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01. I sometimes do believe, and sometimes do not ; , Jaq. But, for the seventh cause ; how did you find As those that fear,—they hope, and know they fear. the quarrel on the seventh cause?

Touch. Upon a lie seven times removed ;—Bear your Enter ROSALIND, Silvius, and Pxebe.

body more seeming,* Audrey :—as thus, sir. I did disRos. Patience once more, whiles our compact is like the cut of a certain courtier's beard; he sent me urg'd :

word, if I said his beard was not cut well, he was in You say, if I bring in your Rosalind, [To the Duke. the mind it was : This is called the “ Retort courteous.” You will bestow her on Orlando here?

If I sent him word again, it was not well cut, he would Duke S. That would I, had I kingdoms to give with send me word, he cut it to please himself: This is her.

called the “Quip modest.” If again, it was not well Ros. And you say, you will have her, when I bring cut, he disabled b my judgment. This is called the her ?

[ To ORLANDO. “ Reply churlish." If again, it was not well cut, he Orl. That would I, were I of all kingdoms king. would answer

, I spake not true: This is called the Ros. You say, you 'll marry me, if I be willing ? “ Reproof valiant." If again, it was not well cut, he

[To PHEBE. would say, I lie: This is called the “ Countercheck Phe. That will I, should I die the hour after. quarrelsome :" and so to the “ Lie circumstantial," and Ros. But, if you do refuse to marry me,

the “ Lie direct." You ll give yourself to this most faithful shepherd. Jaq. And how oft did you say, his beard was not Phe. So is the bargain.

well cut ? Ras. You say, that you 'll have Phebe, if she will ? Touch. I durst go no further than the “ Lie circum

[To Sul. stantial,” nor he durst not give me the “Lie direct :" Sz. Though to have her and death were both one and so we measured swords and parted. thing.

Jaq. Can you nominate in order now the degrees of Ros. . the lie? Keep you your word, 0 duke, to give your daughter;- "Touch. O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book ; as You yours, Orlando, to receive his daughter :

you have books for good manners. I will name you Keep you your word, Phebe, that you 'll marry me; the degrees. The first, the Retort courteous; the seOr else, refusing me, to wed this shepherd :

cond, the Quip modest; the third, the Reply churlish; Keep your word, Silvius, that you 'll marry her, the fourth, the Reproof valiant; the fifth, the CounterIf she iefuse me and from hence I go,

check quarrelsome; the sixth, the Lie with circumTo make these doubts all even. (Ex. Ros. and Cel. stance; the seventh, the Lie direct. All these you may

Duke S. I do remember in this shepherd-boy avoid, but the lie direct; and you may avoid that too, Some lively touches of my daughter's favour.

with an If. I knew when seven justices could not take Orl. My lord, the first time that I ever saw him, up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themMetboaght he was a brother to your daughter:

selves, one of them thought but of an If, as, “ If you But, my good lord, this boy is forest-born;

said so, then I said so;" and they shook hands, and And bath been tutor'd in the rudiments

swore brothers. Your If is the only peace-maker; much Of many desperate studies by his uncle,

virtue in If. Whom he reports to be a great magician,

Jaq. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord ? he's as good Otscured in the circle of this forest.

at anything, and yet a fool. Enter Touchstone and Audrey.

Duke s. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse, and

under the presentation of that he shoots his wit. Jag. There is, sure, another flood toward, and these couples are coming to the ark! Here comes a pair of Enter Hymen, leading Rosalind and Celia. very strange beasts, which in all tongues are called

Still Music. fools. Touch. Salutation and greeting to you all!

Нут. . Then is there mirth in heaven,

When earthly things made evea Jeq. Good my lord, bid him welcome. This is the

Atone together. motley-minded gentleman that I have so often met in

Good duke, receive thy daughter, the forest : he hath been a courtier, he swears.

Hymen from heaven brought her,

Yea, brought her hither; Tonick. If any man doubt that, let him put me to

That thou mightst join her hand with his, my purgation. I have trod a measure; I have flattered

Whose heart within her bosom is. a laily; I have been politic with my friend, smooth with mine enemy; I have undone three tailors; I have

Ros. To you I give myself, for I am yours.

[ To DUKE S. had four quarrels, and like to have fought one. Jaq. And how was that ta'en up a

To you I give myself, for I am yours. [To Orlando. Touch. 'Faith, we met, and found the quarrel was

Duks s. If there be truth in sight, you are my

daughter. upon the seventh cause ? Jaq. How, seventh cause ? - Good my lord, like this

Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my Ro

salind.
fellow.
Duke S. I like him very well.

