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135 "Da Trebio! Pone ad Trebium! Vis frater ab ipsis
Ilibus?" O nummi, vobis hunc præstat honorem,
Vos estis fratres. Dominus tamen et domini rex
Si vis tu fieri, nullus tibi parvulus aula
Luserit Æneas nec filia dulcior illo.

-140 Jucundum et carum sterilis facit uxor amicum.
Sed tua nunc Mycale pariat! Licet et pueros tres
In gremium patris fundat simul; ipse loquaci
Gaudebit nido; viridem thoraca jubebit
Afferri minimasque nuces assemque rogatum,
145 Ad mensam quoties parasitus venerit infans.
Vilibus ancipites fungi ponentur amicis,

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no ill-will towards the little urchins.' R. Three children at one birth' are called tergemini; or trigemini; Liv. i. 24 sq. Plin. vii. 3. PR.

142. Iyse Firro. Κεκλημένος δὲ ἐπὶ δεῖπνον, κελεῦσαι καλέσαι τὰ παιδία τὸν ἑστιῶντα· καὶ εἰσιόντα φῆσαι σύκου ὁμοιότερα εἶναι τῷ πατρί καὶ προσαγαγόμενος φιλῆσαι, καὶ παρ ̓ αὑτὸν καθίσαι· καὶ τοῖς μὲν συμπαίζειν αὐτὸς, λέγων “ ἀσκὸς, πέλεκυς·” Theoph. Ch. v. R.

143. In the twittering nest:' a common metaphor; χρηστοῦ πατρὸς νεόττια Theoph. Ch. ii. teneroque palumbo et similis regum pueris; Pers. iii. 16 sq. cf. Cat. xxix. 9. nidos querulos; Sen. H. F. 148. nidis immitibus escam; Virg. G. iv. 17. nigra velut magnas domini cum divitis ædes pervolat et pennis alta atria lustrat hirundo, pabula parvu legens nidisque loquacibus escas; A. xii. 473 sqq. nidum liberorum; Ammian. xiv. p. 28. R. "O hell-kite! All? What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam, At one fell swoop?" Shaksp. Macb. IV. iii. 'A stomacher,' M. waistcoat,' R. or corslet.' G.

144. Nuces are " walnuts,' minima nuces' filberts.' GRÆ. Pers. i. 10. Hor. I S. iii. 171. M. Augustus, animi laxandi causa, modo nucibus ludebat cum pueris minutis, quos facie et garrulitate amabiles undique conquirebat; Suet. 83. PR.

Which the little fellow begs for, to buy playthings, cakes, or fruit.' GRÆ.

145. Virro goes so far as to beg Trebius will bring one of the little darlings with him, when he comes to dine at his house.' GRÆ. M.

146. Cf. 108. LU.

Seneca, Piso,

Boletus domino; sed qualem Claudius edit
Ante illum uxoris, post quem nil amplius edit.
Virro sibi et reliquis Virronibus illa jubebit
150 Poma dari, quorum solo pascaris odore;
Qualia perpetuus Phæacum auctumnus habebat,
Credere quæ possis subrepta sororibus Afris.
Tu scabie frueris mali, quod in aggere rodit,
Qui tegitur parma et galea metuensque flagelli

and Cotta would speak of their clients as
'friends in moderate circumstances;'
Virro would call them vile.'

'Toadstools of very questionable appearance.' quorumdam ex his facile noscuntur venena, diluto rubore, rancido aspectu, livido intus colore, rimosa stria, pallido per ambitum labro; Plin. xxii. 22. LU. ii sunt tutissimi quibus rubet caro, magis diluto rubore, quam boleti; 23. Ath. ii. 19. Suet. Ner. 33. PR.

147. ""

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The agaricus cæsareus or imperial agaric' is the most splendid of all the species; it is common in Italy and is brought to the markets there for sale. The ancient Romans esteemed it one of the greatest luxuries of the table. This is the mushroom with which Claudius was poisoned; Miller's Gard. Dict. G. Locusta supplied the empress Agrippina with the poison, which she introduced into her husband's favourite dish. VS. J. Suet. 44. Plin. xxii. 22. Mart. XIII. xlviii. boletum, qualem Claudius edit, edas; I. xxi. 4. Claudius was the fifth emperor of Rome. PR. cf. vi. 620 sqq. R.

