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The famous History of the Life of King Henry the Jouson, upon the theory that he wrote it after ShakEighth' was first published in the folio collection of spere's retirement from the stage, when the old play was Shakspere's works in 1623. The text, taken as a whole, revived in his absence. We believe in the one piece of is singularly correct: it contains, no doubt, some few external evidence,—that a " Henry VIII.' was produced typographical errors, but certainly not so many as those in 1613, when the Globe was burned: that it was a new which deform the ordinary reprints.
play; that it was then called • All is True;'—and that The date of the original production of this drama this title agrees with the idea upon which Shakspere has been a subject of much discussion. The opinions wrote the · Henry VIII.' Those who believe that it was in favour of its having been produced in the reign of written in the time of Elizabeth have to reject this one Elizabeth are far more numerous than those which hold piece of external evidence. We further believe, from it to be a later production. But the accomplished the internal evidence, that the play, as it stands, was Sir Henry Wotton, writiug to his nephew on the 6th of written in the time of James I., and that we have reJuly, 1613, gives a minute and graphic account of the ceived it in its original form. Those who assert the fire at the Globe in that year:—“ Now to let matters of contrary have to resort to the hypothesis of interpolation; state sleep, I will entertain you at the present with what and, further, have to explain how many things which happened this week at the Bankside. The king's are, to a plain understanding, inconsistent with their players had a new play, called All is True, representing theory, may be interpreted, by great ingenuity, to be some principal pieces of the reign of Henry the Eighth, consistent. We believe that Shakspere, amongst bis which was set forth with many extraordinary circum- latest dramas, constructed an historical drama to constances of pomp and majesty, even to the matting of the plete his great series,—one that was agreeable to the stage; the knights of the order, with their Georges and tone of his mind after his fiftieth year :Garter, the guards with their embroidered coats and the “ Sad, high, and working, full of state and woe." like; sufficient, in truth, within a while to make great. Those who take the opposite view hold that the chief object ness very familiar, if not ridiculous. Now King Henry, of the poet was to produce something which might be acmaking a mask at the Cardinal Wolsey's house, and ceptable to Queen Elizabeth. Our belief is the obvious certain cannons being shot off at his entry, some of one; the contrary belief may be the more ingenious. the paper, or other stuff wherewith one of them was Shakspere has in this play closed his great series of stopped, did light on the thatch, where, being thought Chronicle Histories. This last of them was to be "sad. at first but an idle smoke, and their eyes being more high, and working." It has laid bare the hollowness of attentive to the show, it kindled inwardly, and ran worldly glory; it has shown the heavy “ load" of " to. round like a train, consuming, within less than an hour, much honour.” It has given us a picture of the times the whole house to the very ground. This was the fatal which succeeded the feudal strifes of the other · Hisperiod of that virtuous fabric, wherein yet nothing did tories.' Were they better times? To the mind of the perish but wood and straw, and a few forsaken cloaks: poet the age of corruption was as “sad” as the age of only one man had his breeches set on fire, that would force. The one tyrant rides over the obligations of perhaps have broiled him, if he had not, by the benefit justice, wielding a power more terrible than that of tie of a provident wit, put it out with bottle ale.” Here, sword. The poet's consolation is to be found in the then, is a new play described, “representing some prin- prophetic views of the future. cipal pieces of the reign of Henry VIII.;" and further, We have a few words to add on the style of this the passage of Shakspere's play in which the “ chambers" drama. It is remarkable for the elliptical construction are discharged, being the “ entry " of the king to the of many of the sentences, and for an occasional pecur “mask at the cardinal's house,” is the same to the letter. liarity in the versification, which is not found in any But the title which Sir Henry Wotton gives the new other of Shakspere's works. play is 'All is True.' Other persons call the plav A theory has been set up that Jonson " tampered " so represented · Henry VIII.' Howes, in his continua- with the versification. We hold this notion to be utterly tion of Stow's Chronicle, so calls it. He writes some untenable; for there is no play of Shakspere's which has time after the destruction of the Globe, for he adds to a more decided character of unity, no one from which his account of the fire, “ and the next spring it was new any passage could be less easily struck out. We believe builded in far fairer manner than before." He speaks that Shakspere worked in this particular upon a principle of the title of the play as a familiar thing :-“the house of art which he had proposed to himself to adhere to. being filled with people to behold the play, viz. of Henry wherever the nature of the scene would allow. The the Eighth." When Howes wrote, was the title · All is elliptical construction, and the licence of versification, True' merged in the more obvious title derived from brought the dialogue, whenever the speaker was not lie the subject of the play, and following the character of cessarily rhetorical, closer to the language of common the titles of Shakspere's other historical plays ? life. Of all his historical plays, the · Henry VIII.' is the
The commentators also hold that the Prologue was nearest in its story to his own times. It professed to be written by Ben Jonson, to allow him an occasion of a “truth." It belongs to his wwn country. It has two sneering at Shakspere's fools and battle-scenes. But poetical indistinctness about it, either of time or place : we hold that the Prologue is a complete ex positiou of all is defined. If the diction and the versification hal the idea of this drama. Prologue is fastenerl upon been inore artificial, it would have been less a reality.