Phe. If sight and shape be true,
Touch. God 'ild you, sir ; I desire you of the like. Why, then,-my love adieu!
I press in here, sir, amongst the rest of the country

Ros. I 'll have no father, if you be not he:coplatives, to swear, and to forswear; according as

[T, DUKE S.

TO ORI. marriage binds, and blood breaks: A poor virgin, sir, I'll have no husband, if you be not he :

To Pue, an ill-favoured thing, sir, but mine own; a poor humour Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she. of mine, sir, to take that that no man else will: Rich

Hym. Peace, ho! I bar confusion :

"T is I must make conclusion anesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a poor house; as your pearl in your foul oyster.

Of these most strange events :

Here's eight that must take hands, Drike S. By my faith, he is very swift and sententious.

To join in Hymen's bands,

If truth holds true contents. Touch. According to the fool's bolt, sir, and such dulcet diseases.

" Seeming-seemly.

b Disabled—impeached. « Ta'en up-made up.

Åtone together-unite.

[To Síl.

You and you no cross shall

part :

Shall share the good of our returned fortune,

[To Orl. and Ros. According to the measure of their states. You and you are heart in heart :

Meantime, forget this new-fall'n dignity,

[To Oli. and Cel. And fall into our rustic revelry :
You (to Phe.] to his love must accord, Play, music;--and you brides and bridegrooms all,
Or have a woman to your lord

With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures fall.
You and you are sure together,

Jaq. Sir, by your patience; If I heard you rightly,
[To Touch. and Aud. The duke hath put on a religious life,
As the winter to foul weather.

And thrown into neglect the pompous court?
Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,

Jaq. de B. He hath.
Feed yourselves with questioning;a

Jaq. To him will I: out of these convertites
That reason wonder may diminish,

There is much matter to be heard and learn'd.-
How thus we met, and these things finish. You to your former honour I bequeath ; (To Dukx S.

Your patience, and your virtue, well deserves it :-
SONG

You (to ORLANDO] to a love that your true faith doth
Wedding is great Juno's crown;

merit:-
O blessed bond of board and bed!
'T is Hymen peoples every town,

You (to Oliver] to your land, and love, and great al.
High wedlock then be honoured :

lies : Honour, high honour and renown,

You (to Silvius] to a long and well-deserved bed :To Hymen, god of every town!

And you (to ToucHSTONE] to wrangling; for thy lovDuke S. O my dear niece, welcome thou art to

ing voyage

Is but for two months victuall'd :-So to your pleasures; me; Even daughter, welcome in no less degree.

am for other than for dancing measures. Phe. I will not eat my word ; now thou art mine,

Duke S. Stay, Jaques, stay. Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.

Jaq. To see no pastime I :-what you would have

I 'll stay to know at your abandon'd cave. [Erit. Enter JAQUES DE Bois.

Duke s. Proceed, proceed: we will begin these rites,

And we do trust they 'll end in true delights. [A dance.
Jaq. de B. Let me have audience for a word, or two;
I am the second son of old sir Rowland,

EPILOGUE.
That bring these tidings to this fair assembly:
Duke Frederick, hearing how that every day

Ros. It is not the fashion to see the lady the epilogue: Men of great worth resorted to this forest,

but it is no more unhandsome, than to see the lord the Address'd b a mighty power; which were on foot,

prologue. If it be true, that “good wine needs no In his own conduct, purposely to take

bush," 't is true, that a good play needs no epilogue His brother here, and put him to the sword :

Yet to good wine they do use good bushes; and good And to the skirts of this wild wood he came;

plays prove the better for the help of good epilogues. Where, meeting with an old religious man,

What a case am I in then, that am neither a good epiAfter some question with him, was converted

logue, nor cannot insinuate with you in the behalf of a Both from his enterprise, and from the world :

good play! I am not furnished like a beggar, therefore His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother,

to beg will not become me: my way is, to conjure And all their lands restor'd to them again

you; and I 'll begin with the women. I charge you, That were with him exil'd: This to be true,

O women, for the love you bear to men, to like as much I do engage my life.

of this play as please you : and I charge you, O men, Duke S. Welcome, young man;

for the love you bear to women, (as I perceive by your Thou offer’st fairly to thy brothers' wedding :

simpering, none of you bates them.) that between you To one, his lands withheld; and to the other, and the women, the play may please. If I were a A land its at large, a potent dukedom.

woman, I would kiss as many of you as had beards First, in this forest, let us do those ends

that pleased me, complexions that liked me, and breatles That here were well begun, and well begot:

that I defied not: and, I am sure, as many as bave And after, every of this happy number,

good beards, or good faces, or sweet breaths, will, for my That have endur'd shrewd days and nights with us,

kind otser, when I make curtsy, bid me farewell.

