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50 Iratis; at tu victrix provincia ploras?

Hæc ego non credam Venusina digna lucerna?
Hæc ego non agitem? Sed quid magis Heracleas
Aut Diomedeas aut mugitum Labyrinthi
Et mare percussum puero fabrumque volantem?
55 Quum leno accipiat mochi bona, si capiendi
Jus nullum uxori, doctus spectare lacunar,
Doctus et ad calicem vigilanti stertere naso;

in the afternoon), and to go to dinner at the ninth. A. cf. xi. 204. M. Mart. IV. viii. Hor. I Ep. vii. 71. and see notes on vi. 418. R. and on Pers. iii. 4.

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Reaps the fruits of divine wrath,' being better off than he was before his condemnation. Thus Juno says of Hercules, superat et crescit malis, iraque nostra fruitur; in laudes suas mea vertit odia;" Sen. H. F. 34. GRO. whence his name "Heas xλios. PR. Peccat: vitio tamen utitur; Pers. ii. 68. R.

50. Cf. v. 158. ix. 77. inveniet nil sibi, præter plorare, suisque; Hor. II S. v. 68. R. Vincere was a forensic term. GR. victrix is an instance of oxymoron.

51. The lucubrations of a Horace;' who was born at Venusia, LU. on the confines of Lucania and Apulia: hence he speaks of himself as Lucanus an Appulus, anceps: nam Venusinus_arat finem sub utrumque colonus; II S. i.

34. PR.

52. Quid for cur, as ri for diari; understand fabulas scribam : ' on the labors of Hercules, and the adventures of Diomede, either the Thracian who fed his stud on human fesh, or the Ætolian. Plin. x. 44. Ον. Μ. xiv. 540 sqq. Virg. E. xi. 243 sqq. T. PR. R.

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53. The bellowing of the' Minotaur in the Cretan labyrinth;' which was built by Daedalus on the plan of that in Egypt, only a hundred times smaller. There was a third in Lemnos, and a fourth in Italy. Plin. xxxvi. 13. The first is described by Herodotus, ii. 148. See Virg. Æn. vi. 14-33. Ovid. Met. viii. 155 sqq. PR.

54. Plin. iv. 11. vii. 56. Icarus Icarias nomine fecit aquas; Ovid. Ceratis ope Dadalea nititur pennis, vitreo daturus nomina ponto; Hor. IV Od. ii. 2. Expertus vacuum Dadalus aera pennis non homini datis; I Od. iii. 34. Ov. Met. viii. 183 sqq.

This fable had its origin from the invention of masts and sails by Dædalus. PR.

55. By a law of Domitian, an adulteress was precluded from receiving any legacy or inheritance: Suet. Dom. 8. To evade this law the fortune of the gallant was settled on the husband, who for this consideration turned pander to his wife's dishonor. BRI. cf. ix. 82 sqq. and particularly 87 sq. HR.

56. As though absorbed in thought, or at any rate quite unobservant of what was going on. M.

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57. Ipse miser vidi, cum me dormire putares, sobrius apposito crimina vestra mero; Ov. Am. II. v. 13. GR. Quærit adulteros inter mariti vina;-non sine conscio surgit marito; Hor. III. Od. vi. 25. 29. PR. Aur Tis Thμas Tilaviy Tập yuiτον ῥέγχει, καὶ τρέφεται· τοῦτ ̓ ἦν εὔκολος εργασία. μὴ πλεῖν, μὴ σκάπτειν, ἀλλ ̓ εὐστομάχως ἀπορέγχειν, ἀλλοτρίῳ δαπάνη πλούσια βοσκόμενον Parmenio. R. Κάλβας εἱστία Μαικήναν, εἶτα ὁρῶν διαπληκτιζόμενον ἀπὸ νευμάτων πρὸς τὸ γύναιον, ἀπέκλινεν ἡσυχῆ τὴν κεφαλὴν, ὡς δὴ καθεύδων· ἐν τούτῳ δὲ τῶν οἰκετῶν τινὸς προσρυέντος ἔξωθεν τῇ τραπέζῃ, καὶ τὸν οἶνον ὑφαιρουμένου διαβλέψας, ο κακόδαιμον, εἶπεν, οὐκ οἶσθα, ὅτι μόνῳ Μαικήνα καθεύδω;” Plut. Erot. t. ix. p. 45. HN. There was one Cepius of whom a similar story was told; whence came the Latin proverb 'non omnibus dormio.' E. RH. There is a double meaning in the word vigilanti; though the man appeared to be fast asleep, yet his nose seemed to be wide awake, if you might judge by the noise it made. So an dormit Sceledrus intus? Non naso quidem, nam eo magno magnum clamat; Plaut. Mil. Farquhar makes Mrs. Sullen give a similar account of her drunken husband: My whole night's comfort, is the tunable serenade of that wakeful nightingale-his nose." M.

