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370 Inguina traduntur medicis, jam pectine nigro.
Ergo spectatos ac jussos crescere primum
Testiculos, postquam cœperunt esse bilibres,
Tonsoris damno tantum rapit Heliodorus.
Conspicuus longe cunctisque notabilis intrat
375 Balnea, nec dubie custodem vitis et horti

Provocat, a domina factus spado. Dormiat ille
Cum domina: sed tu jam durum, Postume, jamque
Tondendum eunucho Bromium committere noli.
Si gaudet cantu; nullius fibula durat

380 Vocem vendentis prætoribus: organa semper
In manibus: densi radiant testudine tota
Sardonyches: crispo numerantur pectine chordæ,

of eunuchs, and was followed in this by other emperors. Suet. Dom. 7. Mart. VI. ii. IX. vii. ix. Stat. III S. iv. 5380. IV S. iii. 13 sqq. Xiph. lxvii. 2. Philost. V. Ap. vi. 17. Phot. Bibl. p. 509? Amm. Marc. xviii. 4 sq. R.

370. Complete adults, in glowing youth, (325. R.) with every sign of manhood.' M.


Medicis to the surgeons who are to perform the operation.' LU. 371 sqq. When every part's to full perfection rear'd, And nought of manhood wanting, but the beard." G. Therefore the barber is the only (i. 136. VA.) loser: LU. as the shoemaker was the only sufferer by the Socratic philosophers going barefoot; Arist N. 104. HN.

373. Heliodorus is 'the surgeon.' VS. Paul. Ægin. iv. 49. R.

374. Ingens semivir; 512 sq. grandes Galli; Pers. v. 186. R.

375. The baths were the scene of much wickedness. ix. 35. xi. 156. Mart. I. xcvii. 11 sqq. R.

He challenges, without hesitation, Priapus himself. ii. 95. PR. `Antip. Ep. iv. in Br. An. t. ii. p. 7. Tib. I. v. 27. HY.

Cat. xix. 15. Diodor. iv. 6. R. 376. Domina; 30. R.

378. Bromius, a favourite youth of Ursidius, named perhaps after Bacchus from his beauty. LU. The origin of the epithet may be found in Ov.M. iii.288 sqq. Committere noli do not allow this lad to enter the lists with the eunuch.' See note on i. 163. R. In what way, or why, neither does Juvenal say nor are the

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commentators agreed; therefore it is needless to enquire.

379. Uxor is understood. LU.

No singer, but what she completely tires out by her unconscionable demands upon his vocal powers.' There is here a double periphrasis: (1) vocem vendentis prætoribus for cantoris; (as sua funera celsi Praetoris vendere ludis, viii. 192. 194. means 'to become gladiators;' R.) because the Prætor, who exhibited the games, hired the performers and (2) fibula (73. PR.) cantoris for cantor. BRI. LU. The object of infibulation was frustrated by their singing in private till they were hoarse, to please the ladies. M.


380. Musical instruments.' LU.

381. On the invention of the lyre by Mercury, see Hor. I Od. x. 6. III Oď. xi. 3. R. Of Phoebus it is said, instructam fidem gemmis et dentibus Indis sustinet a læva; tenuit manus altera plectrum; Ov. M. ii. 167. M. Some understand the sparkling of the jewels in the rings of the fair amateur.' LU.

382.The sardonyx ;' Pers. i. 16. PR. cf. xiii. 138 sq. R. a gem of the colour of the human nail. M.

Crispo is to be taken transitively, I causing vibrations.' VS. It is more commonly neuter, as linguæ bisulcæ jactum crispum; Pacuv. in Nonn. crispum movere latus; Virg. Cop. 2. Æ. i. 313. R.

The quill' was made of ivory. VS. obloquitur numeris septem discrimina vocum, jamque eadem digitis, jam pec

Quo tener Hedymeles operas dedit: hunc tenet, hoc se
Solatur gratoque indulget basia plectro.

