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Omne in præcipiti vitium stetit. Utere velis; 150 Totos pande sinus. Dicas hic forsitan “ Unde
Ingenium par materiæ ? unde illa priorum
Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mucius, an non? 155 Pone Tigellinum: tæda lucebis in illa,
Qua stantes ardent, qui fixo gutture fumant,
· The un
149. •The climax is now complete: be perilous to provoke. G. VS. Mart. vice has reached its acme.'
III. xx. 16. GRÆ. PR. Suet. Galb. The poet here encourages himself to 15. Pone may mean . pourtray;' Pers. i. give full scope to his indignation in a 70. Hor. A.P. 34. R. familiar metaphor. cf. Virg. G. i. 41. Tæda-fumant. The dreadful fire, iv. 117. Hor. I Od. xxxiv. 4. II Od. which laid waste a great part of Rome in x. 23. IV Od. xv. 4. &c. R.
the reign of Nero, was found to have 150. From unde to arena, 157. is an broken out in the house of Tigellinus. anticipation of the objections supposed His notorious intimacy with the emperor to be made by a friend. BRI.
corroborated the general suspicion that 151. Observe the hiatus in materiæ the conflagration was owing to design. unde. See ïi. 26. üi. 70. v. 158. vi. 247. Nero was exasperated at the discovery, 468. &c. R.
and to avert the odium from his favorite, Priores viz. Eupolis, Cratinus, Aris- basely taxed the Christians with setting tophanes, Lucilius, Cato Censorinus, fire to the house. Thousands of those Terentius Varro, and Horace. PR. cf. innocent victims were sacrificed in conHor. II S. i. 62. R.
sequence: multitudo ingens convicti sunt: 153. Simplicitas, tappnoia.
et pereuntibus uddita ludibria, ut ferurum utterable name' was libertas. BRI. tergis contecti, laniatu canum interirent, cf. Suet. Cal. 27. PR.
aut crucibus adfixi, uut flammandi; atque, 154. See Pers. i. 114. “T. Mucius ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni luminis Albutius had sufficient magnanimity and urerentur: hortos suos ei spectaculo Nero wisdom to disregard the attacks of Lu- obtulerat, et circense ludicrum edebat ;
but had it been otherwise, the Tac. An. xv. 44. G. This was called satirist would have little to dread from his tunica punire molesta; viii. 235. BRO. resentment.' VS. M.
circumdati defixis corporibus ignes; Sen. 155. 'Dare to put down the name of de Ira, iii. 3. LI. cogita illum tunicam Tigellinus, and you will be treated as an alimentis ignium illitam et intertam, et incendiary.' c. Offonius Tigellinus of quicquid præter hæc sævitia commenta est ; Agrigentum was recommended to the Id. ad Lucil. PR. Id. Ep. xiv. R. notice of Nero by his debaucheries. 157. Homines defoderunt in terram dimiAfter the murder of Burrhus, he suc- diatos, ignemque circumposuerunt; ita interceeded to the command of the prætorian fecerunt; Cat. ap.Gell.ïï.14. GRO. [Supguards, and abused his ascendancy over posing this to be the case here, we may read the emperor to the most dreadful pur- (or, at any rate, interpret) the line thus ; poses. He afterwards betrayed him; by Et latum medius sulcum diducis arena.] which, and other acts of perfidy, he The ground in which the stake was fixed secured himself during Galba’s short appears to have been more or less excareign. He was put to death by Otho, to vated; pæna Flavii Veiano Nigro tribuno the great joy of the people, and died, as mandatur, is proximo in agro scrobem he had lived, a profligate and a coward. effodi jussit, quam Flavius ut humilem et See 59. Who is here des ated by the angustam increpabat; Tac. An. xv. name of Tigellinus, cannot now be known; Scrobem sibi fieri coram imperat dimeneven in Trajan's reign there were de- sus ad corporis sui modulum ipse Nero; praved favorites, whose enmity it would Suet. Ner. 49. These executions often
Qui dedit ergo tribus patruis aconita, vehatur
Pensilibus plumis atque illinc despiciat nos?
Accusator erit, qui verbum dixerit, HIC EST.
Aut multum quæsitus Hylas urnamque sequutus. 165 Ense velut stricto quoties Lucilius ardens
Infremuit, rubet auditor, cui frigida mens est
took place in the centre of the arena of Story of Queen Eleanor, and the rearing the amphitheatre. Suet. Cal. 7. PR. of London Bridge upon woolsacks?" G. nemo spectator miseras voluptates unco et 163. Committere is a metaphor from ignibus ea piavit; Plin. Pan. xxxiii. 3. R. 'matching a pair of gladiators against or “You labor in vain, as if you were each other.' GRÆ. vi. 378. 436. Luc. ploughing the sand.' cf. vii. 48 sq. M. i. 97. R.
158. Here the author replies indig- Nec nocet auctori, mollem qui fecit pantly. LU.
See 67. PR. • Wolf's- Achillem, infregisse suis mollia facta bane' may be put for poison generally: modis; Ov. Tr. ii. 411 sq. GR. Achilles lurida terribiles miscent aconita noverca; was shot with an arrow by Paris. PR. Ov. Met. i. 147. M. Id. vii. 418 sqq. Hom. Il. X 359. Od. 1 36 sqq. Virg. Virg. G. ï. 152. R.
