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Pronus 'et auratam Junoni cæde juvencam,

Si tibi contigerit capitis matrona pudici.
50 Paucæ adeo-Cereris vittas contingere dignæ,

Quarum non timeat pater 'oscula.. ' Necte coronam
Postibus et densos per limiņa tende corymbos.
Unus Iberinæ vir sufficit? Ocius illud

Extorquebis, ut hæc oculo contenta sit uno. 55

Magna tamen fama est cujusdam rure paterno
Viventis.” Vivat Gabiis, ut vixit in agro;
Vivat Fidenis ! Et agello cedo paterno.'
Quis tamen affirmat, nil actum in montibus aut in
Speluncis? Adeo senuerunt Jupiter et Mars?

to Jupiter. LU. cf. x. 65 sqq. Ut templi ix. 85. x. 65. xii. 84. 91. Ov. M. iv. tetigere gradus procumbit uterque pronus 759. Claud. Nupt. H. et M. 208. R. humi gelidoque pavens dedit oscula (trgoo- 53. 'Do you expect that Iberina Kuvki) saio; Ov. M. i. 375 sq. R. (your wife that is to be) will rest content

48. Aurutis cornibus hostiæ majores with one husband ? FA. dumtaxat immolabantur ; Plin. xxxiii. 3. 54. “ If such a proposal were seriously xxxiv. 4. LU. PR. ooà 8' au lyàs péğw Boūs made to her, she would exclaim“ Eripiet juv, xquoòn négao. Tigrxsúas. Hom. Od. quivis oculos citius mihi !" Hor. II S. v. r 382

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Tib. IV. i. 35. FA. Sil. iv. 758 sq. R. 15. V. Flacc. i. 89. iii, 431. Plat. Alcib. Illud and hac serve only as props to ii. p. 176. The magnitude of the bless- the metre. JO. The lines are careless ing would not only require a larger vic- and unpoetical. G. tim, but one with gilded horns. R.

55. " Yet Fame speaks well of a cerJunoni ante omnes cui vincla jugalia tain young lady who has spent all her cure ; Virg. Æ. iv. 59. LU. Ov. Am. life at her father's house in the country.' III. xiii. 3 sqq. R.

PR. But the less fame has to do with 49. ' Head' for 'person,' by synec- the female character, the better; cf. doche. PR.

Thục. ii. 46 fin. 50. 'To be priestesses of Cereş,' whose 56. ^ Before I can admit her to be the statue, as that of other deities, was deco- paragon of virtue which you fondly fancy rated with 'fillets.' VS. None but chaste her, she must have seen some little of matrons were admissible to the celebra- the world.' tion of her rites. FA. cf. xv. 140 sq. Gabü, once a city of the Volsci, and Callim. in Cer. 1 and 5. Conripuere Fidenæ, an ancient town of Latium, in sacram effigiem, munibusque cruentis vir- point of populousness, were but one regineas ausi diva contingere vittas; Virg. move from her father's farm. cf. x. 100. Æ. i. 167 sq. R.

Gabiis desertior atque Fidenis vicus; Hor. 51. “ So strong their filial kisses smack I Ep. xi. 7 sq. PR. G. of lust." G.

57. 'I grant what you say as to her 52. Previously to bringing home the correct conduct while under her father's bride, the doorposts of the bridegroom roof.' M. were adorned with wreaths of flowers and 58. - But she could not have been boughs of evergreens, and scaffolding was always within doors : therefore no one erected in front of the house and along can answer for what may have hapthe streets through which the new-married pened.' couple were to pass, for the accommoda- 59. See note on 16. PR. cf. Tib. II, tion of those who flocked to see the i. 67. quid ergo est, quare apud poetas nuptial procession. The poorer classes salacissimus Jupiter desierit liberos tollere ? also had their garlands and processions, utrum sexagenarius factus est, et illi lex on a smaller scale. G. 78 sq. M. 227 sq. Papia fibulam (cf. v 73.) imposuit ?