385 Quædam de numero Lamiarum ac nominis alti
Cum farre et vino Janum Vestamque rogabat,
An Capitolinam deberet Pollio quercum
Sperare et fidibus promittere. Quid faceret plus
Ægrotante viro? medicis quid tristibus erga
390 Filiolum? Stetit ante aram, nec turpe putavit
Pro cithara velare caput; dictataque verba
Pertulit, ut mos est, et aperta palluit agna.

tine pulsat eburno; Virg. Æ. vi. 646 sq. 86. Mart. IV. i. 6. VIII. lxxxii. 7. IX. M.

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384. She consoles herself in his absence' or, perhaps, when he is no more.' SCH. cava solans agrum testudine amorem; Virg. G. iv. 464.

'Dear' for its former owner's sake. SCH.

385.The Lamian family' was mentioned, iv. 154. LU.

'High' i. e. 'noble ;' viii. 40. 131. R. Ov. F. iv. 305. H. cf. 607.

386. "With the usual offerings, meal and wine." G. ix. 122. PR. note on οὐλαί· Her. i. 160.

Janus and Vesta were very ancient Roman deities. LU. quum in omnibus rebus vim habeant maximam prima et extrema, principem in sacrificando Janum esse voluerunt: .... Vesta vis ad aras et focos pertinet; itaque in ea dea, quæ est rerum custos intimarum, omnis et precatio et sacrificatio extrema est; Cic. N. D. ii. 67. cf. Dion. H. ii. PR. As to Janus cf. 393. Ov. F. i. 172 sqq. Macr. S. i. 9. and on Vesta, Paus. v. 14. R. Call. H. in Cer. 129. SP.

387. The Capitoline oak' i.e. the crown awarded to the victorious competitor for the musical prize in the Capitoline games. This festival was celebrated every fifth year, in honour of Jove, and was instituted by Domitian. VS. LU. Tarpeias quercus; Mart. IV. liv. 1 sq. JS. Suet. 4. and Schol. Gell. v. 5. Plin. xvi. 4. PR. There were also prizes for horse-racing and gymnastics: cf. vii.

iv. 8. xli. i. R.

Pollio was an eminent musician: M. vii. 179. Mart. IV. lxi. 9. R.

389. Tristibus not only means ' if the doctors shook their heads and gave over their patient;' M. but also that the physicians would show more feeling than the unnatural mother.' R.


390. This description of the mode of consulting the aruspex (ii. 121.) is very minute and accurate. Pliny says that the stated forms of prayer were observed with the most scrupulous exactness, and that a monitor (probably a minor priest) stood by the suppliant to prevent the slightest aberration. xxviii. 2. V. Max. i. 1. Tertullian finely contrasts the practices of the Christians with those of their pagan adversaries illuc suspicientes Christiani, manibus expansis, quia innocuis; capite nudo, quia non erubescimus; denique sine monitore, quia de pectore oramus! It was the custom first to touch the altar, Sil. iii. 82. standing before it with the head veiled, to prevent interruption from any ill omen. Mart. XII. lxxvii. 1 sq. Virg. Æ. iii. 405 sqq. Plut. Q. R. 2. 10. 13. Macr. S. i. 8. iii. 6. then, to wheel round to the right in a circle, and also to fall down and perform adoration by kissing the hand. Suet. Vit. 2. PR. G. R.


391. A harp' for a harper.' LU. 392. Went through;' peregit; v. 122. R. or put up., V.S. Plin. xviii. 4. GRO.

"And trembled, and turn'd pale, as he explored The entrails, breathless for the fatal word." G. cf. Plin. xxviii. 2. Liv. Cic. Div. i. 16. ii. 29. 32. PR. pecudum reclusis pectoribus inhians, spirantia consulit exta; Virg. Æ. iv. 63 sq. R.

