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135 “ Da Trebio! Pone ad Trebium! Vis frater ab ipsis

Ilibus ?” O nummi, vobis hunc præstat honorem,
Vos estis fratres. Dominus tamen et domini rex
Si vis tu fieri, nullus tibi parvulus aula

Luserit Æneas nec filia dulcior illo.
- 140 Jucundum et carum sterilis facit uxor amicum.

Sed tua nunc Mycale pariat! Licet et pueros tres
In gremium patris fundat simul; ipse loquaci
Gaudebit nido; viridem thoraca jubebit

Afferri minimasque nuces assemque rogatum, 145 Ad mensam quoties parasitus venerit infans.

Vilibus ancipites fungi ponentur amicis,

135. Virro not only directs the carver no ill-will towards the little urchins.' R. to help Trebius, and the sewer to put • Three children at one birth' are called the dishes before him, but presses him to tergemini; or trigemini; Liv. i. 24 sq. taste of the delicacies on table. PR. Plin. vii. 3. PR. The repetition of Trebius is like that of 142. Ipose l'irro. Kexa muivos di ini dsipMarcus; Pers. v. 79-81.

νον, κελεύσαι καλέσαι τα παιδία τον εστιώντα “Brother' was a courteous appellation και εισιόντα φήσαι σύκου ομοιότερα είναι το between equals: “ Frater! Pater!", adde, tergi, xaà acorazagópsvos pàñoui, tai ut cuique est atas, ita φuemque facetus παρ' αυτόν καθίσαι και τους μεν συμπαίζειν adoptu ; Hor. I Ep. vi. 54 sq. Mart. X. avròs, aéywy " horòs, ríasxus." Theoph. Ixv. 3. 14. R.

Ch. v. R. 136. Under the name of ilia may be 143. ' In the twittering nest:' a comincluded many favourite dishes of the mon metaphor και χρηστου πατρός νεόστια: ancients : for instance, sumen sow's Theoph. Ch. ï. teneroque palumbo et udder ;' Plin. xi. 37. anseris jecur similis regum pueris; Pers. ii. 16 sq.

goose's liver;. 114. M. apri lumbus cf. Cat. xxix. 9. nidos querulos; Sen. H. the loin of the boar;' Plin. viii. 51 s 78. F. 148. nidis immitibus escam ; Virg. G. R. kidneys, tripe, chitterlings, sweet- iv. 17. nigra velut magnas domini cum breads, &c. F.

divitis ædes pervolat et pennis alta Money.'i. 112 sq. LU.

atria lustrut hirundo, pabula parvu legens 137. "Ην ο φίλος τι λάβη, δομινι φρά- nidisque loquacibus escas ; Ε. xii. 473 sqq. ose sülüs bygaafey, wo de ej uń te náßn, nidum liberorum ; Ammian. xiv. p. 28. to páros sits póvor övea gàg xai raūra R. “O hell-kite! All? What, all my phuara: avràpfywys oux idéaw dógeous, pretty chickens, and their dam, At ou gàe az w dóuevas Pallad. Ep. xxxi. one fell swoop ?” Shaksp. Macb. IV. ii. Anal. t. ii. p. 13. LU.

A stomacher,' M. waistcoat,' R. or 138. "You must be childless.' A • corslet.' G. parody of Virgil ; saltem si qua mihi de te 144. Nuces are 'walnuts,' minime suscepta fuisset ante fugam soboles ; si quis nuces ' filberts.' GRÆ. Pers. i. 10. Hor. mihi parvulus aula luderet Æneas, qui te I S. iii. 171. M. Augustus, animi larandi tamen ore referret ; &c. Æ. iv. 327 sqq. cuusa, modo nucibus ludebut cum pueris PR.

minutis, quos facie et garrulitate amabiles 140. Understand to legacy-hunters.' undique conquirebat ; Suet. 83. PR. LU. Mart. XI. lv. PR. X. xviii. R. · Which the little fellow begs for, to

141. ' But, now that you are rich, let buy playthings, cakes, or fruit.' GRÆ. your mistress be put to bed : although 145.. Virro goes so far as to beg she should even present you with hree Trebius will bring one of the little darbouncing boys at a birth, he will not be lings with him, when he comes to dine at afraid of being supplanted by your na. his house.' GRÆ. M. tural children, and therefore will feel 146. Cf. 108. LU. Seneca, Piso,

Boletus domino ; sed qualem Claudius edit
Ante illum uxoris, post quem nil amplius edit.

