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Perdere et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo?

Quis totidem erexit villas? quis fercula septem courses. 95 Secreto cœnavit avus? Nunc sportula primo

Limine parva sedet, turbæ rapienda togatæ.
Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit et trepidat, ne
Suppositus venias ac falso nomine poscas.
Agnitus accipies. Jubet a præcone vocari
100 Ipsos Trojugenas: nam vexant limen et ipsi


"Da Prætori, da deinde Tribuno!
Sed libertinus prior est." "Prior" inquit "ego adsum.
Cur timeam dubitemve locum defendere, quamvis

understood; sestertia occurs only in poets. F.

93. Scis comitem horridulum trita donare lacerna; Pers. i. 54. PR. shivering with cold,' as in Ov. A. A. ii. 213. Reddere for dare. R.

94. Cf. xiv. 86 sqq. R.

Patinas cœnabat omasi; Hor. I Ep. xv. 34. In atrio, et duobus ferculis, epulabantur antiqui; Cato. Ferculum, according to Nonius, was 'a course.' vii. 184. xi. 64. R.

95. Fuit illu simplicitas antiquorum in cibo capiendo, ut maximis viris prandere et canare in propatulo verecundiæ non esset : nec sane ullas epulas habebant, quas populi oculis subjicere erubescerent; Val. Max. II. v. 5. PR.

Quis avus 'who of our ancestors?' LU. The old republicans used to admit to supper the clients, who attended them from the forum. Under the emperors this laudable custom was abolished, and 'a little basket' of meat given to each of them to carry home. Nero ordered a small sum of money to be distributed instead of meat, and Domitian brought back the former practice: Suet. Ner. 16. Dom. 4.7. Perhaps it was subsequently left optional, for here we find that money was again distributed. The sum was a hundred quadrantes, about 15d. sterling. G. v.120. iii.127 sqq. 249 sqq. Mart. I. Ixi. III. vii. xiv. 3. VIII. 1. 10. X. xxvii.3. lxxv. 11. A. T. PR. R.

96. Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine; Virg. Æ. ii. 469. vi. 427. R. Sedet; ii. 120. R. xuras, see note 18 on Herod. vii. 198.

'The dole's being snatched' or 'scrambled for' denotes their half-starved condition. Togata may mean 'Roman'

emphatically; cf. v. 100. Prop. IV. ii.
56. Virg. Æ. i. 282. but more probably
is used contemptuously, as the toga was
no longer worn by respectable persons.
See note on v. 3. ii. 70. iii. 127. vii. 136.
142. viii. 49. Hor. I S. ii. 63. 82.
Mart. II. lvii. 5. &c. R.

97. See note on v. 62. The meanness
of the patron is strongly marked by his
superintending the distribution in person.'

99. Agnoscere to recognize' is said of one known before; cognoscere to become acquainted with,' of a stranger. R.

The crier' was properly called nomenclator; it was his office to announce the names of morning visitors, arrange them in order of precedence, &c. PL.


100. The patricians of the greater
clans,' VS. who claimed descent from
Æneas and the Trojans : cf. viii. 41 sqq.
181. xi. 95. so Troïades; Pers. i. 4. R.

Limen terere; Mart. X. x. 2. to wear.'
R. furesque feræque sueta hunc vexare
locum; Hor. I S. viii. 17. M. 'to
101. With us poor folk.' cf. iii. 128
sqq. R. Mart. X. x. 1 sqq. PR.

Da &c. These are either the orders of
the patron to his steward, or the impor-
tunities of the needy patricians. PR. R.

Prætor dictus quod exercitui præeat: est et magistratus juredicundo præpositus; Varro. 'The tribune' might be either

military' or 'plebeian.' PR. Of the latter, there were originally two,afterwards ten. The prator urbanus was a magistrate nearly answering to the Lord Mayor' of London. M.

102. First come, first served.' G. Libertini are enfranchised slaves, M. and the same as liberti; they are called liberti when the patron's name is added. R.

Natus ad Euphraten, molles quod in aure fenestræ 105 Arguerint, licet ipse negem? Sed quinque tabernæ Quadringenta parant. Quid confert purpura major Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro

Conductas Corvinus oves? Ego possideo plus Pallante et Licinis." Exspectent ergo tribuni ; 110 Vincant divitiæ: sacro nec cedat honori,

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Nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis; menhart
Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima Divitiarum
Majestas: etsi funesta Pecunia templo

Nondum habitas, nullas nummorum ereximus aras, 115 Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus, Quæque salutato crepitat Concordia nido.