Dic mihi nunc, quæso, dic, antiquissime Divum,
Respondes his, Jane pater? Magna otia coli:
395 Non est, ut video, non est, quod agatur apud vos.
Hæc de comodis te consulit; illa tragœdum

Commendare volet : varicosus fiet haruspex. dropsal
Sed cantet potius, quam totam pervolet urbem
Audax et cœtus possit quam ferre virorum
400 Cumque paludatis ducibus præsente marito
Ipsa loqui recta facie strictisque mamillis.
Hæc eadem novit, quid toto fiat in orbe;

Quid Seres, quid Thraces agant: secreta noverca
Et pueri quis amet, quis diripiatur adulter.
405 Dicet, quis viduam prægnantem fecerit et quo
Mense, quibus verbis concumbat quæque, modis quot.

393. Here the poet indignantly apostrophizes the god. VS. cf. ii. 126-132.


394. Father' was a title of reverence used towards deities in general, but to Janus in particular. BR. Macr. S. i. 9. PR. HY, Exc. V. on Virg. Æ. vii. cf. xiii. 81. Virg. Æ.i. 155. V. Flacc. i. 11.

Petron. 41. R.

There must be many idle hours in heaven.' Juvenal here, as elsewhere, ridicules the popular mythology; DO. and, at the same time, the Epicurean notion of the quiescent leisure of the gods: Lucr. vi. 57. Hor. I S. v. 101 sqq. Sen. Ben. iv. 4. D. Laert. x. 77. but insinuates that they had better not meddle at all with human affairs, than concern themselves about such indecent follies as were now referred to them. R.

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397. The soothsayer will find his legs swell, from being kept standing so constantly. Varicosus denotes having the veins swollen.' Hippocr. Aph. vi. 21. DO. Pers. v. 189. PR. Plaut. Epid. V. ii. 5. GRO. Cels. vii. 8. 17. 31. Paul. Æg. vi. 82. Avicenn. often. Cicero, (Quint. XI. iii. 143. Macr. S. ii. 5. Sidon. Ep. v. 5.) Marius, (Cic. T. Q. ii. 15. Plut. V. Mar. pr. Plin. xi. 45 s 104.) and many others suffered from this cause. R. Ov. A. A. iii. 304. H.

398. She had better be musical, than be addicted to gadding and gossiping.' PR.

399. "Oh these Encounterers! so glib of tongue, They give a coasting


welcome ere it comes; And wide unclasp
the tables of their thoughts To every
ticklish reader: set them down For slut-
tish spoils of opportunity And daughters
of the game;" Shaksp. Tro. and Cress.
IV. v. G.

400. With generals in full uniform.'
M. The paludamentum was the military
robe of commanders when they went to
put themselves at the head of their troops.

401. Looking them right in the face,' i.e. boldly ;' x. 189. BY, on Hor. I Od. iii. 18. R.

Strictis exposed from the dress being tightly laced round the body.' BRI. Lucian. Am. 41. Mart. XIV. lxvi. cxxxiv. 1. Cat. lxiv. 65, R. Ov. A. A. iii. 274. H.

402. Id quod in aurem rex reginæ dixerit; sciunt, quod Juno fabulata cum Jove; quae neque futura neque facta sunt, tamen sciunt; Plaut. Trin. I. ii. 168 sqq. CAN. Theoph. Ch. 8. Theocr. XV. 64. Mart. IX. xxxvi. R.

403. Seres. Ammian. xxiii. fin. PR. See note on ii. 66.

Thraces the people of Romania.'


'The clandestine amours.' PR.
404. Her young step-son.' LU.

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What gallant is in high request, so as to be the bone of contention among the ladies.' Mart. VII. lxxv. 1. Sen. Br. V. 7. de Ira, iii. 23. RB. GRÆ. Stat. Th. v. 722. V. S. iii. 129. R.

