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Nobilis Euryalum mirmillonem exprimat infans.
Nupta Senatori comitata est Hippia Ludium
Ad Pharon et Nilum famosaque moenia Lagi,
Prodigia et mores Urbis damnante Canopo.
85 Immemor illa domus et conjugis atque sororis
Nil patriæ indulsit, plorantesque improba natos,
Utque magis stupeas, ludos Paridemque reliquit.
Sed quamquam in magnis opibus plumaque paterna
Et segmentatis dormisset parvula cunis,
90 Contemsit pelagus: famam contemserat olim,
Cujus apud molles minima est jactura cathedras.

play, to be extremely like a second and
third rate actor, then on the stage! V.
Max. IX. xiv. 4. The poet insinuates
with malicious archness, that Ursidius
could not complain that his son and
heir' was of less' noble' origin than him-
self. G. GR.

81. Mirmillo; ii. 143 sqq. PR. viii. 200. R.

Exprimat is a metaphor taken from
statuary. R.
He is the very image of

82. The senator' was Veiento; iv. 113. The gladiator,' Sergius. LU. iii. 185. M.

Hippia; x. 220. R. A similar story is told of Alcinoe and Xanthus; Par then. Erot. 27. HN. The elopement of Hippia could not have taken place much later than the middle of Domitian's reign, about which time this Satire was composed. Paris, who is mentioned v. 87, was put to death not long after; and the pantomimic performers (here spoken of as the minions of the ladies) were ignominiously driven from the city. G.

Ludius originally was limited to the signification of a stage-player:' but afterwards it became the proper appellation of a gladiator.' SA. cf. 104. Ludium is here a spondee by ovvínos, as in xi. 20. ef. iv. 37. R. and iii. 76.

83. Pharos was a small island in the bay of Alexandria on which stood the celebrated light-house built by Sostratus, and accounted one of the seven wonders of the world. LU. PR. R.

Either infamous' on account of the dissolute manners which prevailed there; as famosus Canopus; xv. 46. or famous,' R. as Jerusalem is called famosa urbs; Tac. H. v. 2.

Alexandria was made the seat of government when Egypt, after the dismemberment of the empire of Alexander the great, was erected into an independent kingdom by Ptolemy Lagus founder of the Macedonian dynasty. VS. LU. Sil. i. 196. R.

84. Prodigia (iv. 97.) et mores, ἓν διὰ dvory. R. cf. 285.

Even Canopus; i. 26. PR.

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86. She showed no regard.' PR. 87. What can mark more strongly the madness of Hippia in setting a higher value on the Circensian games than on every thing which she ought to hold most dear, and that of the Romans in being so devotedly fond of these amusements? iii. 223. x. 81. xi. 53. LU. PR. R.

Paris was a celebrated pantomimic actor, who continued a great favourite with Domitian, till the empress Domitia became enamoured of him; upon which, he was put to death. VS. vii. 87 sqq. Suet. 3. 10. D. Cass. Mart. XI. 14. There was another famous actor of the same name, whom Nero put to death. Suet. 54. Tac. An. xiii. 20. 22. 27. PR.

88. i. 159. Ov. M. vii. 62 sqq. R.

89. The cradle' was either (1) ' decorated with fringe.' VS. ii. 124. LU. R. Or (2) inlaid with tessellated wood,' or (3) veneered with tortoiseshell.' v. 80. PR. R.

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91. The loss of reputation never gives noble ladies the slightest concern.' T.

These soft chairs' are either those in which they usually sat, or those in which they were carried when they went out. T. LI. FA. i. 65. PR. ix. 52. M. Mart. 111. lxiii. 7. XII. xxxviii. 1.