King Henry VIII. Appears, Act I. sc. 2 ; sc. 4. Act II. sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III. sc. 2.
Act V. se. 1; sc. 2; sc. 4.
Cardinal Wojsey. Apprars, Act I. sc. 1 ; sc. 2; se. 4. Act II. sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III.
SC. 1 ; sc. 2.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 2.
DUKE OF NORFOLK.
DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM.
Duke of Suffoj.K.
sc. I: sc. 2.
EARL OF SURREY.
Act V. sc. 2; sc. 3.
Appears, Act V. sc. 2.
BISHOP OP LINCOIN.
Appeurs, Act II. sc. 4.
Appears, Act I. se. 4.
SIR THOMAS LOVELL.
Act V. sc. 1.
Appears, Act V. sc. I.
Six NICHOLAS Vaux.
Appears, Act II. sc. l.
Appear, Act I. sc. I.
Appears, Act III. sc. 2. Act V. sc. 2. Gripfith, Gentleman-Usher to Queen Katoarine
Appears, Act II. sc. 4. Act. IV. sc. 2.
Appears, Act V. sc. 2.
Appears, Act V. sc. 4.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2.
Appears, Act I. sc. 1.
Appears, Act V. sc. 2.
Appear, Act V. sc. 3.
Appears, Act II. sc. 4. Queen KATHARINE, wife to King Henry, afterwarde
divorced. Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. so. 4. Act III. sc. 1. Act IV. sc. 2 Anne Buli.xn, maid of honour to Queeu Katharine,
and afterwards Queen.
Appears, Act II. sc. 3. Act V. sc. 1.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 2.
attending upon the Queen ; Spirits which appear to, her; Scribes, Officers, Guards, and other Attendants
SCENE,-CHIEFLY IN LONDON AND WESTMINSTER; ONCE, AT KIMBOLTON.
I come no more to make you laugh ; things now, That bear a weighty and a serious brow, Sad, high, and working, full of state and woe, Such noble scenes as draw the eye to flow, We now present. Those that can pty, here May, if they think it well, let fall a tear; The subject will deserve it. Such as give Their money out of hope they may believe, May here find truth too. Those that come to see Only a show or two, and so agree The play may pass, if they be still and willing, I'll undertake may see away their shilling Richly in two short hours. Only they That come to hear a merry, bawdy play, A noise of targets; or to see a fellow lu a long motley coat, guarded with yellow,
Will be deceiv'd : for, gentle hearers, know,
SCENE I.-London. An Antechamber in the Nor.
As you guess :
One, certes, that promises no element
In such a business. Enter the Duke of Norfolk, at one door ; at the
Buck. I pray you, who, my lord ? other, the DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM, and the LORD ABERGAVENNY.
Nor. All this was order'd by the good discretion
Of the right reverend cardinal of York. Buck. Good morrow, and well met. How have you Buck. The devil speed him! no man's pie is freed done,
From his ambitious finger. What had he
To do in these fierce vanities! I wonder
That much a keecho can with his very bulk
Take up the rays o' the beneficial sun, or what I saw there.
And keep it from the earth.
Surely, sir, Stay'd me a prisoner in my chamber, when
There's in him stuff that puts him to these ends : Those suns of glory, those two lights of men,
For, being not propp'd by ancestry, whose grace Met in the vale of Andren."