Q

60 Porticibusne tibi monstratur femina voto

Digna tuo? Cuneis an habent spectacula totis,
Quod securus ames quodque inde excerpere possis?
Chironomon Ledam molli saltante Bathyllo,

Seneca ap. Lactant. i. 16. R. These and being accompanied by a better illicit amours were generally, in ancient orchestra than Rome had yet seen, it times, laid to the account of the Gods. astonished and delighted the people so

60. These “arcades or piazzas' were much, that they forsook in some meathe fashionable lounge of Roman ladies, sure their tragic and comic poets, for the where they might see and be seen, with- more expressive ballets of Pylades and out exposure to the weather. (Spectatuin Bathyllus. veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsæ ; Ov. To say the truth, these were very exA. A. i. 99.) There were several of traordinary men. The art which they these porticoes: tu modo Pompeiu lentus introduced they carried to the highest spatiare sub umbra;-nec tibi vitetur, quæ pitch of perfection, and however skilful porticus auctoris Livia nomen habet ;--nec their followers may have been, they do fuge liniger«p Memphitica templa juvencu, not appear to have added any thing to the &c. Ibid. 50 and 67 sqq. PR. M. R. magnificence of the scene, or the scien

61. The steps from bench to bench of tific movements of the first performers. the amphitheatres, after ascending ob- We can form no adequate idea of the liquely to the uppermost row, descended attachment of the Romans to these exat the same angle of inclination to the hibitions ; it degenerated into a kind of lowest ; so as to divide the seats into the passion, and occupied their whole souls. shape of wedges,' having the points al. Augustus regarded it with complacency, ternately upwards and downwards, like and either from a real love for the art, or the letter W: see F. LI.

from policy, conferred honours and im62. Securus ' without misgivings.' munities on its professors. By an old MNS.

law, magistrates were allowed to inflict Sed tu præcipue curvis venure theatris ; corporal punishment on mimi and players; illic invenies, quod ames, quodque tenere pantomimi (such was the expressive name velis; Ov. A. &. i. 89 sqq. R.

given to these new performers) were ex63. Before the time of Augustus, the empted from this law; they were besides Romans were acquainted with no inter- allowed to aspire to honours from which medial amusements but mimes and farces the former were excluded. Such protecof the lowest and most desultory kind. tion produced its natural effects; insoBuffoons from Tuscany were the per- lence in the dancers, and parties among formers in these pieces, which were in- the people. Pylades excelled in tragic troduced between the acts of their tra- and Bathyllus in comic subjects ; hence gedies and comedies, and consisted of arose disputes on their respective merits, little more than coarse and licentious which were conducted with all the warmth ribaldry, and the most ridiculous and ex- of a political question. Augustus flattered travagant antics.

In this state the himself that he should re-establish transtage was found by Pylades and Bathyl- quillity by banishing the former ; but he

the latter of whom was a native of was mistaken; the people found they had Alexandria, and one of Mæcenas' slaves. lost one great source of amusement by He had seen Pylades dance in Cilicia, his absence, and their clamours occaand spoke of him in such terms to his sioned his immediate recall. The death master, that he sent for him to Rome. of Bathyllus, soon after this event, left Here these two men formed the plan of a Pylades without a rival. He did not new kind of spectacle, which pleased bear his faculties meekly; he frequently Mæcenas so much, that he gave Bathyl- insulted the spectators for not comprelus his freedom, and recommended both hending him, and they endeavoured in him and his friend Augustus. This their turn to make him feel the weight new spectacle was a play performed by of their resentment. He had a favourite action alone; it was exhibited on a mag- pupil named Hylas ; this youth they nificent theatre raised for the purpose, opposed to the veteran, who easily tri

lus;

Tuccia vesicæ non imperat; Appula gannit, 65 Sicut in amplexu. Subitum et Miserabile, Longum

tors.

umphed over his adversary, though he played the Swan or the Lady cannot could not humble him. We hear no now be told; but in a story so wantonly more of Pylades; but Hylas fell under framed, and in an age, where so little the displeasure of the emperor soon after, restraint was imposed on an actor, enough . and, if I rightly understand Suetonius, might be done in either, to interest and was, contrary to the statute in that inflame the coldest spectator. G. case made and

provided,” publicly As the successors of Pylades, in the whipped at the door of his own house. tragic ballet, were called by his name,