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Quum fas esse putet curam sperare cohortis,

Qui bona donavit præsepibus et caret omni angers, 60 Majorum censu, dum pervolat axe citato

Flaminiam; (puer Automedon nam lora tenebat,

Ipse lacernatæ quum se jactaret amica)
Nonne libet medio ceras implere capaces
Quadrivio? quum jam sexta cervice feratur

58. A military tribuneship.' VS. A prefectship of the prætorian band.' GRÆ. A cohort consisted of 550 infantry and 66 cavalry. In legione sunt centuria sexaginta, manipuli triginta, cohortes decem; Gell. xvi. 4. A. PR. When the allies were admitted into the legions, the number of military tribunes was probably increased to ten, one to command each cohort. cf. x. 94. Cæs. B.C. ii. 20. Plin. iii. 9. 18. LI. R.

59. Either (1) Cornelius Fuscus is intended, who, when a boy, had driven Nero's chariot; he afterwards 'squandered his patrimony' in charioteering, and at last was made prefect of the prætorian bands by Domitian, and fell in the Dacian war: iv. 112. Suet. T. or (2) Tigellinus, a man of obscure origin, MNC. and a depraved minister to Nero's pleasures, who also was promoted to a prefectship: v. 67. 155. Tâc. An. xiv.sqq. Hist. i. 72. or (3) Damasippus : viii. 147. PR.

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61. The Flaminian Way,' the most ancient and celebrated of all the Roman roads, led to the emperor's villa. It was made by the censor C. Flaminius (A. U. 533.) through Tuscany to Ariminum. Strab. v. p. 333. cf. Suet. Aug. 30. PR. R.

This 'boy' was the charioteer of Nero, as Automedon' was of Achilles. GRE. Hom. 11. п 145 sqq. P 429 sqq. 459537. T 395 sqq. Virg. Æ. ii. 477. Suet. Ner. 22. viii. 148. Cicero, also, uses Automedon as the name of any charioteer; Rosc. Am. 35. PR. R.

62. By ipse we are to understand

to show

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6 men's necks.

Nero: M. for ipse, as well as ille (v. 97.), avròs, and ixsivos, often convey a notion of authority and respect; hence a teacher is thus spoken of by his disciple (as in the Pythagorean expression avròs pa), a master by his servant, a general by a soldier, a patron as distinguished from his clients, the mind as contrasted with the body, &c. in which cases the opposition shows what is meant. v. 30. V. Flacc. iii. 150. Ov. Trist. V. i. 45. Calpurn. i. 46. R.

Jactare se is to play the agreeable' or · to show off before.' It may be a metaphor from a peacock spreading his tail. cf. Pers. iv. 15. R.