406. Juvenal seems to have had

Instantem regi Armenio Parthoque cometen
Prima videt; famam rumoresque illa recentes
Excipit ad portas: quosdam facit. Isse Niphatem
410 In populos magnoque illic cuncta arva teneri
Diluvio, nutare urbes, subsidere terras,

Quocumque in trivio, cuicumque est obvia, narrat.
Nec tamen id vitium magis intolerabile, quam quod
Vicinos humiles rapere et concidere loris

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Rumpuntur somni; "Fustes huc ocius" inquit
"Afferte!" atque illis dominum jubet ante feriri,

before his eyes, Ov. Am. II. viii. 27 sq.

Whether she talks Latin or Greek.' 191. GRÆ. 195. PR.

407. Mutantem regna cometen; Luc. i. 529 &c. LU. magnum terris adstare cometem; Id. VS. cometas, Græci vocant, nostra crinitas; horrentes crine sanguineo et comarum modo in vertice hispidas; &c. Plin. ii. 25 sq. stella crinita, quæ summis potestatibus exitium portendere vulgo putatur, &c. Suet. Ner. 36. Cl. 46. Cic. N. D. ii. 5 s. 14. Sen. N. Q. vii. Plut. de Pl. Phil. iii. 2. PR. Tac. A. xiv. 22. xv. 47. Virg. G. i. 488. V. Flac. v. 367. 370 sq. R. Sil. viii. 638. Armenia, the kingdom of Tigranes the ally of Mithridates, and Parthia, Pers. v. 4. were countries in the vicinity of Mount Taurus. PR.

Trajan undertook an expedition against the Parthians and Armenians; and, about the same time, an earthquake occurred at Antioch and the vicinity, in which mountains subsided and rivers burst out. D. Cass. lxviii. 24 sqq. Xiph. lxviii. 17-23. LI. LU. But if this satire was written before Trajan's reign, we should rather understand our author to be speaking of what occurred in Vespasian's reign ne in metu quidem ac periculo mortis extremo abstinuit jocis: nam quum inter prodigia cetera mausoleum Cæsarum derepente patuisset et stella in cœlo crinita apparuisset; alterum ad Juliam Calvinum, e gente Augusti, pertinere dicebat, alterum ad Parthorum regem, qui capillatus esset; Suet. 23. (Both the Armenians and the Parthians wore their hair very long. HN.) After all, perhaps, Juvenal is but amusing himself with the ignorance of this tittle-tattle-monger,

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whom he introduces confounding what she had heard and fabricating what she had not. R. G. cf. Theoph. Ch. 8. CAS. 408. Fame, what is generally and confidently reported; ' rumour,' what can be traced to no authority, but originates in mischief and is propagated by credulity. Quint. I. O. v. 2. R.

409. Excipit catches by lying in wait,' (Liv. ii. 4. xl. 7.) R. intercepts,' G. putting the question uni xavov; to every one who arrives from abroad. LU.

Ire is applied to the fierce attack of an enemy; Virg. E. ix. 424. Ov. F. v. 713. R.

Niphates, Hor. II Od. ix. 20. Virg. G. iii. 30. is properly a mountain of Armenia, part of the Tauric chain, from which the Tigris takes its rise. Plin. v. 27. The geographers do not notice any river of this name: that which the poets mention (Luc. iii. 245. Sil. xiii. 765.) is perhaps merely the Tigris in the early part of its course. R. G.

411. 'Sink down.' ef. Tac. A. ii. 47, 3. R. Plin. ii. 69 sq. PR. 412. 6 The places where three ways met,' 'places of public resort.' M. 414. To have her poor neighbours taken up and cut to pieces.' LU.

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415. After listening to their prayers and entreaties ;' had it not been for which, she would have had them flogged to death. LU. In this and the following lines Juvenal is probably alluding to some recent and well-known transaction. R.

From her sound slumbers' we may infer that she was not an invalid, so as to be seriously disturbed by the barking of the dog.'

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417. The owner of the dog.' LU.