It appears from this that Augustus so the successors of Bathyllus, in the kept the superintendence of these people comic ballet, were honoured with the in his own hands. Tiberius left them to name of that eminent dancer. SA. In themselves, and the consequence of his like manner the name of Roscius has indifference was, that the theatres were been often applied to distinguished acfrequently made a scene of contention and blood, in which numbers of all 64. • The exhibition of these ballets is ranks perished. A variety of regulations, attended with danger even to the purest as we learn from Tacitus, were now minds. They would excite improper made to check the evil, which they only emotions even in the immaculate Vestal's served to exasperate ; and in conclusion breast, and will fill the head of the the emperor was obliged to shut up the innocent country girl with unchaste ideas.' theatres and banish the performers. In Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem, this state were things at the accession of quam quæ sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et Caligula. His first care was to undo que ipsa sibi tradit spectatrir; Hor. every thing that had been done. Under A. P. 180 sqq. this profligate madman, the ballets took Tuccia was a Vestal, who, when her a licentious turn, and hastened the character was impeached, cleared it by growing degeneracy of manners. Clau- the ordeal of drawing water in a sieve. dius left them as he found them; but V. Max. VIII. i. 5. Plin. xxvii. 2. 8. under Nero, the bloody disputes to which To this story there seems an oblique althey constantly gave birth, reluctantly lusion. cf.i. 39. xi. 161. LU. HN. R. compelled that prince to banish them · The modest Apulian brunette loses,

He was too fond of the fine for the time, all sense of decency.' LU. arts, however, to suffer so capital a pudica mulier, Subina qualis, aut perusta branch of them to languish in neglect, solibus pernicis uxor Appuli; Hor. Ep. ii. and therefore speedily brought back the 39 sq. cf. x. 298 sq. R. exiles. From this time the pantomimi Whines.' LU. Apul. Met. i. p. 119, seem to have flourished unmolested, until 8. principio tremulis gannitibus aera Paris, the Bathyllus of Domitian's reign, pulsat, ver baque lascivos meretricum imiraised the jealousy of that wretched tantia cætus vibrat; Auson. Ep. cviii. tyrant, who put him, and a young dancer 4 sqq. R. who resembled him, to death, and drove 65. Ampleru; Sil. xi. 399. R. the rest from Rome. They were recalled Subitum, Miserabile, Longum, accordthe instant the emperor was assassinated, ing to J. Pollux were the technical names and continued through the whole of of certain movements : LU. (cf. Pers. Nerva's and some part of his successor's i. 33 sqq. Anhelat verbisque sonat ploreign, but they were now become so rabile quiddam ultra nequitiam fractis ; vitiated by the shameful indulgence of Claud. Eutr. i. 259 sqq. R.) correspondCaligula and Nero, that, if we may be- ing perhaps to the terms presto, adagio, lieve Pliny, Trajan finally suppressed 8c. in modern music. them, at the unanimous desire of the Et is wanting before longum. The people.

omission of the conjunction is common The Chironomon here mentioned, was in Juvenal, and is sometimes awkward, a ballet of action founded on the well- as in 118. 604. viii. 27. adde et basknown amour of Leda, in which some caudas, et mille escaria, multum favourite dancer (probably Paris) was lati; xii. 16 sq. and particularly here. the principal performer. Whether he R.

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Attendit Thymele; Thymele tunc rustica discit.
Ast aliæ, quoties aulæa recondita cessant
Et vacuo clausoque sonant fora sola theatro

Atque a plebeiis longe Megalesia, tristes
70 Personam thyrsumque tenent et subligar Accî.