104. An immense number of slaves came from Armenia, Cappadocia, Mesopotamia, and the countries through which the Euphrates flowed. PR.

Among the Orientals, even men used to wear ear-rings for ornament. Plin. xi. 37. incedunt cum annulatis auribus; Plaut. Pæn. 14. PR. The boring of the ear was, among many eastern nations, a sign of servitude; see Exodus, xxi. 6. This expression may be put by hypallage for fenestra in aure molli, according to the proverb auricula mollior; Cic. ad Q. Fr. i. 15. or from being a sign of softness in the wearer. GR. R.

105. I have five shops in the Forum which are let for as much as a knight's estate.' VS. T. Tiberio imperante constitutum ne quis in equestri ordine conseretur, nisi cui ingenuo ipsi, patri, avoque paterno sestertia quadringenta census fuisset; Plin. xxxiii. 2. PR. xiv. 323 sqq. R.

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106. The greater purple' may be either the consulship,' as toga major; Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 656. or the broad-bordered tunic of the senator,' as purpura latior and latus clavus; Plin. Ep. ii. 9. major cl.; Stat. Silv. III. ii. 124. felix p.; Mart. VIII. viii. 4. and on the other hand pauper and angustus cl. denote the equestrian order; Stat. Silv.V.ii. 18. Vell. ii. 88. But under the Cæsars this distinction was less rigidly observed. cf. Suet. Aug. 38. Ner. 26. Dom. 10. Plin. xxxiii. 1. R. Id. ix. 36 sqq. PR. 108. Corvinus, descended from the Valerian clan. cf. viii. 5. R.

109. Pallas, an Arcadian, was a freedman of Claudius and immensely rich.

2. stork's rest

Suet. Claud. 28. Tac. An. xii. 53. xiv. 65. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 10. Plin. Ep. vii. 29. viii. 6. He was put to death by Nero for his wealth. VS. R.

Licinius, a German, was a freedman of Augustus; he was likewise very rich: xiv. 306. but there were also wealthy families of the Licinian clan, viz. the Calvi Stolones; Liv. vii. 16. and the Crassi Divites. PR. R. Pers. ii. 36. VS. GRE. G.

110. Virtus post nummos; Hor. I Ep.i. 54. GR. omnis enim res, virtus, fama, decus, divina humanaque, pulchris divitiis parent; quas qui contraxerit, ille clarus erit, fortis, justus. Sapiensne? Etiam : et rex, et quicquid volet; Id. II S. iii. 94. Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est; Id. v. 8. PR.

The tribunes were sacrosancti inviolable;' Liv. ii. 33. iii. 19. 55. Dionys. vi. 89. vii. 17. If any one injured them by word or deed, he was held accursed, and his goods were confiscated. AD. R.

111. Vilissimum est cretæ genus, qua pedes venalium trans mare advectorum denotare majores instituerant; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 17. Regnum ipse tenet, quem sæpe coegit barbara gypsatos ferre catasta pedes; Tib. II. iii. 59. Pers. vi. 78. cf. v. 53. vii. 16. 120. Suet. Aug. 69. This white mark was the signature either of the slavemerchant, or of the proprietor, or of the republic. BRO. SA. PR. R.

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113. Pecunia, the cause of many a death,' was deified; and universally worshipped; though enshrined only in the hearts of her votaries. VS. T. PR.

116. At the temple of Concord was

Sed quum summus

honor finito computet anno,

Sportula quid referat, quantum rationibus addat;

Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est 120 Et panis fumusque domi? Densissima centum

Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque maritum
Languida vel prægnans et circumducitur uxor.
Hic petit absenti, nota jam callidus arte,

Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam. 125"Galla mea est" inquit: "Citius dimitte. Moraris?" "Profer Galla caput." "Noli vexare, quiescit." Ipse dies pulcro distinguitur ordine rerum : Sportula, deinde forum jurisque peritus Apollo Atque triumphales, inter quas ausus habere 130 Nescio quis titulos Ægyptius atque Arabarches,

heard the chattering of the stork which had built its nest there, as often as it flew home with food for its young. VS. ipsa sibi plaudat crepitante ciconia rostro; Ov. Met. vi. 97. T. FA.

117. Men of the highest rank calculate on these doles as no inconsiderable portion of their annual income.' See note on 101. LU.

est; IV. viii. PR.