148. i. e. After which he died.' R. Therefore Nero called mushrooms, Beaua ay Suet. 33. PR.

T.

149. Virrones grandees like himself.'

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150. Pulpy fruits (as distinguished from nuts' and 'berries') including apples, pears, peaches, &c. M.

An allusion perhaps to an Indian nation, of which it is said; odore vivunt pomorum silvestrium et eorum olfactu aluntur; Solin. H. his ego rebus pascor. his delector, his perfruor; Cic. in Pis. 20.

151. Phæacia, afterwards Corcyra, now 'Corfu.' Homer describes the gardens of Alcinous as filled with perpetual fruits; hence an eternal autumn reigned there. Od. H 112 sqq. VS. LU. Mart. VII. xlii. 6. Antiquitas nihil prius mirata est

quam Hesperidum hortos ac regum Adonis et Alcinoi; Plin. xix. 4. PR.

152. The garden of the Hesperides, daughters of Atlas king of Mauritania, was famous for its golden apples guarded by a sleepless dragon. Hercules slew the monster and stole the fruit. VS. LU. Ov. iv. 627 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. iv. 480 sqq. Ath. iii. 7. Apoll. II. v. 11. Diod. iv. 27. R.

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153. Such as a monkey eats.' VS. After weighing the various opinions of Commentators upon these three lines, I think the following paraphrase gives their sense; You are at liberty to enjoy a specked and shrivelled windfall; such as idle soldiers would amuse themselves by giving to a monkey, and laugh to see the nice discrimination with which Mr Pug turns it about to nibble the sound part, while he sits in his regimentals on the back of his bearded charger before the gate of their barrracks, after going through his manual exercise with due gravity and precision, and in as much military awe of his master's whip, as any of the raw recruits who are grinning at him ever felt for the cane of their drill-sergeant.' To say the apple which the soldier gives away' is more severe than saying

that which he eats.' The monkey nibbling his apple between whiles is more characteristic, and the comparison more degrading. (See the simile in the passage of Lucian, quoted at 157.) The round target and the lash were not used in the Roman army.

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Among those who think a monkey' is here meant are CL. DM. RU. GŘ. HO. HN. R.

The Prætorian Bands were stationed by Tiberius in a permanent camp between the Viminal and Tiburtine gates. FE. Pliny mentions sata in castrorum aggeribus mala; xv. 14. PR. cf. viii. 43. R.

154. Metuens virgæ; vii. 210. Ov. M. i. 323. R.

155 Discit ab hirsuta jaculum torquere capella. grat

Forsitan impensæ Virronem parcere credas
Hoc agit, ut doleas : nam quæ comœdia, mimus
Quis melior plorante gula? Ergo omnia fiunt,
Si nescis, ut per lacrumas effundere bilem
160 Cogaris pressoque diu stridere molari.

Tu tibi liber homo et regis conviva videris.
Captum te nidore suæ putat ille culinæ :

Nec male conjectat. Quis enim tam nudus, ut illum
Bis ferat, Etruscum puero si contigit aurum

165 Vel nodus tantum et signum de paupere loro?
Spes bene cœnandi vos decipit.

155. Among the amusements of the Asiatic soldiery, Leo Africanus mentions simiam equitem ex capra jaculandi artificem. HN. CL witnessed an exhibition of this kind at a fair in Germany.

156. In his eagerness to lash the guest, Juvenal now excuses the host, and contradicts some of his former invectives on the inherent meanness of the great men of Rome towards their dependents. Correct taste would have led him to carry on both his purposes together, without sacrificing one to the other: the servility of the client might have been exposed, while the pride and parsimony of the patron were preserved as qualities necessary to the effect and consistency of his satire. G.