Tyrrhenos igitur fluctus lateque sonantem Pertulit Ionium constanti pectore, quamvis Mutandum toties esset mare. Justa pericli 95 Si ratio est et honesta; timent pavidoque gelantur Pectore nec tremulis possunt insistere plantis : Fortem animum præstant rebus, quas turpiter audent. Si jubeat conjux, durum est conscendere navim; Tunc sentina gravis, tunc summus vertitur aer. 100 Quæ mœchum sequitur, stomacho valet. Illa maritum Convomit hæc inter nautas et prandet et errat Per puppem et duros gaudet tractare rudentes. Qua tamen exarsit forma, qua capta juventa est Hippia? Quid vidit, propter quod Ludia dici 105 Sustinuit? Nam Sergiolus jam radere guttur Coperat et secto requiem sperare lacerto. Præterea multa in facie deformia, sicut

92. The Tuscan or Lower Sea.' LU. 93. The Ionian Sea' lies between Sicily and Crete. LU. As sonantem is masculine, Ionium must agree with sinum, as Ionius udo remugiens sinus Noto, Hor. Ep. x. 19. or fluctum, BY. or pontum, as the Greeks call it d'Iovov viz. Tovrov. R. thus Egæus; Claud. Eutr. ii.

334. HK.

94. So often' viz. the Tuscan, the Ionian, the Ægaan. VS.

95. Timent gelanturque, they are frozen with fear.' R. "I could a tale unfold, whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul; freeze thy young blood; &c." Shaksp. Ham. I. iv. See note on i. 166.

97. viii. 165. M. cf. v. 284 sq. Plaut. M. Gl. II. v. 54 sqq. R.

98. How hard it is!' ironically. R. 99. The bilge-water is intolerable : the sky turns round and round;' i. e. she is sick and giddy.' LU.

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103. Her flame had neither beauty nor youth to recommend him.' LU. 104. What did she see in him?' Ludia the fencer's trull.' G. 105. Diminutives are used as terms of endearment: teneo te meum palumbulum, meum passerculum; Apul. FE.

Till A. U. 454. when P. Ticinius Mæna introduced barbers from Sicily,

the Romans wore their beards long, and hence are called intonsi, barbati, and capillati. iii. 186. iv. 103. v. 30. vi. 26. xvi. 29. Hor. I Od. xii. 41. II Od. xv. 11. Tib. II. i. 34. Varr. R. R. II. xi. 10. Plin. vii. 59. Tac. An. xiv. 15. Their chins after this were trimmed, either by shaving, or by clipping. Plaut. Capt. II. ii. 16. Young lads cherished their beards till the age of twenty-one, (Ov. A. A. i. 518 sqq. Mart. II. xxxvi. 3 sqq. August. de Civ. D. iv. 1.) when it was cut and consecrated to some deity. iii. 186. xiii. 58. Nondum barbatus denotes a boy;' 15 sq. barba denotes

youth;' 215. viii. 166. barbati and barbatuliyoung men or lads,' xiii. 56. 58. who only clipped their beard, i. 25. x. 226. till manhood, or the age of forty, at which they began to shave: and this was the time of life little Sergius' had arrived at. Scipio Africanus was the first who shaved daily afterwards depilatory applications were invented: ii. 107. Tac. An. xiv. 15. Gell. iii. 4. Plin. vii. 59. R. FE. LU.

106. From having been almost disabled by a cut in his arm, he was not without hopes of obtaining his discharge:' the sign of which was the being presented with a wooden sword. VS. LU. 107. For instance.' R.

Adtritus galea mediisque in naribus ingens Gibbus et acre malum semper stillantis ocelli. 110 Sed gladiator erat: facit hoc illos Hyacinthos; Hoc pueris patriæque, hoc prætulit illa sorori

Atque viro. Ferrum est, quod amant. Hic Sergius idem
Accepta rude cœpisset Veiento videri.

Quid privata domus, quid fecerit Hippia, curas? 115 Respice rivales Divorum; Claudius audi

Quæ tulerit. Dormire virum quum senserat uxor;
Ausa Palatino tegetem præferre cubili,

Sumere nocturnos meretrix Augusta cucullos, Linquebat comite ancilla non amplius una, 120 Sed nigrum flavo crinem abscondente galero.