Urbicus exodio risum movet Atellanæ

movet

66. • Is all attention to.' PR. Marius Megalensibus fieri celebrarique voluerunt ? impigre prudenterque suorum et hustium qui sunt more institutisque murime casti, ves pariter attendere; Sall. B. J. 93. solemnes, religiosi: qui uni ludi ne verho

* The most adroit figurante on the quidem appellantur Lutino, ut vocabulo stage was once but a simple country ipso et appetita religio esterna, et Matris lass; but she like others caught the Magnæ (rñs porúans unspès) nomine infection, and to such a degree that she suscepta declaretur: servorum Megalesia how executes to admiration the gestures fuerunt ? Cic. Har. Resp. PR. cf: Ov. And attitudes which once astonished her F. iv. 179 sqq. 357. Liv. xxix. 14. weak mind.' saltantes Satyros imitabitur xxxiv. 54. R. During the above interval, Hlyhesibæus ; Virg. E. v. 73.

only the greater scenic games were susDiscit' becomes knowing,' LU. “takes pended. ACH. The Circensian Games in a lesson.' in theatris admonetur omnis honor of Ceres were

a patrician ætas, fieri posse quod factum est? esempla festival. cf. Ov. F. iv. 353. Gell. i. 24. tiunt, quae jam esse facinora destiterunt. xvii. 2. H. adulterium discitur dum videtur; et leno- Tristes' victims of ennui.' cinante ad vitia publica auctoritatis mulo, 70. “ The tragic mask' was the inquæ pudica fortasse ad spectaculum acces- vention of Æschylus. Hor. A. P. 278. serat, inde revertitur impudica.

PR, iii. 175. R. sensus, mulcet affectus, expugnat boni • The

spear wreathed with vine-leaves' pectoris conscientiam fortiorem; Cyprian was one of the insignia borne by the Ep. q. 2. Lact. i. 20. Tertull. de Spect. votaries of Bacchus ; to whom the drama 17. Sen. Ep. 17. Colum. pr. PR. R. was originally sacred. PR. Hor. A.P.

67. When the theatrical season was 277. R. over, ‘the curtains were packed away.' This ‘girdle' was

a pair of short By the curtains’ we may understand drawers (Tegíswce), which merely went * all the stage property.' LU. M. Ac- round the hips, and left the thighs bare. cording to Isidore hangings' were called FA. scenicorum mos tantum habet a aulaea (Hor. A. P. 154.) from being vetere disciplina verecundiam, ut in scenam first used in the hall of Attalus king of sine subligaculo prodeat neno; Cic. Off. Pergamus. PR. cf. Lucr. iv. 73. Virg. i. 35. . G. iii. 24 sq. Ov. M. iii. 111 sqq. R. Accius was the name of a tragic poet

68. Even then . Colebs in search of a and annalist, who flourished about A.U. wife' would have known where to have 600: but here it is probably some panlooked for one : et fora conveniunt tomimic actor who is meant. PR. R. (quis credere possit!) amori ; fiammaque

71. Urbicus is either the name or in arguto sæpe reperta foro: &c. Ov. A. appellation of some buffoon engaged per

haps to amuse the ladies at their private 69. From the 5th of April to the 15th theatricals during the recess. . cf. of November was an interval quite long Mart. I. xxxii. 11. R. enough to exercise the patience of the Erodium; iii. 174 sq. PE. Suet. Tib. ladies. G. Understand distant. LU. 45. PR. The name is perhaps derived

* The Plebeian games' were instituted from its immediately following the rigodos, either, eractis regibus, pro libertate plebis; which is the last part of a tragedy; Arist. aut pro reconciliatione plebis post secessionem Poet. VO. in Aventinum; Ascon. in Verr.ü. Dionys. • The Atellan Play' (cf. note on i. 3.) vii. fin. Plin. vii. 56. A. PR. R. had its name from Atella, a town of the

Brutus instituted the other games; Osci in Campania between Capua and quos in Palatio nostri -majores ante tem- Naples, now • Aversa.? It resembled plum, in ipso Matris Magnæ conspectu, the Satyric Drama of the Greeks. Ju

A. 79 sqq.

Gestibus Autonoes: hunc diligit Ælia pauper.
Solvitur his magno comodi fibula. Sunt, quæ

Chrysogonum cantare vetent. Hispulla tragedo 75 Gaudet. An exspectas, ut Quintilianus ametur?