Chalks successors their way; nor call d upon Nor.
'Twixt Guynes and Arde: For high feats done to the crown; neither allied I was then present, saw them salute on horseback ; To eminent assistants ; but spider-like, Beheld them, when they lighted, how they clung Out of his self-drawing web,-0! give us note! Iu their embracement as they grew together;
The force of his own merit makes his way; Which had they, what four thron'd ones could have i A gift that heaven gives for him, which buys weigh'd
A place next to the king, Such a compounded one ?
I cannot tell
What heaven hath given him, let some graver eye I was my chamber's prisoner.
Pierce into that; but I can see his pride
Peep through each part of him: Whence has he that? The view of earthly glory: Men might say,
If not from hell the devil is a niggard, Till this time pomp was single, but now married Or has given all before, and he begins To one above itself. Each following day
A new hell in himself. Became the next day's master, till the last
Why the devil, Made former wonders its : To-day, the French, Upon this French going-out, took he upon him, All clinquant,” all in gold, like heathen gods,
Without the privity o' the king. to appoint Shone down the English ; and, to-morrow, they
Who should attend on him! He makes up the file Made Britain, India : every man that stood
Of all the gentry; for the most part such Show'd like a mine. Their dwarfish pages were
To whom as great a charge as little honour As cherubins, all gilt: the madams too,
He meant to lay upon : and his own letter Not usd to toil, did almost sweat to bear
(The honourable board of council out) The pride upon them, that their very labour
Must fetch him in be papers. Was to them as a painting : Now this mask
I do know Was cry'd incomparable; and the ensuing night
Kinsmen of mine, three at the least, that have Made it a fool, and beggar. The two kings,
By this so sicken'd their estates, that never Equal in lustre, were now best, now worst,
They shall abound as formerly. As presence did present them;
0, many Still him in praise : and, being present both,
Have broke their backs with laying manors on them 'Twas said they saw but one, and no discerner For this great journey. What did this vanity, Durst wag his tongue in censure. When these suns But minister communication of (For so they phrase them) by their beralds challengd A most poor issue ? T'he noble spirits to arms, they did perform
Grievingly I think, Beyond thoughts compass; that former fabulous The peace between the French and us not values story,
The cost that did conclude it. Being now seen possible enough, got credit,
Every man, That Bevis was believ'd.
After the hideous storm that follow'd, was Buck. 0, you go far.
A thing inspir'd; and, not consulting broke Nor. As I belong to worship, and affect
Into a general prophecy,—That this tempest, In honour honesty, the tract of everything
Dashing the garment of this peace, aboded Would by a good discourser lose some life,
The sudden breach on 't. Which action's self was tongue to.
Which is budded ont; Buck.
All was royal ;
For France hath flaw'd the league, and hath altachd To the disposing of it nought rebella,
Our merchants' goods at Bourdeaux. Order gave each thing view ; the office did
Is it therefore Distinctly his full function. Who did guide ?
The ambassador is silenc'a ? I mean, who set the body and the limbs
Marry, is 't Of this great sport together ?
Aber. A proper title of a peace; and purchas a
At a superfluous rate! & Andren. So the original; so the Chroniclers. Bat the modern editors write “the vale of Arde." Arde, or Ardres, is " Element - constitnent qnality of mind. Thus in Twent the town, which in the next line is spelt Arde in he origiual. Night' (Act III Sc. 4) Malvoliš says, "Go, hang yourselves Andren, or Ardren, is the village near the place of meeting. all you are idle shallow things. I am not of your element.** b Clinquant-bright will gingling ornaments.
6 Keech. A "keech” is a lump of iat; and Buck in base Censure--comparise .
here denounces Wolsey as an overgrowo bloated fatourite.
him in eye
And proofs as clear as founts in July, when
We see each grain of gravel, I do know Nor. 'Like it your grace,
To be corrupt and treasonous. The state take notice of the private difference
Say not treasonous. Betwixt you and the cardinal. I advise you,
Buck. To the king I 'll say 't; and make my vouch (And take it from a heart that wishes towards you
as strong Honour and plenteous safety,) that you read
As shore of rock. Attend. This holy fox, The cardinal's malice and his potency
Or wulf, or both, (for he is equal ravenous Together : to consider further, that
As he is subtle; and as prone to mischief, What his high hatred would effect wants not
As able to perform it: his mind and place
Only to show his pomp as well in France
To this last costly treaty, the interview,
That swallow'd so much treasure, and like a glass You 'll find it wholesome. Lo, where comes that rock Did break i' the rinsing." That I advise your shunning.