108. Galled with his helmet.' M. viii. 203. R.

109. A wen' M. occasioned by frequent blows. LU.

"And sharp rheum trickled from his blood-shot eyes." G.

110. The only recommendation he had was the being a gladiator.'

All that is lovely.' Hyacinthus was beloved by Apollo, who accidentally killed him, and changed him into a flower of the same name. Ov. M. x. 162 sqq. PR. Thus Prometheus is used for cunning artificer;' iv. 133. R.

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112. 'Tis the steel they love.' Faustina the elder, wife of M. Antoninus Pius, Faustina the younger, wife of M. Aurelius Antoninus, Lucilla, the wife of L. Aurelius Verus, amongst others, degraded themselves by setting their affections on gladiators. GR. ACH.

113. vii. 171. R. Horace uses this metaphorically, spectatum satis, et donatum jam rude, quæris, Mœcenus, iterum antiquo me includere ludo; I Ep. i. 2 sq. PR.

114. Dost thou feel concerned?' PR. 'Private' persons were so called as distinguished from the magistrates; i. 16. and, under the imperial government, from the emperors; iv. 66. xii. 107. R.

115. The emperors themselves may be called rivals of the Gods:' or as the word 'rivals' generally denotes competitors in love,' (Ov. A. A. iii. 563. 593. &c.) it may signify those who intrigued with empresses,' the emperors themselves

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being called Divi because it was the practice to deify them after death. VS. FE.

116. His wife Messalina.' VS. x. 331 sqq. Suet. Cl. 26. 29. 36 sq. D. Cass. Ix. 14 sqq. Aur. Vict. Cæs. 4. R. Tac. An. xi. 12. 26. 30. FE. Plin. x. 63 s 83. PR.

117. To the imperial chamber in the palace.' FA. LU. cf. Mart. XIV. cxlvii. MNS.

'A coarse mattress.' VS. v. 8. R. 118. Et is omitted; see note on 65. The imperial harlot :' Augusta was the empress's title. M. Thus Cleopatra is called meretrix regina; Prop. III. xi. 39. Plin. ix. 35 s 58. R.

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A hood' or calash,' which she wore to conceal her face. LU. viii. 145. PR. iii. 170. MNS.

119. She left her sleeping husband.' 116. FLO.

'She took but one attendant, that she might not be suspected of being a lady of rank, and that her depraved conduct might be known but to one confidante.' SCH. Hor. II S. vii. 53. Suet. Ner. 26. Cal. 11. Oth. 12. PR.

120. "Her dark hair conceal'd Beneath a yellow tire:" not only as a more effectual disguise; but because courtezans at Rome, if nature had not favoured them with auburn tresses, wore false hair of a golden hue; since that was the favourite colour. (cf. Mart. V. lxviii.) fashion was borrowed from the Greeks: and the consequence was that matrons


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Intravit calidum veteri centone lupanar...
Et cellam vacuam atque suam. Tunc nuda papillis
Constitit auratis, titulum mentita Lyciscæ,
Ostenditque tuum, generose Britannice, ventrem.
125 Excepit blanda intrantes atque æra poposcit
Et resupina jacens multorum absorbuit ictus.
Mox, lenone suas jam dimittente puellas,
Tristis abît et, quod potuit, tamen ultima cellam
Clausit, adhuc ardens rigidæ tentigine vulvæ,
130 Et lassata viris nec dum satiata recessit

Obscurisque genis turpis fumoque lucernæ
Fœda lupanaris tulit ad pulvinar odorem.

were equally anxious to have dark hair: νῦν δ' ῤῥ ̓ ἀπ ̓ οἴκων τῶνδε, τὴν γυναῖκα γὰρ τὴν σώφρον οὐ δεῖ τὰς τριχὰς ξανθὰς ποιεῖν· Menand. fr. G. VS. ŠV. FE. galerus a wig; gausape, Pers. iv. 37. vi. 46. Femina canitiem Germanis inficit herbis, et melior vero quæritur arte color. Femina procedit densissima crinibus emtis, proque suis alios efficit are suos; Ov. A. A. iii. 163-166. cf. v. 115. xi. 164. R.