Though spoken of in the feminine gender, Sporus the eunuch is here meant, BRI. whom this monster cum dote et flameo, nuptiarum celeberrimo officio, deductum ad se, pro uxore habuit; quemque, Augustarum ornamentis excultum lecticaque vectum, et circa conventus mercatusque Græciæ ac mox Romæ circa Sigillaria comitatus est identidem exosculans; Suet. Ner. 28. PR. cf. sponsæ turpes; v. 78. R. A few years afterwards this Sporus was ordered by the emperor Vitellius to personate a nymph in a pantomime, but committed suicide to avoid appearing on the stage in a female dress! G. The epithet lacernata implies that this was not a woman, lacerna being a man's cloak. FE. It was worn by soldiers in the camp, Plin. xviii. 25. Ov. Fast, ii. 746. and by spectators in the amphitheatre; in the latter case it was white, A. Mart. XIV. cxxxvii. IV. ii. See also Suet. Aug. 40. Claud. 6. PR. Mart. V. viii.

63. Cera are the same as cerata tabelle. The pocket-books of the Romans consisted of thin pieces of wood, covered over with wax, on which they wrote with the point of an instrument called stylus, the other end of which was blunt for the purpose of erasure. Hor. I S. x.

72. M.

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65 Hinc atque inde patens ac nuda pæne cathedra Et multum referens de Mæcenate supino Signator, falso qui se lautum atque beatum Exiguis tabulis et gemma fecerat uda? Occurrit matrona potens, quæ, molle Calenum 70 Porrectura, viro miscet sitiente rubetam Instituitque rudes melior Locusta propinquas

the impudence of these miscreants, and the depravity of these times! LU.

The litters of the rich were called hexaphori, Mart. II. lxxxi. IV. li. or octophori, vii. 141. from the number of bearers or lecticarii; persons of inferior fortune used sella gestatoria a sedan,' carried by two chairmen. ix. 142. LI. M. sq.

R. cf. BO. c. 8. P. 427 443 sq.

65. Here the litter' is left open on both sides' out of effrontery, as opposed to lectica tuta pelle veloque and sella clausa; v. 124. Mart. XI. xcviii. 11 sq. LU. clausa lectica fenestra; iii. 242. clausum latis specularibus antrum; iv. 21. This latter was also called cubiculum viatorium; Plin. xxxvii. 2. Suet. Aug. 78. Tit. 10. Ov. A. A. i. 487 sq. LI. It was fitted up with cushions and pillows, stood on four short legs, and was carried by means of poles; iii. 245. vii. 132. The cathedra or chair' belonged properly to ladies; vi. 91. ix. 52. Mart. IV. Îxxix. 3. Phæd. III. viii. 4. Prop. IV. v. 37. hence called fœminea cathedra; Mart. III. lxiii. 7. Čalp. vii. 27. BO. Only vestals and empresses used pilenta and carpenta. R.

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66. Mæcenas, though a very active man of business, was otherwise most indolent and luxurious;' xii. 39. Sen. Ep. 19. 101. 114. 120. otio et mollitiis pæne ultra feminam fluens; Vell. Pat. i. 88. Quint. X. iv. Plin. xiv. 6. DO. PR. R. He was at once a beau and a sloven. G. For the above sense of supinus see Mart. II. vi. 13. PR. Quint. V. xii. 10. X. ii. 17. &c. Plin. xvi. 37. Suet. Aug. 16. R. Referreto bring back to mind,' therefore to resemble.' Virg. Æ. iv. 329. x. 766.

Tac. Germ. 43. R.

67. Either (1) Aquilius Regulus, Plin. ii. 20. or (2) Sophonius Tigellinus, who poisoned his three uncles and inherited all their property by forgery' of their wills. LU. According to Pædianus the subscription of seven witnesses was requisite.

PR. cf. x. 336. M.
Fulsum was a
technical term, as falsi reus, GRO. Lex
Cornelia de falsis, &c. R.

68. A brief testament,' making him sole heir. BRI. Omnia soli breviter dabit ; xii. 125. PR. ii. 58.

Ut arcanas possim signare tabellas, neve tenax ceram siccave gemma trahat, humida tangam prius ora; Ov. Am. II. xv. 15 sqq. Trist. V. iv. 5 sq. Pont. II. ix. 69. GR. cf. xiii. 139. xiv. 132. R.