'Faith, and so it did. Enter Cardinal Wolsey, (the purse borne before
Buck. Pray, give me favour, sir.
cardinal him,) certain of the Guard, and Two Secretaries
The Cardinal in his passage fixeth The articles o' the combination drew his eye on BUCKINGHAM, and Buckingham on him, As he cried, Thus Jet be: 10 as much end,
As himself pleas d; and they were ratified, both full of disdain.
As give a crutch to the dead : But our count-carWol. The duke of Buckingham's surveyor? ha ?
dinal Where 's his examination ?
Has done this, and 't is well; for worthy Wolsey, I Secr. Here, so please you.
Who cannot err, he did it. Now this follows, Wol. Is he in person ready?
(Which, as I take it, is a kind of puppy I Secr.
Ay, please your grace.
Under pretence to see the queen his aunt,
(For 't was, indeed, his colour; but he came Shall lessen this big look. (Exeunt Wolsey and Train. His fears were, that the interview betwixt
To wbisper Wolsey,) here makes visitation : Buck. This butcher's cur is venom-mouth'd, and I
England and France might, through their amity, Hare not the power to muzzle bim; therefore, best
Breed him some prejudice; for from this league Not wake him in his slumber. A beggar's book
Peep'd harms that menac'd him: He privily
Deals with our cardinal; and, as I trow,—
Which I do well; for I am sure the emperor
Paid ere he promis'd; whereby his suit was granted Which your disease requires.
Ere it was ask'd ;—but when the way was made, Buck, I read in his looks
And pav'd with gold, the emperor thus desir'd, Matter against me; and his eye revil'd
That he would please to alter the king's course, Me, as his abject object : at this instant
And break the foresaid peace. Let the king know,
Does buy and sell his honour as he pleases,
And for his own advantage.
I am sorry What 't is you go about: To climb steep hills
To hear this of him; and could wish he were Requires slow pace at first: Anger is like
Something mistaken in 't. A full-hot horse; who being allow'd his way
No, not a syllable; Self-mettle tires him. Not a man in England
I do pronounce him in that very shape
He shall appear in proof.
I'll to the king : Enter BRANDON; a Sergeant at Arms before him :d And from a mouth of honour quite cry down
two or three of the Guard. This Ipswich fellow's insolence; or proclaim There's difference in no persons.
Bran. Your office, sergeant; execute it.
Be advis d.
My lord the duke of Buckingham, and eari That it do singe yourself: We may outrun,
Of Hereford, Stafford, and Northampton, I By violent swiftness, that which we run at,
Arrest thee of high treason, in the name And lose by over-running. Know you not
Of our most sovereigu king.
Lo you, my lord,
Under device and practice.d
I am sorry
To see you ta'en from liberty, to look on
The business present : 'T is his highness' pleasure,
You shall to the Tower. Buck.
It will help me nothing I am thankful to you : and I 'll go along By your prescription :-- but this top-proud fellow, To plead mine innocence; for that die is on me, Whom from the flow of gall I name not, but
Suggests-excites. From sincere motions,b) by intelligence,
+ Rinsing-in the original wrenchiny. • Bores--wounds-thrusts. So in the Winter's Tale
d Practie-art:fice. So in Othello: the ship boring the mown with her rainmast. Motiens-impulses
“ Fallen in the practice of a curs' i slava.'
Which makes my whitest part black. 1 he will of Nor.
Not almost appears, heaven
It doth appear: for, upon these tz xationis, • Be done in this and all things !—I obey.
The clothiers all, not able to maintain O my lord Aberga'ny, fare you well.
The many to them "longing, have put off Bran. Nay, he must bear you company :-The king The spinsters, carrers, fullers, weavers, whe,
[TO ABERGAVENNY. Unfit for other life, compell’d hy bunger,
Daring the event to the teeth, are all in uproar,
And Danger serves among them.
Taxation ! By me obey'd.