121. Warm from Lycisca's having but just left it;' FA. or which had nothing but the old patch-work quilt to keep it warm.' MNS.

The stews' at Rome were constructed in the form of a gallery, along which were ranged, on each side, a number of contiguous cells, or little chambers; G. like the arrangement in the wards at Greenwich Hospital or at Bedlam.

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122. Left vacant for her own use.' SG. cf. jurat capillos esse, quos emit, suos Fabulla, numquid, Paulle, pejerat ? nego. Mart. VI. xii.

Nuda; cf. xi. 170. R. ii. 71. or nuda papillis, as turpis genis; 131.

123. She took her station.' The simple verb is used; xi. 170. Claud. Eutr. i. 95. but prostare is more common; i. 47. iii. 65. ix. 24. R.

'Gilded:' Juvenal is to be understood literally. The papilla were covered with gold leaf, a species of ornament which is used by many of the dancinggirls and privileged courtezans of the East, to this day. G.

Over the door of each cell was written 'the name' and terms of the tenant; who I stood' at the entrance, soliciting the preference of the visitors. Messalina had


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probably engaged Lycisca' to give up
her apartment, as being one that was
much resorted to. G. FA. PR. VS. LU.
inscriptæ limina cella; Mart. XI. xlvi. 1.
Sen. Contr. i. 2. cf. viii. 168. R.

Lycisca is mentioned by Martial, IV.
xvii. 1. PR.

124. Matrona nostræ ne adulteris quidem plus sui in cubiculo, quam in publico ostendunt; Sen. de Ben. vii. 9 fin. sub clara nuda lucerna ; Hor. II S. vii. 48. R.

Cf. ii. 145. The womb that gave birth to a prince of the blood.' R. Britannicus was the acknowledged son of Claudius by Messalina. Tac. xiii. Unless we are to take the epithet ironically on account of his mother's infamous character. PR. LU.

125. To pass the better for what she pretended to be, LU. she' " Allured the passers by with many a wile, And ask'd her price, and took it with a smile." G.

126. And submitted to the embraces of many visitors.'

127. The man who kept the stews;' which were closed at midnight: LU. the ninth (Pers. i. 133.) hour was the time, at which they were opened. GR. cf. note

on i. 127.

128. "Yet what she could, she did." G. 129. Still burning with the excitement of violent lust.'

130." With strength exhausted, but unsated fires." G.

131." Cheeks rank with poisonous dews, The steam of lamps." G. nigra fornicis oblitus favilla; Sen. in Priap. R. This line may be another instance of iv dià dvoïv.

132. Redoles adhuc fuliginem fornicis ; Sen. Contr. i. 2 fin. R.

Joni law

Hippomanes carmenque loquar coctumque venenum
Privignoque datum? Faciunt graviora coactæ
135 Imperio sexus minimumque libidine peccant.

"Optima sed quare Cesennia teste marito?"
Bis quingenta dedit; tanti vocat ille pudicam,
Nec Veneris pharetris macer est aut lampade fervet :
Inde faces ardent; veniunt a dote sagittæ.

To her imperial consort's bed.' LU. 133. 'Iμavis signified three things, (1) An Arcadian herb, which drives horses mad if they taste it. Theocr. ii. 48 sq. (2) A lump of flesh on the forehead of a foal just born. See note on 616. Virg. A. iv. 516 sq. amoris veneficium; Plin. viii. 42 s 66. (3) A humour which runs from mares. Plin. xxviii. 11 s 80. lentum virus, quod sape mala legere noverca, miscueruntque herbas et non innovia verba ; Virg. G. iii. 280 sqq. Ον. A. A. I. viii. 8. Tib. II. iv. 53. Prop. IV. v. 18. Elian. de Anim. xiv. 18.

PR. R.

The magic spell.' Virg. E. viii. 64. to the end. LU.