69. Nulla aconita bibuntur fictilibus; x. 25 sq. LU. The commencement of this horrible practice is mentioned by Livy, viii. 18. PR. Agrippina poisoned her husband Claudius by a mushroom; Tac. An. xii. 67. Suet. Claud. 44. R. The allusion therefore is probably to some other noble matron, G. who will meet you in the public streets. M.

Cales was in Campania. LU. The choicest wines of Italy are named by Horace, I Od. xx. 9 sqq. of these the Calenian and Cæcubian had gone out of fashion in Pliny's time; xiv. 6. R.

Molle mellow' from age; Hor. I Od. vii. 19. Virg. G. i. 341. as opposed to durum 'rough;' G. iv. 102. R.

70. A poison' supposed to be extracted from the toad,' called rubeta from its frequenting brakes. GRÆ. turgentis rana portenta rubetæ; Prop. III. vi. 27. PR. nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubete; vi. 659. cf. iii. 44. R.

71. Cæsareas soboles horrenda Locusta occidit, curans sævi venenata Neronis ; Turnus. VS. This hag seems to have reduced the art of poisoning to a science; Claudius spared her life in order to avail himself of her diabolical skill, and at last was taken off by her agency. ""Tis the sport," as Shakspeare beautifully observes, "to have the engineer Hoist with his own petar;" Ham. III. iv. Nero employed her to destroy Germanicus, and perhaps Burrhus; but on the accession of Galba, she was dragged to execution amid

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Per famam et populum nigros efferre maritos.
Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum,
Si vis esse aliquis: probitas laudatur et alget.


75 Criminibus debent hortos, prætoria, mensas, palaus.
Argentum vetus et stantem extra pocula caprum.

Quem patitur dormire nurus corruptor avaræ, daughter
Quem sponsæ turpes et prætextatus adulter?

Si natura negat, facit indignatio versum,

80 Qualemcumque potest, quales ego vel Cluvienus. Ex quo Deucalion, nimbis tollentibus æquor,

the shouts and execrations of the populace. G. Tac. An. xii. 66. xiii. 15. Suet. Claud. 44. Ner. 33. 47. PR. R.

Melior more knowing and daring;' instituit 'instructs;' rudes ignorant.' LU. 72. "Ev dia duo for per famum populi. GRÆ. per ' in defiance of,' 'running the gauntlet' as it were.

Livid' from the effects of poison, GRE. which is hence called pocula nigra; Prop. II. xxvii. 10. R.

Efferre is peculiarly applied to funerals, PR. as effertur, imus, ad sepulcrum venimus; Ter. And. I. i. 90. M. vi. 175. 567. xiv. 220. It is here the consequent put for the antecedent. R. cf. note 70 on Herod. vii. 117.

73. Gyarus, now Jura, one of the Cyclades, was the Botany Bay of Rome. vi. 563 sq. x. 170. Plin. iv. 12. viii. 29. 57. Tac. An. iii. 68 sq. iv. 30. Other rocky islands were used for the same purpose. LU. PR. R.

74. Sese aliquem credens; Pers. i. 129. 'somebody;' PR. Cic. ad Att. iii. 15. δοκῶν μὲν τὶς εἶναι, ὢν δ ̓ οὐδείς· Arr. Ep. ii. 24. R.

"In this partial avaricious age What price bears honour? virtue? long ago It was but praised, and freezed; but now-a-days 'Tis colder far, and has nor love_nor praise ;" Massinger, Fatal Dowry, II. i. G.

75. Such gardens' contained villas, summerhouses, terraces, sheets of water, fountains, grottos, statues, &c. Smaller gardens were called viridaria or nemora. R.

'Palaces;' ad lapidem Torquatus habet prætoria quartum; Mart. X. lxxix. 1. Suet. Tit. 8. PR. x. 161. R.

The Romans were very extravagant in heir 'tables,' which were made of citron

wood, marble, ivory, &c. GRÆ. v. 137 sq. R. Mart. XIV. lxxxix. xc. &c.

