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Perdere et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo?

Quis totidem erexit villas? quis fercula septem coursy. 95 Secreto cænavit avus? Nunc sportula primo

Limine parva sedet, turbæ rapienda togatæ.
Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit et trepidat, ne
Suppositus venias ac falso nomine poscas.

Agnitus accipies. Jubet a præcone vocari 100 Ipsos Trojugenas: nam vexant limen et ipsi

Nobiscum. “ Da Prætori, da deinde Tribuno!
Sed libertinus prior est.” “ Prior" inquit “ ego adsum.
Cur timeam dubitemve locum defendere, quamvis

understood; sestertia occurs only in emphatically; cf. v. 100. Prop. IV. i. poets. F.

56. Virg. Æ. i. 282. but more probably 93. Scis comitem horridulum trita do- is used contemptuously, as the toga was nare lucerna; Pers. i. 54. PR. shiver- no longer worn by respectable persons. ing with cold,' as in Ov. A. A. ii. 213. See note on v. 3. ii. 70. iii. 127. vi. 136. Reddere for dare. R.

142. viii. 49. Hor. I S. ii. 63. 82. 94. Cf. xiv. 86 sqq. R.

Mart. II. lvii. 5. &c. R. Patinas cænabat omasi ; Hor. I Ep. 97. See note on r. 62. The meanness xv. 34. In atrio, et duobus ferculis, epu- of the patron is strongly marked by his labantur antiqui; Cato. Ferculum, ac- superintending the distribution ‘in person. cording to Nonius, was 'a course. vii. 99. Agnoscere 'to recognize' is said of 184. xi. 64. R.

one known before; cognoscere to become 95. Fuit illu simplicitas antiquorum in acquainted with,' of a stranger. R. cibo capiendo, ut murimis viris prandere et * The crier' was properly called nocænare in propatulo verecundice non esset : menclator ; it was his office to announce nec sane ullas epulas habebant, quas populi the names of morning visitors, arrange oculis subjicere erubescerent; Val. Max. them in order of precedence, &c. PL. II. v. 5. PR.

100. • The patricians of the greater Quisavus 'who of our ancestors ? LU. clans,' VS. who claimed descent from

The old republicans used to admit to Æneas and the Trojans : cf. viii. 41 sqq. supper the clients, who attended them 181. xi. 95. so Trožades; Pers. i. 4. R. from the forum. Under the emperors Limen terere ; Mart. X. X. 2. ' to wear.' this laudable custom was abolished, and R. furesque feræque sueta hunc vesare a little basket of meat given to each of locum; Hor. I S. vüi. 17. M. 'to them to carry home. Nero ordered a pester.' small sum of money to be distributed 101. With us poor folk.' cf. iii. 128 instead of meat, and Domitian brought 899. R. Mart. X. x. 1 sqq. PR. back the former practice: Suet. Ner. 16. Da 8c. These are either the orders of Dom. 4.7. Perhaps it was subsequently the patron to his steward, or the imporleft optional, for here we find that money tunities of the needy patricians. PR. R. was again distributed. The sum was a Prætor dictus quod exercitui præeat: hundred quadrantes, about 15d. sterling. est et magistratus juredicundo præpositus ; G. v.120.2.127 sqq.249 sqq. Mart. I. lxi. Varro. The tribune' might be either III. vii. xiv. 3. VIII. 1. 10. X. xxvii.3. military' or 'plebeian.' PR. Of the Ixxv. 11. A. T. PR. R.

latter, there were originally two,afterwards 96. Vestibulum unte ipsum primoque in ten. The prætor urbanus was a magislimine ; Virg. Æ. ii. 469. vi. 427. R. trate nearly answering to the Lord

Sedet ; ii. 120. R. xsūtas, see note 18 Mayor' of London. M. on Herod. vii. 198.

102. *First come, first served.' G. The dole's being snatched' or 'scram- Liberlini are enfranchised slaves, M. and bled for denotes their half-starved con- the same as liberti; they are called liberti dition. Togatæ may mean “Roman' when the patron's name is added. R.

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Natus ad Euphraten, molles quod in aure fenestræ 105 Arguerint, licet ipse negem ? Sed quinque tabernæ

Quadringenta parant. Quid confert purpura major
Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro
Conductas Corvinus oves? Ego possideo plus
Pallante et Licinis." Exspectent ergo

tribuni; 110 Vincant divitiæ : sacro nec cedat honori,

Nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis ; muhurt,
Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima Divitiarum
Majestas: etsi funesta Pecunia templo

Nondum habitas, nullas nummorum ereximus aras, 115 Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus, Quæque salutato crepitat Concordia nido.

2. klooks niet 104. An immense number of slaves Suet. Claud. 28. Tac. An. xii. 53. xiv. came from Armenia, Cappadocia, Meso- 65. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 10. Plin. Ep. potamia, and the countries through which vii. 29. viii. 6. He was put to death by the Euphrates flowed. PR.