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Mixed with food;' LU. or boiled down to increase its strength.' M. cf. Suet. Ner. 33. Liv. viii. 18. PR.

134. Sometimes out of incestuous love, (such as Phædra entertained for Hippolytus,) sometimes out of hatred: PR. or to remove him out of the way of their own children.' cf. 628. M. Virg. G. ii. 128. iii. 282 (quoted above;) Hor. III Od. xxiv. 17 sq. Ep. v. 9. Ov. Met. i. 147. (quoted in the note on i. 158.) Tac. An. xii. 2. Exlęà yàg ʼn 'iñoa μητρυιὰ τέκνοις τοῖς πρόσθ ̓ ἐχίδνης οὐδὲν Tiriga Eur. Alc. 320 sq. R.


135. By the ruling principles and passions of their sex ;' LU. or because the nature of their sex renders it imperative upon them so to act.'

'The least of their sins are those which arise out of lust.' R.

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136. How is it then (if all you say true) that, according to her husband's account, Cesennia is such an excellent woman?' R. Heiresses when they married, retained a considerable portion of their fortune, together with many slaves, at their own disposal. So that it was not mere gratitude in the husband which induced him to put up with his wife's usurpation of authority. The same was the

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case among the Greeks. Menelaus, my father," says Hermione," presented me with a considerable dowry, to the end that I might speak with freedom!" G. cf. 30. 457 sqq. Plaut. As. I. i. 74. Menæch. V. ii. 15 sqq. Aul. III. v. 60. ὦ δυστυχεῖς ἡμεῖς μὲν οἱ πεπρακότες τὴν τοῦ βίου παῤῥησίαν καὶ τὴν τρύφην, γυναιξὶ δοῦλοι ζῶμεν ἀντ ̓ ἐλευθέρων. ἔπειτ ̓ ἔχειν προῖκ', οὐχὶ τιμὴν πάσχομεν; πικράν γε καὶ μεστὴν γυναικεῖας χολῆς. ἡ τῶν γὰρ ἀνδρῶν ἔστι πρὸς κείνην μέλι. οἱ μέν γε συγγνώμην ἔχουσ ̓ ἀδικούμενοι· αὗται δ' ἀδικοῦσαι καὶ προσεγκαλοῦσ ̓ ἔτι ὧν οὐκ ἐχρῆν ἄρχουσιν, ὧν δ ̓ ἄρχειν ἐχρῆν ἀμελοῦσιν· ἐπιορκοῦσιν· οὐδὲ ἓν κακὸν ἔχουσι, καὶ κάμνειν λέγουσιν ἑκάστοτε· Alexis in Ath. xiii. 1. πένης, τὴν γυναῖκα πλουσίαν λαβὼν, xudioTavav, où yuvain' Anaxandr. in Stob. On the other hand, among the Scythians and Getæ, non regit virum dotata conjux; Hor. III Od. xxiv. 19. R. The high-spirited barbarians of the north could not brook the idea of being dependent on their wives, and therefore would not receive any dowry with them : apud Gothos non mulier viro, sed vir mulieri dotem assignat, ne conjux, ob magnitudinem dotis insolescens, aliquando ex plucida consorte proterva evadat, atque in maritum dominari contendat. G. cf. Arist. Eth. viii. 10.

137. See note on i. 92. PR. i. 106. . 117. M. x. 335. After the time of Augustus this constituted a senatorial fortune. cf. LI, on Tac. An. ii. 86. R.

'She gave him (i. e. brought with her) as her dowry.' M.

5 For no less a consideration.' 138. Of Cupid-altera tela arcus, altera tela faces. SCH.

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Not of Venus, but of Plutus.' G. Emaciated.' Virg. E. iii. 100 sq. PR. Hor. I Od. xiii. 8. Ep. xiv. 16. Ř.

139. Ferus Cupido semper ardentes acuens sagittas cote cruenta; Hor. II Od. viii. 14 sqq. Sil. v. 19. R.

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