128. The clients attended their patron to the forum' of Augustus, in which there was an ivory statue of Apollo (Plin. xxxvi. 5. vii. 53. Hor. I S. ix. 78.); who is called juris peritus from the number of pleadings, at which he must have been present. Hence also we have Marsyan caussidicum; Mart. II. lxiv. 8.

119. See 46. Mart. III. xxx. R. Hor. I S. vi. 119. In the same spot 'These poor dependents had looked to Augustus had erected the triumphal this as a means of paying their tailor's, statues' of the greatest generals; Suet. shoemaker's, baker's, and coalmerchant's Aug. 29. VS. 31. BŘI. GR. PR. bills.' R.

120. Mart. XIII. xv. III. xxx. 3. R. 121. A crowd of litters brings petitioners.' PR. See 95. R.

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130. An effigy with an inscription on the pedestal:' claraque dispositis acta subesse viris; Ov. GR.

Arabarches. There is much uncertainty here both as to the text, and as to the person intended. He may be either (1) Crispinus (v. 26.), who was created Prince of Arabia by Domitian, Schol. MS. He might also be called the Arch-Arabian,' sarcastically, as worst of all the Arab slaves. LU. or (2) Tib. Alexander, who was governor of Egypt, brother or nephew of Philo Judæus, procurator of Judæa, and a Roman knight. Tac. H. i. 11. ii. 79. Eus. ii. GY. AL. FA. HO. G. or (3) Josephus, to whom Vespasian granted a triumphal statue. Hieronym. FL. PA. Then with regard to the word itself, it is doubted whether it should be Arabarches or Alabarches; see F. and R's ex


Cujus ad effigiem non tantum meiere fas est.
Vestibulis abeunt veteres lassique clientes
Votaque deponunt, quamquam longissima cœnæ
Spes homini. Caules miseris atque ignis emendus.
135 Optima silvarum interea pelagique vorabit
Rex horum vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit.
Nam de tot pulcris et latis orbibus et tam

131. Pers. i. 114. PR. It is allow able to commit any nuisance.' vi. 309. BRI. R.

132. See 95 sq. Veteres is in aggravation of the neglect. R. The two classes of patron and client comprehended nearly all the citizens of Rome. A patron was a man of rank and fortune, under whose care the meaner people voluntarily put themselves, and, in consequence of it, were denominated his clients. The patron assisted his client with his influence and advice, and the client, in return, gave his vote to his patron, when he sought any office for himself or friends. The client owed his patron respect, the patron owed his client protection. The early Romans threw a sanctity around this obligation on the patron's part. It was expressly enforced by a law of the Twelve Tables: patronus si clienti fraudem fecerit, sucer Virgil, many ages after, places the unjust patron in Tartarus, among the violators of natural and moral decorum: hic quibus invisi fratres, pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti; E. vi. 608. This state of mutual dependence, which commenced with the monarchy, was productive of the happiest effects; till, as riches and pride increased, new duties were imposed on the clients: they were harassed with constant attendance, and mortified by neglect; in a word, they were little better than slaves. G.


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while there is life there is hope.' Hence it was that to Hadrian's question What is the longest thing?' Epictetus answered 'Hope.' R.

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134. With their paltry dole they have to buy a bunch of greens and a little firewood on their way home; and then they must wait till the vegetables are boiled, before they can appease their hunger.'

136. Baridis, Lucian repeatedly; derróras, Id. Nigr. Rex; v. 14. 137. viii. 161. Hor. Ep. xvii. 43. Mart. III. vii. 5. V. xxii. 14. dominus; v. 81. 92. 147. R. Seneca somewhere says that good cheer, without a friend to partake of it, is the entertainment of a wild beast and Alexis abuses a man for being proúyos. G.

Ipse, as auris. cf. Aristoph. Th. 472.


At their meals, the men used to recline on sofas, and the ladies sat in chairs. BO. cf. note on ii. 120. R.

slab of a
iv. 132.