Accipis uxorem, de qua citharædus Echion
Aut Glaphyrus fiat pater Ambrosiusque choraules.
Longa per angustos figamus pulpita vicos:

Ornentur postes et grandi janua lauro, 80 Ut testudineo tibi, Lentule, conopeo.

co

ventus histrionibus fabellarum actu relicto, Hispulla; xü. 11. LU. Her niece ipsa inter se more antiquo ridicula intexta married the younger Pliny; Ep. iv. 19. versibus jactitare cæpit ; qua inde ex odia 75. ' Quintilian' was a very virtuous as postea appellata consertaque fabellis potis- well as learned man, whom Juvenal alsimum. Atellanis sunt. quod genus ways mentions with respect. Some say ludorum ab Oscis acceptum tenuit juventus, that he took lessons of him in rhetoric nec ab histrionibus pollui passa est. see next satire. G. The name here instilutum manet, ut actores Atellanarum denotes 'a man of genuine worth and nec trihu moveantur, et stipendia tamquan talent.' LU. cf. 280. Postumus was expertes artis ludicræ faciant ; Liv. vii. 2. probably a man of genius. R. PR. It was somewhat of the same Exspectas ; 239. xiv. 25. Ov. A. A. nature as the modern burletta of Midas. iii. 749. R.

72. Autonoe was one of the unfortu- 76. De qua' by whom.' GR. Mart. nate daughters of Cadmus and Hermione, VI. xxxix. R. and the mother of Actæon. LU. This 77. The choral Aute-player.' LU. was probably a burlesque of some serious Glaphyrus was a celebrated performer ballet on the same subject; as there was on the fute in the Augustan age. Mart. little that was laughable in the tragic IV. v. Antip. Ep. 28 sq. in Brunck's history of Autonoe, G. any more than in An. t. ii. p. 116. R. See Mart. VI. the loves of Pyramus and Thisbe ; which xxxix. G. notwithstanding become laughter-stirring 78. * All these grand preparations are in the hands of Bottom and his company. made; and for what end? Why, that

Ælia was a lady sprung from a very thy chaste and exemplary wife may prepoor though respectable family. V. Max. sent thee with a fac-simile of some prizeIV. iv. 8. LU. PR. Liv. xxxii. 7. R. fighter.' The object of her affections not being a Made narrow by the crowds of specvocal performer did not wear a buckle, tators, LU. as well as by the scaffolding and therefore was to be obtained at a erected along them, (note on 52.) from cheaper rate. FE.

which poets recited epithalamia.' VL. 73." Il s'agit d'une opération pratiquée

79. * With the entire tree :' recto propar les anciens pour

ceras stipite laurus ; Cat. lxiv. 290. GR. la voix: elle s'appelloit infibulution, cf. xii. 91. R. son objet étoit d'empêcher ceur que l'on 80. · Under the canopy of a bedstead boucloit d'avoir commerce avec les femmes;” inlaid with tortoiseshell.'' xwwwTisoy is 'a Dusaulx. Tertullian, when he says that fine meshed (vii. 40.) net to keep off we ought' to mortify our lusts,' expresses gnats,' a musquito net.' Hor. Ep. ix. 16.

by the words fibulam carni imponere. G. cf. 89 and xi. 94 sq. VS. LU. M. Mart. cf. Cels. vii. 25. LU. Mart. VII. lxxxi. IX. lx. 9. XII. lxxvii. 5. XIV. lxxxvii. PR. v. 378. M.

Anthol. iv. 32. Plut. Ant. p. 927. Varr. With magno understand pretio. LU. R. R. II. x. 8. Prop. III. xi. 45. R.

By his more wealthy ladies are sig- Juvenal, when he gave his friend the nified, LU.

name of Lentulus, had in view the fol74. Chrysogonus was a singer, who lowing curious anecdote. The consuls lost his voice owing to his debaucheries. Lentulus and Metellus (A. U. 696) LU. vii. 176. cf. Ath, xii. 9. R. were observed by all the spectators at a

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