Nero for his wealth. VS. R. Among the Orientals, even men used Licinius, a German, was a freedman to wear ear-rings for ornament. Plin. xi. of Augustus; he was likewise very

rich : 37. incedunt cum unnulatis auribus; xiv. 306. but there were also wealthy Plaut. Pæn. 14. PR. The boring of families of the Licinian clan, viz. the the ear was, among many eastern na- Calvi Stolones; Liv. vii. 16. and the tions, a sign of servitude; see Exodus, Crassi Divites. PR. R. Pers. ii. 36. VS. xxi. 6. This expression may be put by GRÆ. G. hypallage for fenestræ in aure molli, 110. Virtus post nummos; Hor. I Ep.i. according to the proverb auricula mollior; 54. GR. omnis enim res, virtus, fama, Cic. ad Q. Fr. ii. 15. or from being a decus, divina humanaque, pulchris divitiis sign of softness in the wearer. GR. Ř. parent ; quas qui contraxerit, ille clarus

105. ' I have five shops in the Forum erit, fortis, justus. Sapiensne? Etiam : which are let for as much as a knight's et rex, et quicquid volet; Id. II S. iii. 94. estate.' VS. Tiberio imperante consti- Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga tutum ne quis in equestri ordine conseretur, est; Id. v. 8. PR. nisi cui ingenuo ipsi, patri, avoque paterno

The tribunes were sacrosancti inviosestertia quadringenta census fuisset; Plin. lable;' Liv. ii. 33, iï. 19. 55. Dionys. xxxii. 2. PR. xiv. 323 sqq. R. vi. 89. vii. 17. If any one injured them

106. The greater purple’ may be by word or deed, he was held accursed, either the consulship,' as toga major; and his goods were confiscated. AD. R. Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 656. or the 111. Vilissimum est cretæ genus, qua broad-bordered tunic of the senator, as pedes venalium trans mare advectorum depurpura latior and latus clavus; Plin. notare majores instituerant; Plin. H. N. Ep. ii. 9. major cl.; Stat. Silv. III. ï. xxxv. 17. Regnum ipse tenet, quem sæpe 124. felix p.; Mart. VIII. viii. 4. and on coegit barbara gypsatos ferre catasta pedes; the other hand pauper and angustuscl. de- Tib. II. üži, 59. Pers. vi. 78. cf. v. 53. note the equestrian order; Stat. Silv.V.ï. vii. 16. 120. Suet. Aug. 69. This white 18. Vell. č. 88. But under the Cæsars mark was the signature either of the slavethis distinction was less rigidly observed. merchant, or of the proprietor, or of the cf. Suet. Aug. 38. Ner. 26. Dom. 10. republic. BRO. SA.'PŘ. R. Blin. xxxi. 1. R. Id. ix. 36 sqq. PR. 113. Pecunia, the cause of many a

108. Corvinus, descended from the death,' was deified; and universally Valerian clan. cf. viii. 5. R.

worshipped; though enshrined only 109. Pallas, an Arcadian, was a freed- in the hearts of her votaries. VS. T. PR. man of Claudius and immensely rich. 116. At the temple of Concord was

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summus honor finito computet anno,
Sportula quid referat, quantum rationibus addat;

Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est 120 Et panis fumusque domi ? Densissima centum

Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque maritum
Languida vel prægnans et circumducitur uxor.
Hic petit absenti, nota jam callidus arte,

Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam.
125 “ Galla mea est” inquit: “ Citius dimitte. Moraris?"
“ Profer Galla caput.

“ Noli vexare, quiescit.” Ipse dies pulcro distinguitur ordine rerum : Sportula, deinde forum jurisque peritus Apollo

Atque triumphales, inter quas ausus habere 130 Nescio quis titulos Ægyptius atque Arabarches,

heard the chattering of the stork which est ; IV. viii. PR.
had built its nest there, as often as it 128. The clients attended their patron
flew home with food for its young. VS. to 'the forum' of Augustus, in which
ipsa sibi plaudat crepitante cicunia rostro; there was an ivory statue of Apollo
Ov. Met. vi. 97. T. FA.

(Plin. xxxvi. 5. vii. 53. Hor. I S. ix. 117. Men of the highest rank calcu- 78.); who is called juris perilus from the late on these doles as no inconsiderable number of pleadings, at which he must portion of their annual income.' See have been present. Hence also we have note on 101. LU.

Marsyan caussidicum; Mart. 11. lxiv. 8. 119. See 46. Mart. III. xxx. R. Hor. I S. vi. 119.

In the same spot *These poor dependents had looked to Augustus had erected the triumphal this as a means of paying their tailor's, statues' of the greatest generals; Suet. shoemaker's, baker's, and coalmerchant's Aug. 29. VS. 31. BŘI. GR. PR. bills.'