He appears to be acting the rhetorician, and shifting his ground in order to rouse the anger or excite the hatred of Trebius towards Virro; by attributing the conduct of the latter toængsarμòs, or üßgıs un ἵνα τι γένηται αὑτῷ, ἀλλ ̓ ὅπως ἡσθῇ· Arist. Rh. II. ii. 3. cf. the remainder of that chapter and II. v.

157. iii. 152 sq. ridiculus æque nullus est, quam quando esurit; Plaut. Stich. I. iii. 64. PR. Οὕτως ἀπορία μέν σε θέςμων (‘ of lupines,” xiv. 153.) ἔσχεν ἢ τῶν ἀγρίων λαχάνων, ἐπέλιπον δὲ καὶ αἱ χρῆναι ῥέουσαι τοῦ ψυχροῦ ὕδατος, ὡς ἐπὶ ταῦτά σε ὑπ ̓ ἀμηχανίας ἐλθεῖν ; ἀλλὰ δῆλον, ὡς οὐχ ὕδατος, οὐδὲ θέρμων, ἀλλὰ πεμμάτων καὶ ὄψων καὶ οἴνου ἀνθοσμίου ἐπιθυμῶν ἑάλως, καθάπερ ὁ λάβραξ, αὐτὸν μάλα δικαίως τὸν ὀρεγόμενον τούτων λαιμὸν διαπαρείς. παρὰ πόδας τοιγαροῦν τῆς λιχνείας ταύτης τἀπ καὶ ὥσπερ Xriga, οἱ πίθηκοι κλοιῷ δεθεὶς τὸν τράχηλον ἄλλοις μὲν γέλωτα παρέχεις,σαν

"Ecce dabit jam

τῷ δὲ δοκεῖς τρυφᾶν, ὅτι ἔστι σοι τῶν ἰσχά δων ἀφθόνως ἐντραγεῖν· ἡ δ' ἐλευθερία καὶ τὸ εὐγενὲς, σὺν αὐτοῖς φυλέταις͵ καὶ φράτορσι, φροῦδα πάντα, καὶ οὐδὲ μνήμη τις αὐτῶν· Luc. μισθ. συν. 24. Cf. v 6 sqq. R.

P

158. Than a parasite in all the agonies of disappointed hunger.' PR.

159. Cf. i. 45. expletur lacrymis egeriturque dolor; Ov. Tr. IV. iii. 38. R.

161. Cf. Pers. v. 73-90. Hor. II S. vii. 32 sqq. 80-94. 111. and I Ep. xvi. 63 sqq. Mart. II. liii. IX. xi. R.

162. Cf. Hor. II S. vii. 38. Mart. I. xciii. 9. V. xlv. 7 sqq. tri di xai ǹ xvícoa ἡ τῶν σκευαζομένων ἐς τὸ δεῖπνον ἀπέκναιέ Luc. Catap. 16. R.

49.

163. Utterly destitute.' LU. cf. iv.

'Him and his insolence.' LU.
164. A second time.' M.

The golden boss' was an amulet adopted from the Etruscans, (who probably brought it from the east,) and at first was worn only by the children of the nobility. In process of time it became common, like the tria nomina, to all who were free-born. It was a hollow globule something in the shape of a heart. This badge of liberty was worn by the children of all ranks of freemen till the age of fifteen. In our author's days the golden bulla was probably used only by the rich; the poorer classes had it of leather or other cheap materials. Pers. v. 31. VS. LU. G. Macr. i. 6. PR. xiii. 33. Μ. xiv. 5. Plin. xxxii. 1 s 4. Aur. Vict. 6. Plut. Rom. p. 30. R.

166. i. 133 sq. cf. the quotations from Lucian at 22 and 157. R.

Οἴμοι, τί δῆτ ̓ ἕτερψας ὦ τάλαινά με

Semesum leporem atque aliquid de clunibus apri.
Ad nos jam veniet minor altilis." Inde parato
Intactoque omnes et stricto pane tacetis.
170 Ille sapit, qui te sic utitur. Omnia ferre

Si potes, et debes. Pulsandum vertice raso
Præbebis quandoque caput nec dura timebis
Flagra pati, his epulis et tali dignus amico.