Wherein ? and what taxation ?-My lord cardinal, Bran. Here is a warrant from
You that are blam'd for it alike with us,
Please you, sir, One Gilbert Peck, his chancellor,
I know but of a single part, in aught Buck.
Pertains to the state; and front but in that file
No, my lord, Buck.
O, Michael Hopkins ? You know no more than others : but you frame Bran.
He. Things, that are known alike, which are not wholesomr Buck. My surveyor is false ; the o'er-great cardinal To those which would vot know them, and yet must Hath show'd him gold : my life is spann'd already : Perforce be their acquaintance. These exactions I am the shadow of poor Buckingham;
Whereof my sovereign would have note, they are Whose figure even this instant cloud puts on,
Most pestilent to the hearing; and to bear them By dark ning my clear sun.—My lords, farewell. The back is sacrifice to the load. They say
[Exeunt. They are devis'd by you; or else you suffer
Too hard an exclamation.
Still exaction! Cornets.
The nature of it? In what kind, let 's know, Enter King HENRY, CARDINAL Wolsey, Is this exaction? the Lords of the Council, Sir Thomas Lovell.,
Q. Kath. I am much too venturous Oficers, and Attendants. The King enters, leaning In tempting of your patience; but am bolden d. on the CARDINAL's shoulder.
Under your promis'd pardon. The subject's grief K. Hen. My life itself, and the best heart of it,
Comes through commissions, which compel from each this great care : I stood i' the level The sixth part of his substance, to be levied Of a full-charg'd confederacy, and give thanks Without delay; and the pretence for this To you that chok'd it.-Let be call'd before us Is nam'd, your wars in France : This makes bold That gentleman of Buckingham's: in person
mouths : I 'll hear him his confessions justify;
Tongues spit their duties out; and cold hearts freeze And point by point the treasons of his master
Allegiance in them; their curses now He shall again relate.
Live where their prayers did ; and it 's come to pass, The King takes his State. The Lords of the Council To each incensed will. I would your highness
This tractable obedience is a slave take their several places. The Cardinal places Would give it quick consideration, for himself under the King's feet, on his right side.
There is no primer baseness. A noise within, crying, Room for the Queen! Enter K. Hen.
By my life, the QUEEN, ushered by the DUKES OF Norfolk and This is against our pleasure. SUFFOLK : she kneels. The King riseth from his Wol.
And for me, State, takes her up, kisses, and placeth her by him. I have no further gone in this, than by Q. Kath. Nay, we must longer kneel; I am a suitor. A single voice; and that not pass d me, bat K. Hen. Arise, and take place by us :-Half your Praduc'd by ignorant tongues, which neither knos
By learned approbation of the judges. If I am suit Never name to us; you have half our power ;
My faculties, nor person, yet will be The other moiety, ere you ask, is given;
The chronicles of my doing, let me say Repeat your will, and take it.
'T is but the fate of place, and the rough brake Q. Kath. Thank your majesty.
That virtue must go through. We must not stint That you would love yourself, and, in that love,
Our necessary actions, in the fear Not unconsider'd leave your honorir, nor
To cope malicious censurers ; which ever, The dignity of your office, is the point
As ravenous fishes, do a vessel follow Of my petition.
That is new trimm'd; but benefit no further K. Hen. Lady mine, proceed.
Than vainly longing. What we oft do best, Q. Kath. I am solicited, not by a few,
By sick interpreters, once" weak ones, is And those of true condition, that your subjects
Not ours, or not allow'd; what worst, as oft, Are in great grievance : there have been commissions
Hitting a grosser quality, is cried up Sent down among them, which have flaw'd the heart
For our best act. If we shall stand still, Of all their loyalties :-wherein, although,
In fear our motion will be mockd or carp'd als My good lord cardinal, they vent reproaches
We should take root here where we sit, or sit Most bitterly on you, as putter-on
State statues only. Of these exactions, yet the king our master,
K. Hen. Things done well, (Whose honour heaven shield from soil !) even he escapes Things done without example, in their issue
And with a care, exempt themselves from fear not Language unmannerly, yea, such which breaks
Are to be fear d. Have you a precedent The sides of loyalty, and almost appears
Of this commission? I believe not any In loud rebellion.
* Once is here lised in the scuse of keres