R. 120. Mart. XIII. xy. JII. xxx. 3. R. 130. ' An effigy with an inscription on 121. 'A crowd of litters brings pe- the pedestal :' claraque dispositis acta titioners.' PR. See 95, R.

subesse viris; Ov. GR. 124. See 65. PR.

Arabarches. There is much uncer125. Galla is supposed to be the wife's tainty here both as to the text, and as to name. M.

the person intended. He may be either With inquit understand maritus. PR. (1) Crispinus (v. 26.), who was created

126. “Put out your head,' says the Prince of Arabia by Domitian, Schol. dispenser, (because this was a stale MS.

He might also be called the trick' nota ars). · Don't disturb her;' Arch-Arabian, sarcastically, as worst of says the husband; “I dare say, she is all the Arab slaves. LU. or (2) Tib. asleep.' LU. Or the whole line may be Alexander, who was governor of Egypt, assigned to the husband only.

brother or nephew of Philo Judæus, 127. The ordinary routine of the day's procurator of Judæa, and a Roman employment is made much the same by knight. Tac. H. i. 11. ii. 79. Eus. ii. Martial; prima salutantes atque altera GY. AL. FA. HO. G. or (3) Josephus, continet hora. Exercet raucos tertia to whom Vespasian granted a triumphal causidicos. In quintam varios extendit statue. Hieronym. FL. PA. Then with Roma labores : serta quies lassis, septima regard to the word itself, it is doubted finis erit. Sufficit in nonam nitidis octava whether it should be Arabarches or palæstris: imperat exstructos frangere Alabarches; see F. and R's er

Hora libellorum decima

non toros.


Cujus ad effigiem non tantum meiere fas est.
Vestibulis abeunt veteres lassique clientes
Votaque deponunt, quamquam longissima cænæ

Spes homini. Caules miseris atque ignis emendus. 135 Optima silvarum interea pelagique vorabit

Rex horum vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit.
Nam de tot pulcris et latis orbibus et tam


131. Pers. i. 114. PR. It is allow- • while there is life there is hope.' able to commit any nuisance. vi. 309. Hence it was that to Hadrian's question BRI. R.

• What is the longest thing ? Epictetus 132. See 95 sq. Veteres is in aggra- answered ‘Hope.' R. vation of the neglect. R.

The two

134. · With their paltry dole they have classes of patron and client compre- to buy a bunch of greens and a little hended nearly all the citizens of Rome. firewood on their way home; and then A patron was a man of rank and fortune, they must wait till the vegetables are under whose care the meaner people boiled, before they can appease their voluntarily put themselves, and, in con- hunger.' sequence of it, were denominated his

136. Badinsis, Lucian repeatedly; clients. The patron assisted his client derrótas, Id. Nigr. Rer; v. 14. 137. with his influence and advice, and the viii. 161. Hor. I Ep. xvii. 43. Mart. client, in return, gave his vote to his III. vii. 5. V. xxi. 14. dominus; v. patron, when he sought any office for 81. 92. 147. R. Seneca somewhere himself or friends. The client owed his that good cheer, without a friend to patron respect, the patron owed his client partake of it, is the entertainment of a protection. The early Romans threw a wild beast: and Alexis abuses a man for sanctity around this obligation on the being μονοφάγος. G. patron's part. It was expressly enforced Ipse, as avros. cf. Aristoph. Th. 472. by a law of the Twelve Tables: patronus 541. si clienti fraudem fecerit, sucer esto, At their meals, the men used to recline Virgil, many ages after, places the un- on sofas, and the ladies sat in chairs. just patron in Tartarus, among the vio- BO. cf. note on ii. 120. R. lators of natural and moral decorum : 137. See 75. Orbis denotes the hic quibus invisi fratres, pulsatusve parens, slab of a round table ;' xi. 122. 173. of. et fraus innera clienti; Æ. vi. 608. iv. 132. Mart. II. xlii. 9 sq. IX. lx. This state of mutual dependence, which 7 899. Their tables were originally commenced with the monarchy, was pro- square; v. 2. Varr. iv. 25. R. It was ductive of the happiest effects; till, as the ancient fashion to place before the riches and pride increased, new duties guests tables with the viands, and not to were imposed on the clients : they were change the dishes on the table. They had harassed with constant attendance, and two tables, one with the meat, &c. the mortified by neglect; in a word, they other with the dessert. When they had were little better than slaves. G.

eaten as much meat as they wished, the 133. Deponere is opposed to suscipere. table itself was withdrawn, and the GR.

second course or dessert was placed beLongissima' retained to the very last fore them on a fresh table. The square or cherished all day long. Lucian tables went out of fashion with the tri(regi tão ivi pero ouvóvrwv) says of clinia. The new-fashioned couch was of clients, di