137. See 75. Orbis denotes the round table ;' xi. 122. 173. cf. Mart. II. xliii. 9 sq. IX. lx. sqq. Their tables were originally square; v. 2. Varr. iv. 25. R. It was the ancient fashion to place before the guests tables with the viands, and not to change the dishes on the table. They had two tables, one with the meat, &c. the other with the dessert. When they had eaten as much meat as they wished, the table itself was withdrawn, and the second course or dessert was placed before them on a fresh table. The square tables went out of fashion with the triclinia. The new-fashioned couch was of a semicircular form, called sigma, from its shape C; and it held seven or eight persons; Mart. X. xlviii. 5 sq. XIV. Ixxxvii. to suit these, round tables were introduced. As luxury advanced the number of tables was increased (sometimes they had a fresh table with every course); and the guests either remained

Antiquis una comedunt patrimonia mensa.

Nullus jam parasitus erit! Sed quis ferat istas 140 Luxuriæ sordes? Quanta est gula, quæ sibi totos tain Ponit apros, animal propter convivia natum! Pœna tamen præsens, quum tu deponis amictus Turgidus et crudum pavonem in balnea portas. Hinc subitæ mortes atque intestata senectus. 145 It nova nec tristis per cunctas fabula cœnas : Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis.

Nil erit ulterius, quod nostris moribus addat Posteritas: eadem cupient facientque minores.

in the same place while the tables were changed, or else removed to the fresh tables; which latter Martial calls ambulans cana; VII. xlviii. Both the number and size of these tables is here noticed. The diameter of the table, which consisted of a single slab, would depend on the size of the citron tree. And the beauty of the wood consisted in the number of its knots and veins. Whence Petronius says citrearum mensarum Africa emtarum maculas mutari auro viliori, et censum ita turbari. Their antiquity too is not overlooked: they had been famous in the family for several generations. And yet amidst all this profusion, one single course cost a fortune! There seems an allusion to the gluttony of Clodius Esopus, the actor, and his son. Plin. ix. 35. x. 51. Hor. II S. iii. 239 sqq. HN. Plut. Luc. P. 318 sq. Anton. V. p. 149. Suet. Cal. 37. Vit. 13. R. LU. LI. AD.

139. The parasite' (raga orov) paid for his dinner by flattery of his host. PR. Terence has given a masterly portrait of such a character in his Gnatho. M.

'One consolation is, that the breed of parasites will become extinct! and yet it may be questioned whether even a parasite could sit still and see such a disgusting exhibition of selfish gluttony.'

140. O quanta est gula, centies comesse ! Mart. V. lxx. 5. memorabile magni gutturis exemplum; ii. 113. R. P. Servilius Rullus was the first who had a wild boar dressed whole. Plin. viii. 51. PR. cf. v. 116. Suet. Tib. 34. Mart. VII. lix. It was often the top dish. Antony had eight served up; Plut. Caranus had one to each guest; Ath. iv. 1. R.


141. Suillum pecus donatum ab natura dicunt ad epulandum; Varr. R. R. II. iv. 10. PR. A certain philosopher conjectured that s was the same as ù;, ; εἰς θύσιν καὶ σφαγὴν μόνον ἐπιτήδειον· Clem. Al. Strom.ii. For a banquet, not for a solitary meal.' R.

Natis in usum lætitiæ scyphis pugnure; Hor. I Od. xxvii. 1. PR. Oves, placidum pecus, inque tuendos natum homines; Ov. M. xv. 116 sq. M. boves, animal natum tolerare labores; Id. 120 sq.

142. Culpam pœna premit comes; Hor. IV Od. v. 24. GR. III Od.ii.31 sq. R. hinc (ex ebrietate) pallor et genæ pendula, oculorum ulcera, tremulæ manus effundentes plena vasa; et quam sit pæn a præsens, furiales somni et inquies Rocturna ostendunt; Plin. xiv. 22. BRI.

Primus Q. Hortensius augurali cœna dicitur pavones posuisse. Quorum pretia statim extulerunt multi, ita ut ova eorum denariis venirent quinis, ipsi facile quinquagenis; Macr. Sat. iii. 13. PR. The flesh of this bird is very indigestible. Aug. de Civ. D. xxi. 4. ÅS.

143. Pers. iii. 98 sqq. PR. crudi tumidique lavemur; Hor. I Ep. vi. 61. M.

145. Avarus, nisi cum moritur, non recte facit. GRE.

146. Tristia funera ducunt; Virg. G. iv. 256. Pers. 105 sq. cf. Eund. vi. 33 sq. LU. The friends are annoyed, both at the selfishness of the deceased, and at their having no legacies from him. M.

147. See 87. R.

148. Minores, understand natu, M. ii. 146. viii. 234. opposed to veteres; xiv. 189. to majores; Ov. Tr. IV. x. 55. R.

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