76. Argentum, mensæ, myrrhina, rura, domus; Mart. XI. lxx. 8. The goat,' as destructive to vines, was sacred to Bacchus, and was a usual device on embossed goblets: or it might be a bassrelief of Phryxus and Helle riding on the goat; stat caper Eolio Thebani vellere Phryxi cultus; Mart. VIII. li. (de phiala Rufi,') 9. VS. PR. altis exstantem signis cratera; Ov. Met. v. 81. antiquus crater signis exstantibus asper; Id. xii. 235. cf. v. 38. R.

77. The avarice of the daughter-in-law is her ruin. 'Who can tamely witness such flagitiousness?' LU.

78.Unnatural brides.' G. v. 62. ii. 117. 134. Mart. xii. 42. Suet. Ner. 29. Ov. A. A. i. 524. Tac. An. xv. 37. R.

The prætexta was a white gown (toga) with a purple border, and was worn by magistrates and priests, and by noble boys till they completed their fifteenth year, when they exchanged it for the manly gown. Pers. v. 30. PR. R.

79. Ceterarum rerum studia et doctrina et præceptis et arte constant; poeta natura ipsa valet et mentis viribus excitatur et quasi divino quodam spiritu inflatur; Cic. pro Arch. 8. cf. Hor. A. P. 408 sqq.


80. Cluvienus was a miserable versifier of whom nothing further is known. PR.

81. This proem contains the sum and substance of the poet's future Satires. cf. CAS. on Pers. i. 1.

Ex quo; Hor. III Od. iii. 21. 1.5. Hom. Il. A 7. górov Aristoph. N. 520. Quo tempore primum Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbem, unde homines nati, durum genus; Virg. G. i. 61 sqq.

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Navigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit,
Paulatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa
Et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas,

85 Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, Gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli.

Et quando uberior vitiorum copia? quando
Major avaritiæ patuit sinus? alea quando

Hos animos? Neque enim loculis comitantibus itur
90 Ad casum tabulæ, posita sed luditur arca.
Prolia quanta illic dispensatore videbis
Armigero! Simplexne furor, sestertia centum

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82. Parva rate; Ov. xißwry, λágvans, in the ark.' HN. The fable is a corruption of sacred history. PR.

The mountain' is Lycorea, one of the two peaks of Parnassus. R.

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The answers of the Delphian oracle' were anciently 'given by lots:' oracula verius dicuntur, quæ vaticinatione funduntur, sed et sortes, quæ ducuntur. Cic. de Div. ii. 33. Sometimes sortes signified oracular answers' in general, dictæ per carmina sortes; Hor. A. P. 403. auxilium placuit per sacras quærere sortes; Ov. precibus oracula poscas; Virg. Æ. iii. 456. poscens responsu; Sil. i. 121. PR. M. R. The responses at this time were given by Themis: Ov. VS.

83. Saxa ponere duritiem cœpere, suumque rigorem, mollirique mora, mollitaque ducere formam: Ov. M. This story is supposed to have been suggested by the fanciful derivation of ads from λάας. Ρ.

84. The lapides Pyrrhæ jacti (Virg. E. vi. 41.) produced women. Pyrrha was the daughter of Epimetheus and Asia. GRE.

85. Discursus their different pursuits.' But see v. 21. R.

Farrago (see note on Pers. v. 77.) 'a mixture, hodge-podge, olio.' M.

87. Collecta vitia post tot ætates diu in

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91. With his steward for armourbearer,' as carrying money, dice, dicebox, and tables. VS. vii. 219. xiv. 4 sq. R. The ses


92. A hundred sesterces.' tertius about 1d. The sestertium: 1000 sestertii=about £17. 16s. 3d. (1) If a numeral agrees with sestertii, it denotes so many sestertii, as decem sestertii. (2) If the genitive plural of sestertii is joined with a numeral in another case, it denotes so many thousand, as decem sestertium=10,000 sestertii. (3) If joined with a numeral adverb, it denotes so many hundred thousand, as decies sestertiúm=1,000,000 sestertii. (4) The numeral adverb by itself has the same meaning, as decies=1,000,000 sestertii=1,000 sesterces. K. AD. Sestertium is always the contracted genitive, with which mille or millia is generally

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