Virro sibi et reliquis Virronibus illa jubebit 150 Poma dari, quorum solo pascaris odore;

Qualia perpetuus Phæacum auctumnus habebat,
Credere quæ possis subrepta sororibus Afris.
Tu scabie frueris mali, quod in aggere rodit,
Qui tegitur parma et galea metuensque flagelli

and Cotta would speak of their clients as quam Hesperidum hortos ac regum Adonis • friends in moderate circumstances ;' et Alcinoi ; Plin. xix. 4. PR. Virro would call them' vile.'

152. The garden of the Hesperides, • Toadstools of very questionable ap- daughters of Atlas king of Mauritania, pearance.' quorumdum er his facile nos- was famous for its golden apples guarded cuntur venena, diluto rubore, rancido by a sleepless dragon. Hercules slew the aspectu, livido intus colore, rimosa stria, monster and stole the fruit. VS. LU. pallido per ambitum labro; Plin. xxii. 22. Ov. iv. 627 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. iv. 480 LU. ii sunt tutissimi quibus ruhet caro, $99. Ath. iii. 7. Apoll. II. v. 11. Diod. magis diluto rubore, quam boleti; 23. Ath. iv. 27. R. ü. 19. Suet. Ner. 33. PR.

153. ' Such as a monkey eats.' VS. 147. “ The agaricus cæsareus or im- After weighing the various opinions of perial agaric' is the most splendid of all Commentators upon these three lines, I the species ; it is common in Italy and is think the following paraphrase gives their brought to the markets there for sale. sense ; ' You are at liberty to enjoy a The ancient Romans esteemed it one of specked and shrivelled windfall ; such as the greatest luxuries of the table. This idle soldiers would amuse themselves by is the mushroom with which Claudius giving to a monkey, and laugh to see the was poisoned ;” Miller’s Gard. Dict. G. nice discrimination with which Mr Pug Locusta supplied the empress Agrippina turns it about to nibble the sound part, with the poison, which she introduced while he sits in his regimentals on the into her husband's favourite dish. VS. J. back of his bearded charger before the Suet. 44. Plin. xxii. 22. Mart. XIII. gate of their barrracks, after going through xlvii. boletum, qualem Claudius edit, his manual exercise with due gravity and edas ; I. xxi. 4. Claudius was the fifth precision, and in as much military awe of emperor of Rome. PR. cf. vi. 620 sqq. his master's whip, as any of the raw R.

recruits who are grinning at him ever 148. i. e. • After which he died.' R. felt for the cane of their drill-sergeant.' Therefore Nero called mushrooms, Bpwjece To say 'the apple which the soldier Isãy Suet. 33. PR.

gives away' is more severe than saying 149. Virrones grand like himself.' that which he eats. The monkey nibT.

bling his apple between whiles is more 150. ' Pulpy fruits (as distinguished characteristic, and the comparison more from • nuts' and berries') including degrading. (See the simile in the pasapples, pears, peaches, &c. M.

sage of Lucian, quoted at 157.) The An allusion perhaps to an Indian na- round target and the lash were not used tion, of which it is said ; odore vivunt in the Roman army. pomorum silvestrium et eorum olfactu Among those who think " a monkey' aluntur ; Solin. H. his ego rebus pascor. is here meant are CL. DM. RU. GR. his delector, his perfruor; Cic. in HO. HN. R. Pis. 20.

The Prætorian Bands were stationed 151. Phæacia, afterwards Corcyra, now by Tiberius in a permanent camp between Corfu.' Homer describes the gardens of the Viminal and Tiburtine gates. FE. Alcinous as filled with perpetual fruits; Pliny mentions sata in castrorum aggerihence an eternal autumn reigned there. bus mala ; xv. 14. PR. cf. viii. 43. R. Od. H 112 sqq. VS. LU. Mart. VII. 154. Metuens virgæ; vii. 210. Ov. M. xlii. 6. Antiquitas nihil prius miruta est i. 323. R.

Forsitan impensa Virronem parcere credas .
Hoc agit, ut doleas : nam quæ comedia, mimus
Quis melior plorante gula ? Ergo omnia fiunt,

Si nescis, ut per lacrumas effundere bilem
160 Cogaris pressoque diu stridere molari.