[Erent a Questioning discoursing, b Address'd

preparod.

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed]

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

scenes.

This comedy was first printed in the folio collection of questionably, upon the very highest principle upon 1623. The original edition is divided into acts and which any virtue can be built. The foundation of

It also gives the enumeration of characters as Isabella's character is religion. The character of we have printed them, such a list of "the names of the Angelo is the antagonist to that of Isabella. Iu a city actors" being rarely presented in the early copies. It of licentiousness he is has been recently ascertained that “Measure for Mea- “ A inan of stricture and firm abstinence." sure' was presented at Court by the King's players (the He is company to which Shakspere belonged) in 1601.

“ Precise ; The general outline of the story upon which · Measure Stands at a guard with envy; scarce confesses for Measure' is founded is presented to us in such dif

That his blood flows." ferent forms, and with reference to such distinct times He is one who and persons, that, whether historically true or not, we “ Doth rebate and blunt his natural edge can have no doubt of its universal interest. It is told With profits of the mind, study and fast." of an officer of Charles the Bolu, Duke of Burgundy; But he wanted the one sustaining principle by which of Oliver le Diable, the wicked favourite of Louis XI.; Isabella was upheld. After Shakspere had conceived of Colonel Kirke, in our own country; of a captain of the character of Isabella, and in that conception had the Duke of Ferrara. In all these cases an unhappy wo- made it certain that her virtue must pass unscathed man sacrifices her owu honour for the promised safety of through the fire, he had to contrive a series of incidents one she loves ; and in all, with the exception of the case by which the catastrophe should proceed onward through of Colonel Kirke, the abuser of anthority is punished all the stages of Angelo's guilt of intention, and termiwith death. Wbatever interest may attach to the nar- nate in his final exposure. Mr. Hallam says, “ There rative of such an event, it is manifest that the dramatic is great skill in the invention of Mariana, and without conduct of such a story is full of difficulty, especially this the story could not have anything like a satisfactory in a scrupulous age. But the public opinion, which, termiuation.” But there is great skill also in the main this particular, would operate upon a dramatist in wagement of the iucident in the Duke's hands, as well our own day, would not affect a writer for the stage in as in the inveution ; and this is produced by the wou the times of Elizabeth and James ; and, in point of fact, derful propriety with which the character of the Duke plots far more offensive became the subject of very po- is drawn. He is described by Hazlitt as a very imposing pular dramas long after the times of Shakspere. It and mysterious stage character, absorbed in his own appears to us that, adopting such a subject in its ge- plots and gravity. This is said depreciatingly. But it neral bearings, he has managed it with uncommon is precisely this sort of character that Shakspere meant adroitness by his deviations from the accust med story. to put in action. By introducing a contrivance by which the heroine is And here, then, as it appears to us, we have a key to not sacrificed, he preserves our respect for her, which the purpose of the poet in the introduction of what couwould be involuntarily lost if she fell, even though stitutes the most unpleasant portion of this play,—the against her own will; and by this management he is exhibition of a very gross general profligacy. There is also enabled to spare the great offender without an un- an atmosphere of impurity hanging like a dense fog bearable violation of our sense of justice.

over the city of the poet. The philosophical ruler, the The leading idea of the character of Isabella is that saintly votaress, and the sanctimonious deputy, appear of one who abides the direst temptation which can be to belong to another region to that in which they move. presented to a youthful, innocent, unsuspecting, and This, possibly, was not necessary for the higher draaffectionate woman—the temptation of saving the life matic effects of the comedy; but it was necessary for of one most dear, by submitting to a shame which the those lessons of political philosophy which we think sophistry of self-love might represent as scarcely crimi- Shakspere here meant to inculcate, and which he appears nal. All other writers who have treated the subject have to us on many occasions to have kept in view in his conceived that the temptation could not be resisted. later plays. In this play be manifests, as we appreShakspere alone has confidence enough in female virtue hend, his philosophical view of a corrupt state of mamers to inake Isabella never for a moment even doubt of her fostered by weak government: but the subject is scarcely proper course. But he has based this virtue, most un dramatic, and it struggles with his own proper powers.

259

MEASURE FOR MEASURE.

PERSONS REPRESENTED.

VINCENTIO, the Duke.
Appears, Act I. sc. 1; se. 4. Act II. sc. 3. Act III. sc. 1; sc. 2.

Act IV. sc. I; sc. 2; sc. 3; sc. 5. Act V. sc. 1.

ANGELO, the deputy (in the Duke's absence).
Appears, Act I. sc.l. Act Il. sc. I; sc. 2; sc. 4. Act IV. sc. 4.