' ndoviñs iarida foron rodades a semicircular form, called sigma, from αηδίας υπομένειν and πίτρακται αυτούς its shape C; and it held seven or eight oudly in ė Tayti rãn Big Tiga tñs persons ; Mart. X. xlvii. 5 sq. XlV. iaridos, $. 7 and 8. cf: vi. 166. Ixxxvii. to suit these, round tables were Unless the words should be tran sed introduced. As luxury advanced the thus votaque deponunt cæne; longissima number of tables was increased (somequanquam spes homini, according to the times they had a fresh table with every old adage, ægroto dum anima est spes est, course); and the guests either remained

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Antiquis una comedunt patrimonia mensa.

Nullus jam parasitus erit! Sed quis ferat istas 140 Luxuriæ sordes ? Quanta est gula, quæ sibi totos taind Ponit apros, animal propter convivia natum!

Pæna tamen præsens, quum tu deponis amictus
Turgidus et crudum pavonem in balnea portas.

Hinc subitæ mortes atque intestata senectus.
145 It nova nec tristis per cunctas fabula cænas :

Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis.

Nil erit ulterius, quod nostris moribus addat
Posteritas : eadem cupient facientque minores.

in the same place while the tables were 141. Suillum pecus donatum ab natura
changed, or else removed to the fresh dicunt ad epulandum; Varr. R. R. II.
tables; which latter Martial calls ambu- iv. 10. PR. A certain philosopher con-
luns cæna; VII. xlvii. Both the number jectured that is was the same as ;, ;
and size of these tables is here noticed. εις θύσιν και σφαγήν μόνον επιτήδειον Clem.
The diameter of the table, which consisted Al. Stroin.ii. * For a banquet, not for
of a single slab, would depend on the size a solitary meal.' R.
of the citron tree. And the beauty of Natis in usum lætitiæ scyphis pug-
the wood consisted in the number of its nure ; Hor. I Od. xxvii. 1. . Oves,
knots and veins. Whence Petronius placidum pecus, inque tuendos natum ho-
says citrearum mensarum Africa emtarum mines; Ov. M. xv. 116 sq. M. boves,
maculas mutari auro viliori, et censum itu animal natum tolerare labores; Id. 120 sq.
turbari. Their antiquity too is not over- 142. Culpam pæna premit comes ; Hor.
looked: they had been famous in the IV Od.v.24. GR. III Od. ii. 31 sq. R.
family for several generations. And yet hinc (ex ebrietate) pallor et genæ pendula,
amidst all this profusion, one single course

oculorum ulcera, tremulæ manus effuncost a fortune! There seems an allusion dentes plena vasa ; et quam sit pæna to the gluttony of Clodius Æsopus, the presens, furiales somni et inquies rocactor, and his son. Plin. ix. 35. x. 51. turna ostendunt; Plin. xiv. 22. BRI. Hor. II S. iii. 239 sqq. HN. Plut. Luc. Primus Q. Hortensius augurali cæna p. 318 sq. Anton. V. p. 149. Suet. Cal. dicitur pavones posuisse. Quorum pretiu 37. Vit. 13. R. . LI. AD.

statim extulerunt multi, ita ut ova eorum 139. • The parasite' (Tapes citov) paid denariis venirent quinis, ipsi facile quinfor his dinner by Aattery of his host. PR. quagenis; Macr. Sat. ïïi. 13. PR. The Terence has given a masterly portrait of Aesh of this bird is very indigestible. such a character in his Gnatho. M.

Aug. de Civ. D. xxi. 4. AS. One consolation is, that the breed of 143. Pers. ii. 98 sqq. PR. crudi trparasites will become extinct! and yet it midique lavemur; Hor. 1 Ep. vi. 61. may be questioned whether even a para- M. site could sit still and see such a disgust- 145. Avarus, nisi cum moritur, non recte ing exhibition of selfish gluttony.'

facit. GRÆ. 140. O quanta est gula, centies comesse! 146. Tristia funera ducunt; Virg. Mart. V. lxx. 5. memorabile magni gut- G. iv. 256. Pers. 105 sq. cf. Eund. vi. turis exemplum; ii. 113. R. P. Ser- 33 sq. LU. The friends are annoyed, vilius Rullus was the first who had a both at the selfishness of the deceased, wild boar dressed whole. Plin. viii. 51. and at their having no legacies from him. PR. cf. v. 116. Suet. Tib. 34. Mart. M. VII. lix. It was often the top dish. 147. See 87. R. Antony had eight served up; Plut. 148. Minores, understand natu, M. Caranus had one to each guest ; Ath. ii. 146. viii. 234. opposed to veteres; xiv. iv. 1. R.

189. to majores; Ov. Tr. IV. x. 55. R.


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