Deinde canem.

Gravis occursu, teterrima vultu
Balnea nocte subit; conchas et castra moveri
420 Nocte jubet; magno gaudet sudare tumultu,
Quum lassata gravi ceciderunt brachia massa,
Callidus et crista digitos impressit aliptes

Ac summum dominæ femur exclamare coegit.
Convivæ miseri interea somnoque fameque
425 Urguentur. Tandem illa venit rubicundula, totum
Enophorum sitiens, plena quod tenditur urna
Admotum pedibus, de quo sextarius alter

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Balnea; see note on i. 49. M. i. 143. Before the dynasty of the emperors, the time for a bath was the ninth hour, and the tenth hour was supper-time. Afterwards, however, the time of bathing was, in summer, changed to the eighth hour. xi. 204 sqq. Tac. A. xiv. 2. LI. Exerc. Pl. 648, SA. Spart. Hadr. 22. Lampr. Sev. 24. Plin. Ep. iii. 1. 8. Vitr. v. 10. Artemid. Oneir. i. 66. Mart. III. xxxvi. IV. viii. VII. 1. X. xlviii. 1 sqq. lxx. 13. XI. liii. R.

420. There was a small room connected with the bath, where they excited perspiration by violent exercise previously to bathing. R.

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421. The dumb bells.' Sen. Ep. 57. LU. supra balneum hubito: cum fortiores exercentur et manus plumbo graves jactant, gemitus audio, audio crepitum illisæ manus humeris, quæ, prout plana pervenit aut concava, itu sonum mutat; Id. 56. sunt exercitationes et faciles et breves, quæ corpus sine mora laxent [lassent ?]; cursus et cum pondere aliquo manus motæ et saltus, &c. Id. 15. PR. LI. åλrñgas poλußdívas χειροπληθεῖς. Luc. de Gymn. ὁ δὲ μολυβδαίνας χερμαδίους ἀράγδην ἔχων ἐχειροβόλει

Id. Lexiph. 5. Mart. VII. lxvi. 6. XIV. xlix. Sen. Ep. 58. Arist. de Anim. Inc. 3. Probl. v. 8. Paus. Eliac. i. 26 sq. Mercur. de Art. Gymn. ii. 12. R.

422. So sly as to know how far he might venture without offence.' LU.

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The anointer (iii. 76. Ter. Eun. III. v. 29 sqq. Claud. in Eutr. i. 106 sq. R.) has rubbed in the oil on every part of her body.'

423. And produces a sound by applying it to her flesh smartly with his hollow hand.' FA. See Seneca quoted above. PR. uncti verbere vapulat magistri ; Mart. VII. lxvi. 8. R.

Exclamure intimates that if the lady had proper feelings of delicacy, she herself would have cried out,' when the fellow presumed to take such liberties. VS.

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424. All this while she has been keeping a party waiting, who were engaged to sup at her house.' LU.

425. Glowing from her exercise at the bath.' LU. cf. Mart. III. li. VII. xxxiv. XI. xlviii. Plut. Cat. Maj. 22. Xiph. Hadr. Spartian.

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426. Mart. VII. lxvi. 9 $99. R. Thirsting for whole flagons.' They used to drink off a large quantity of wine at one draught, that it might operate as an emetic. 429. Cic. for Deiot. 7. vomunt, ut edant; edunt ut vomant; Sen. Helv. 9 extr. LU. Cels. i. 3. Ath. xv. 1. Mart. V. lxxix. 16 sqq. VII. lxvi. 10. Parrh. Ep. 36. R. Suet. Aug. 77. ER. Id. Vit. 13. CAS. xiii. 216. iv. 67. Mart. XII. lxxxiii. M.

Tenditur is filled.' GR. v. 80, note. The urna was a wine measure holding somewhat more than three gallons and a half. GR.

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427. It was put at her feet,' because it was too large to be set on the table. R,

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