Act V. sc. 1.
Escalus, an ancient lord (joined with Angelo in the

deputation).
Appears, Act I. sc. 1. Act 11. sc. 1. Act III. sc. 2.

Act IV. sc. 4. Act V. sc. I.

CLAUDIO, a young gentleman.
Appears, Act I. sc. 3. Act III. sc. 1. Act IV. sc. 2.

Act V. sc. 1.

Lucio, a fantastic.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2; sc. 3 ; s. 5. Act II. sc. 2. Act III.

sc. 2; sc. 3. Act V. sc. 1.
Two other like Gentlemen.
Appear, Act I. sc. 2; se. 3.

Provost.
Appears, Act I. se. 3. Act II. sc. l; sc. 2; sc. 3. Act III.
sl; sc. 2. Act IV. sc. 2; sc. 3. Act V. sc. 1.

Thomas, a friar.
Appears, Act I. sc. 4.

PETER, a friar.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 5; $. 6. Act V. sc. 1.

A Justice.
Appears, Act II. sc. I.
Elbow, a simple constable.
Appears, Act II. sc. I. Act III. sc. &.
Froth, a foolish gentleman.
Appears, Act II. sc. 1.

Clown.
Appears, Act II. sc. I. Act IV. sc. 2 ; s. 3.

ABHORSON, an executioner.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 2 ; sc. 3.
BARNARDINE, a dissolute prisoner.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 3. Act V. sc. 1.

ISABELLA, sister to Claudio.
Appears, Act I. sc. 5. Act II. sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III. uc. 1.

Act IV. sc. 1 ; sc. 3 ; sc. 6. Act V. sc. I.

MARIANA, betrothed to Angelo.
Appears, Act IV. sc. i ; sc. 6. Act V. sc. I.

JULIET, beloved of Claudio.
Appears, Act I. sc. 3. Act II. sc. 3. Act V. sc. 1.

FRANCISCA, a nun.

Appears, Act I. sc. 5.
MISTRESS OVERDONE, a baud.

Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act III. sc. 2.
Lords, Gentlemen, Guards, Officers. and other

Attendants.

SCENE,-VIENNA.

ACT I.

SCENE I.-An Apartment in the Duke's Palace. Escal. If any in Vienna be of worth

To undergo such ample grace and honour,
Enter Duke, Escalus, Lords, and Attendants.

It is lord Angelo.
Duke. Escalus,-
Escal. My lord.

Enter ANGELO.
Duke. Of government the properties to unfold,

Duke. Look, where he comes. Would seem in me to affect speech and discourse;

Ang. Always obedient to your grace's will, Since I am put to know, that your own science

I come to know your pleasure. Exceeds, in that, the lists of all advice

Duke.

Angelo, My strength can give you: Then, no more remains :

There is a kind of character a in thy life,
Bat that, to your sufficiency as your worth, is able;

That, to the observer, doth thy history
And let them work. The nature of our people, Fully unfold : Thyself and thy belongings
Our city's institutions, and the terms d

Are not thine own so proper, as to waste
For common justice, you are as pregnant in,

Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee. As art and practice hath enriched any

Heaven doth with us as we with torches do;
That we remember : There is our commission,

Not light them for themselves : for if our virtues
From which we would not have you warp.—Call hither, Did not go forth of us, 't were all alike
I say, bid come before us Angelo. -[Ecit an Attendant.

As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touch'd What figure of us think you he will bear?

But to fine issues : nor Nature never lends For you must know, we have with special soul

The smallest scruple of her excellence, Elected him our absence to supply;

But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines Lent him our terror, dress'd him with our love;

Herself the glory of a creditor, And given his deputation all the organs

Both thanks and use. But I do bend my speech Of our own power : What think you of it?

To one that can my part in him advertise; C • Pæt to know-equivalent to I cannot avoid knowing. Hold, therefore, Angelo : Lists-limits.

• We encounter at the onset one of the obscure passages for a Character has here the original meaning of something ep. which this play is remarkable. We believe it may be read thus, graved or inscribed; thy life is thy habits. without much difficulty: Then, no more remains : (to say on Use-interest of money. poverarent. But that, (your science) to your sufficiency, (joined My part in him is, my part deputed to him, which he can to your authority) as your worth (as well as your virtue) is able ; advertise--direct his attention to-without my speech. ingual to the duty sad let them work (call them into action), d Hold. The word hold is, we be.ieve, addressed to Angelo;

Teras. Blackstone esplaius this to mean the technical and used technically in the sense of to have and to hold. Holde language of the courts.

therefore, our power, Angelo.

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