Tu tibi liber homo et regis conviva videris.
Captum te nidore suæ putat ille culina:
Nec male conjectat. Quis enim tam nudus, ut illum

Bis ferat, Etruscum puero si contigit aurum
165 Vel nodus tantum et signum de paupere loro ?
Spes bene cænandi vos decipit.

« Ecce dabit jam


155. Among the amusements of the rã dà doxsīs igupãr, 671 toti so râv ioncea Asiatic soldiery, Leo Africanus mentions δων αφθόνως έντραγείν ή δ' ελευθερία και το simiam equitem ex capra jaculandi arti- ευγενές, συν αυτοίς φυλέταις και φράτορσι, ficem. HN. CL witnessed an exhibi- peoūda srárta, xai oudi perheen tis aútūro tion of this kind at a fair in Germany. Luc. pol. ovr. 24. Cf. v 6 $99.

R. 156. In his eagerness to lash the guest, 158.' Than a parasite in all the Juvenal now excuses the host, and con- agonies of disappointed hunger.' PR. tradicts some of his former invectives on

159. Cf. i. 45. expletur lacrymis the inherent meanness of the great men egeriturque dolor; Ov. Tr. IV. ii. 38. R. of Rome towards their dependents. Cor- 161. Cf. Pers. v. 73-90. Hor. II S. rect taste would have led him

carry vii. 32 sqq. 80–94. 111. and I Ep. xvi.
on both his purposes together, without 63 sqq. Mart. II. liii. IX. xi. R.
sacrificing one to the other : the servility 162. Cf. Hor. II S. vii. 38. Mart. I.
of the client might have been exposed, xciii. 9. V. xlv. 7 sqq. fto dè xaà ý xrioru
while the pride and parsimony of the ή των σκευαζομένων ες το δείπνον ασίκναι:
patron were preserved as qualities neces- Hesi Luc. Catap. 16. R.
sary to the effect and consistency of his 163. ' Utterly destitute.' LU. cf. iv.
satire. G.

He appears to be acting the rhetorician, • Him and his insolence.' LU.
and shifting his ground in order to rouse 164. ' A second time.' M.
the anger or excite the hatred of Trebius • The golden boss' was

an amulet towards Virro; by attributing the conduct adopted from the Etruscans, (who proof the latter to igngsaquòs, or ißgos reino bably brought it from the east,) and at ίνα τι γίνεται αυτή, άλλ' όπως ήσθή: Arist. first was worn only by the children of the Rh. II. ïi. 3. cf. the remainder of that nobility. In process of time it became chapter and II. v.

common, like the iria nomina, to all who 157. ii. 152 sq. ridiculus æque nul- were free-born. It was a hollow globule lus est, quam quando esurit ; Plaut. Stich. something in the shape of a heart. This I. i. 64. PR. ŠTws krogía pár os bie- badge of liberty was worn by the children Howy (of lupines,' xiv. 153.) loksy s rão of all ranks of freemen till the age of fifαγρίων λαχάνων, επίλισον δε και αι κρήναι teen. In our author's days the golden δέουσαι σου ψυχρού ύδατος, ως επί ταύτά σε bulla was probably used only by the rich; υπ' αμηχανίας έλθεϊν και άλλα δήλον, ώς ουχ the poorer classes had it of leather or ύδατος, ουδέ θέρμων, αλλά πιμμάτων και other cheap materials. Pers. ν. 31. VS. ofw raà divou ardooulou itibupão táaws, LU. G. Macr. i. 6. PR. xiii. 33. M. xiv. rabétig ó náßgas, aúró párae dixaiws tòy 5. Plin. xxxiii. 1 s 4. Aur. Vict. 6. Plut. όρεγόμενον τούτων λαιμών διαπαρείς, παρά Rom. p. 30. R. πόδας τοιγαρούν της λιχνείας ταύτης ταπί- 166. i. 133 sq. cf. the quotations from хче,

xad ώστερ ei ribnxo xhosa dediis tò Lucian at 22 and 157. R. τράχηλον άλλοις μεν γίλωσα παρέχεις, σαυ- Οίμοι, τί δήτ' έτερψας ώ τάλαινά με


Semesum leporem atque aliquid de clunibus apri.
Ad nos jam veniet minor altilis.” Inde parato

Intactoque omnes et stricto pane tacetis. 170 Ille sapit, qui te sic utitur. Omnia ferre

Si potes, et debes. Pulsandum vertice raso
Præbebis quandoque caput nec dura timebis
Flagra pati, his epulis et tali dignus amico.