Ελπὶς τότ', οὐ μέλλουσα διατελεῖν χάριν ;
Eur. Her. 434 sq. Ph. 407 sqq.

This is the soliloquy of the expectant parasite. LU.

Μόνον τῶν περιφερομένων τὰ ὀστὰ, εἰ ἀφίκοιτο μέχρι σοῦ, καθάπερ οἱ κύνες περιεσθίων, ἢ τὸ σκληρὸν τῆς μαλάχης φύλλον, ᾧ τὰ ἄλλα συνειλοῦσιν, εἰ ὑπεροφθείη ὑπὸ τῶν προκατακειμένων, ἄσμενος ὑπὸ λιμοῦ παραψάμενος· Luc. μισθ. συν. 26. οὐ λευNou Tors ägrov iupognosis, (cf. 67-75.) οὔτε γε Νομαδικοῦ ἢ Φασιανοῦ ὄρνιθος, ὧν μόλις τὰ ὀστᾶ ἡμῖν καταλέλοιπε (cf.114.)

ib. 17. R.

168. Minor may mean either (1) 'smaller poultry' (viz. ' chicken or ducks' as distinguished from geese'): LU. or (2) 'lessened' by Virro having helped

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ARGUMENT.

This Satire is the most complete of our Author's works; and one in which all his excellencies are combined. Forcible in argument, flowing in diction, bold, impassioned, and sublime; it looks as if the Poet, conscious of the difficulties which he had to grapple with, had taxed all his powers to do justice to the theme.

It is addressed to Ursidius Postumus as a dissuasive from marriage, grounded on the impossibility of meeting with any eligible partner; the good old times being long gone by, when females were chaste and frugal: 1-29. If therefore he was tired of a bachelor's life, he had better bid adieu to this world altogether. 30-47.

The catalogue, which it contains, of vices and follies is most appalling; but is not very methodically arranged. Luxury is the source of all, 286-300. From this spring-unbridled lust, pervading all ranks, 47132. 327 sqq. 366–378. 597–601. gallantry, 231-241. artfulness, 271-278. unnatural passions, 311–326. attachment to unfeminine pursuits, 67-70. 246–267. boldness, 279–285. coarse manners, 418433. drunkenness, 300-319. 425 sqq. profaneness, 306–345. quarrelsomeness, 268-270. litigiousness, 242-245. cruelty, 413-418. 474495. waywardness 200–223. and fickleness, 224-230. imperiousness, presuming upon wealth and beauty, 136–160. pride, 161-183. ambitious extravagance, 352–365. 495-511. love of finery and cosmetics, 457-460. fondness for public singers and dancers, 379-397. gossiping, 398-412. affectation, 184–199. pedantry, 434-456. superstition and credulity, 511-591. the producing of abortion, 592-597. the introducing of supposititious children, 602-609. the employment of philtres, 133-135. 610-626. poisoning of step-sons, 627-652. and murder of husbands. 652-661. G. R.

The ashes of the ladies whose disreputable actions are here recorded, have long been covered by the Latian and Flaminian ways; nor have their follies, or their vices, much similarity with those of modern times. It would seem from internal evidence, that this Satire was written under Domitian. It has few political allusions, and from its subject might not have been displeasing to that ferocious hypocrite, who affected at various times a wonderful anxiety to restrain the licentiousness of the age! G. Among other writers who have been severe upon the female sex are Euripides generally, and Aristophanes in his Thesmophoriazusæ. With this Satire may also be compared Lucian, Amores c. 33 sqq. c. 38 sqq. R. Jo. Filesaci Uxor Justa; SR. Chrysostom, homily on Herodias; Barth. ep. from Spain to Celestin, p. m. 334 sqq. les Mémoires de Brantosme; HN. Simonides; Ariosto, Aretino, and Boccacio among the Italians; among the French, Jean de Meung, Gringoire, Moliere, la Fontaine, Boileau in Sat. x. ACH. and Pope in his Moral Essays, ep. ii.

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