr. on Repetundae,' and these occasions who had reason to be afraid Dict. Ant. under the same head; and also their speeches might meet with disapproba- the article. Infamia. “Ab octava bibit' tion, and who trembled for the conse- means that he sat down to dinner earlier quences.
than usual ; the ninth hour in summer, and 46. populum gregibus comitum premit] tenth in winter, being those at which inP. and all the older and more trustworthy dustrious persons generally dined (Hor. C. MSS. have the indicative mood : several of i. 1. 20, n.). • Fruitur dis iratis,' he enjoys the later have premat; and Heinrich the anger of the gods : that is, he makes adopts it. Ruperti and Jahn have ‘premit,' himself comfortable under his punishment. in reliance on the MSS. and the indicatives 50. victrix provincia,] Grangaeus supthat follow ; and that mood is, I believe, poses this to be a play upon the words. the right one. As to 'pupillus,' see Dict. Even if it were (which is not likely), it would Ant., Art. • Tutor;' and Hor. Epp. i. 1. be only from the similarity of sound, and 21, n. This “tutor went out to the forum would not support Festus' derivation of or to the walks, attended, 'deductus’ (Hor. 'provincia' from vincere.' Provincia is a S. i. 9. 59), by crowds of parasites, sup- shortened form of providentia,' and “proported by the fortune of his pupillus,' who perly designated the particular functions of was left to starve or to support himself by a magistrate.” See Long's note on Cic. the vilest means. ‘Comites' is the word in Verr. ii. 2. 1. · Vincere'is the legal word used below, ver. 119. Ruperti thinks 'pu- for succeeding in a cause. On ploras pillae must be the proper word, but does Grangaeus adds, “ tibi enim fuit victoria not adopt it. It would be less offensive; Cadmea, in qua jocatur victus, plorat victor." but that is not much to the purpose.
51. Venusina digna lucerna ?] Horace 47. et hic damnatus inani Judicio] We and Juvenal had not much in common; but have the private thief and the public brought Horace seems to have been looked upon by
Haec ego non agitem? Sed quid magis Heracleas
Nonne libet medio ceras implere capaces Persius and Juvenal as the representative “Ipse miser vidi cum me dormire putares of Roman satire. Lucilius was more in Sobrius apposito crimina vestra mero.” Juvenal's way, and he mentions him below (v. 165) with respect. No one should be The Scholiast Acron quotes this verse on misled by the Scholiast's note: “Lucernam Hor. C. iii. 6. 29: “Sed jussa coram non dicit quia Satyrici ad omnium vitia quasi lu- sine conscio Surgit marito." cernam admovent, et ut adurant et ut osten- 58. Quum fas esse putet] “ When that dant crimina.” Lucerna' only means what man thinks he has a right to look for a wemean when wespeak of the midnight oil.' tribune's place who, while yet a boy, wasted
52. Sed quid magis Heracleas] • Agitem' his substance on his stables, and lost his must be repeated, but in a different sense. patrimony with flying on swift coach down He asks why he should rather write on such the Flaminian road : for he was Automehackneyed subjects as the labours of Her- don and held the reins while the great man cules, the wanderings of Diomed, the ad- made himself pleasant to his man-mistress.” ventures of Theseus, Icarus, and Daedalus, This person may have been some favourite than attack the vices of the day? Jahn of Domitian's, who had been made, or punctuates differently and badly, ' Sed quid hoped to be made, a‘tribunus militum' (see magis ? Heracleas,' &c.
xvi. 20, n.). The Scholium on ‘praesepibus' 55. Quum leno accipiat moechi bona] This is “ Neronem tangit ;' but this seems to beman connives at his wife's intrigues at his long to “ipse,' which is often used indeown table, like the man Galba, mentioned pendently for the great man’ (S. v. 86, below (S. v. 4), and gets her paramour to n.), and is here opposed to Automedon, make him his heres,' which the woman as Achilles to his charioteer. Madvig could not be under the 'lex Voconia,' if the Opusc. i. 36) denies that there is any alluman’s census exceeded a certain amount. sion to Nero, and says that 'ipse' is plainly • Accipiat bona' Heinrich understands to the driver. There may be two opinions on mean that he was made heres ex asse,' the subject ; but after much reflection I that is, he succeeded to the man's whole have adopted the other with Heinrich. “Laestate. (See Long's orations of Cicero, cerna’ is a man's cloak, and · lacernatae' vol. i. p. 121 sqq., for a full discussion of means that the 'amica' was a man. Two the · lex Voconia,' which may perhaps be men are recorded as having been formally referred to here, though there may be some married to Nero, named Sporus and Pydoubt whether Juvenal is alluding to this thagoras (Sueton. c. 28, and Tacitus, Ann. Lex.) Suetonius (c. 8) says that Domitian xv. 37). • Jactaret' may be showed himtook away from women of loose character self off,' or something of that sort. Madvig
Jecticae usum, jusque capiendi legata here. finds great difficulty in this interpretation. ditatesque;' but these must be women who 63. Nonne libet ceras implere capaces ] had been convicted, whereas, Juvenal is “ Does not one feel inclined totakeout one's attacking the vices of private society, as tablets, and fill pages, even while the scene Heinrich observes. As to lacunar,' see is passing under his eyes in the middle of Hor. S. ii. 3. 272, n.
the street ?" The 'tabulae,' waxed wooden 57. vigilanti stertere naso ;] So Ovid says tablets, of the Romans, are fully described (Amor. i. 5. 13):
in Dict. Antiqq. The pages were called