Ph. 407 sqq.

'Ελπίς τόσ', ου μίλλουσα διασιλείν χάριν; himself to what he wanted. BRI. Eur. Her. 434

• Hence' i.e. owing to this constant This is the soliloquy of the expectant state of expectation.' LU. parasite. LU.

169. · With your bread clinched in Móvov räv Frigspigoplivao oorà, your hand ready to commence the action,' å píxoito pixgo rov, xabánie oi xúns rigoo (a metaphor from a sword) “and yet slím, s cò orangör rñs paráxins púraor, untouched ; because you are lying by, και τα άλλα συνειλoύσιν, οι υπεραφθείη υπό in silent expectancy, for the good things των προκατακειμένων, άσμενος υπό λιμού which are to come. LU. παραψάμενος: Luc. μισθ. συν. 26. ου λιν- 170. · He shows his sense by the way xov nors åprou ijepognosis, (cf. 67–75.) in which he treats you.' LU. ούσι γε Νομαδικού και Φασιανού όρνιθος, ών 171. Et also.' PR. μόλις τα οστά ημϊν καταλίλοιπε: (cf. 114.) 172. • One of these days we may ib. 17. R.

expect to see you playing the clown in a 168. Minor may mean either (1) pantomime, (viii

. 192.) or submitting to ‘smaller poultry (viz. 'chicken or ducks' any servile indignities.' VS. Pers. v. 82 as distinguished from geese'): LU. or sq. PR. Ter. Eun. II. ii. 13. Plaut. Capt. (2) lessened' by Virro having helped I. i. 20. R.


This Satire is the most complete of our Author's works; and one in which

all his excellencies are combined. Forcible in argument, flowing in diction, bold, impassioned, and sublime; it looks as if the Poet, conscious of the difficulties which he had to grapple with, had taxed all his

powers to do justice to the theme. It is addressed to Ursidius Postumus as a dissuasive from marriage, grounded

on the impossibility of meeting with any eligible partner ; the good old times being long gone by, when females were chaste and frugal: 1-29. If therefore he was tired of a bachelor's life, he had better bid adieu to

this world altogether. 30—47. The catalogue, which it contains, of vices and follies is most appalling ;

but is not very methodically arranged. Luxury is the source of all, 286–300. From this spring—unbridled lust, pervading all ranks, 47– 132. 327 sqq. 366—378. 597—60). gallantry, 231—241. artfulness, 271—278. unnatural passions, 311_326. attachment to unfeminine pursuits, 67–70. 246–267. boldness, 279–285. coarse manners, 418– 433. drunkenness, 300—319. 425 sqq. profaneness, 306–345. quarrelsomeness, 268—270. litigiousness, 242—245. cruelty, 413_418. 474– 495. waywardness 200—223. and fickleness, 224—230. imperiousness, presuming upon wealth and beauty, 136–160. pride, 161-183. ambitious extravagance, 352-365. 495-511. love of finery and cosmetics, 457–460. fondness for public singers and dancers, 379—397. gossiping, 398–412. affectation, 184—199. pedantry, 434–456. superstition and credulity, 511-591. the producing of abortion, 592—597. the introducing of supposititious children, 602—609. the employment of philtres, 133–135. 610—626. poisoning of step-sons, 627—652. and

murder of husbands. 652–661. G. R. The ashes of the ladies whose disreputable actions are here recorded, have

long been covered by the Latian and Flaminian ways; nor have their

follies, or their vices, much similarity with those of modern times. It would seem from internal evidence, that this Satire was written under

Domitian. It has few political allusions, and from its subject might not have been displeasing to that ferocious hypocrite, who affected at various

times a wonderful anxiety to restrain the licentiousness of the age! G. Among other writers who have been severe upon the female sex are Euri

pides generally, and Aristophanes in his Thesmophoriazusæ. With this Satire may also be compared Lucian, Amores c. 33 sqq. c. 38 sqq. R. Jo. Filesaci Uxor Justa ; SR. Chrysostom, homily on Herodias; Barth. ep. from Spain to Celestin, p. m. 334 sqq. les Mémoires de Brantosme; HN. Simonides; Ariosto, Aretino, and Boccacio among the Italians ; among the French, Jean de Meung, Gringoire, Moliere, la Fontaine, Boileau in Sat. X. ACH. and Pope in his Moral Essays, ep. ii.

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