Æ. vi. 57. R. 159. ' On pensile couch of down.' VS. 164. “Sought for by Hercules and the 160. The friend now speaks.
Argonauts.' Virg. E. vi. 43 sq. PR. Contra 'in your way;' Mart. V. iv. 5. G. iii. 6. R. XIV. lxi. R.
165. Secuit Lucilius urbem ; Pers. i. 161. 'He will be regarded in the light 114. PR. Hor. I S. iv. 1 sqq. II S. i. of an accuser, who shall but have whis- 62 sqq. R. cf. Suet. Cal. 53. Hor. pered “ That's he”!' H. even although III Od. i. 17 sqq. In Randolph's Enthese words are generally used in a tertainment there is an admirable parafavorable sense
as Pers. i. 28. Mart. V. phrase of this passage: “ When I but xüs. 3. R. If a person does but frown'd in my Lucilius' brow, Each consay “That's he!” he will have an in- scious cheek grew red, and a cold tremformation laid against him.' PR. bling Freezed the chill soul, while every
162. “You may without apprehension guilty breast Stood, fearful of dissection, handle epic themes.' The Rutulian' is as afraid To be anatomized by that skilTurnus. PR. cf. Hor. II S. i. 10 sqq. R. ful hand, And have each artery, nerve, Nos enim, qui in foro verisque litibus and vein of sin, By it laid open to the terimur, multum malitiæ, quamvis nolimus, public scorn.” G. addiscimus: schola et auditorium, ut ficta 166. "It shudders;' 'the blood runs causa, ita res inermis innoxia est; Plin. cold.' M. formidine turpi frigida corda There is the same idea in the Knight of tremunt; Sil. ü. 338. R. the Burning Pestle: “ Prol. By your
168. Hine illæ lacruma! Ter. And. I. sweet favour we intend no harm to the i. 99. GRÆ. city.
Cit. No, sir! yes, sir. If you Virg. Æ. iv. 533. vi. 158. 185. R. were not resolved to play the jack, what 169. Tubas is here put for classica ‘ the need you study for new subjects pur- sounds of the trumpet. GRÆ. posely to abuse your betters? Why could tubam trenor occupat artus; Virg. Æ. not you be content, as well as others, xi. 424. cf. Sil.ix. 52. Claud. in Ruf. with the Legend of Whittington, the i. 333. de L. Stil. i. 192. R. Juvenal
170 Pænitet.” Experiar, quid concedatur in illos,
Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina.
is very fond of adopting Virgilian expres- Hall, on the contrary, says, “ I will not sions; see 61. č. 99. 100. vi. 44. (cf. i. ransack up the quiet grave, Nor burn 36.) xii. 94. &c. HR.
dead bones as he example gave; I tax Galeatus denotes not merely a soldier,' the living, let the ashes rest, Whose as in viii. 238. but one who has buckled faults are dead, and nailed in their chest.” on his helmet (cf. vi. 252.); since it Yet Hall, like Juvenal, makes use of the appears from Trajan's Pillar, that before names of those departed. G. soldiers went into battle, their helmets. 171. •The Flaminian and Latin ways,' were suspended from the right shoulder. as well as the Appian, were adorned on HR.
either side with the sepulchres of many Sero; compare St Luke xiv. 31. illustrious men: VS. v.55. for the laws
Duellum is the ancient form of bellum, of the Twelve Tables prohibited sepulture and hence the word perduellis. F. within the walls. The Latin way led to SATIRE II.
170. The Poet declares that he will Sinuessa. PR. wage war
on the ad alone. PR.
ARGUMENT. This Satire, in point of time, was probably the first which Juvenal wrote.
It contains an irregular but animated attack upon the hypocrisy of philosophers and reformers; whose wickedness it exposes with just severity, 1–28. Domitian here becomes the hero: and the poet must have had an intrepid spirit to produce and circulate, though but in private, such a faithful picture of that ferocious tyrant, at once the censor and the pattern of profligacy, 29 899. The corruption, beginning at the
head, is represented as rapidly spreading downwards, 34–81. Such was the depravity and impiety, that a club was formed to dress up as
females and burlesque the rites of the Good Goddess, 82—114. There were even instances of men marrying each other, 115–142. and of
Roman nobles degrading themselves by playing the gladiator, 143—148. Infidelity was now universal. How would the heroes of primitive Rome
receive in the shades below their degenerate posterity! 149–158. Even the victorious progress of the Roman arms served but to diffuse corrup
tion more widely, 159–170. G. R. There is a close correspondence between this Satire and Dio Chrysost.
Figi axhuaros Orat. Alex. hab. HN.
ULTRA Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem
Indocti primum; quamquam plena omnia gypso
Si quis Aristotelem similem vel Pittacon emit, hook case
Et jubet archetypos pluteum servare Cleanthas.
1. • Fain would I flee.' cf. xv. 171 sq. 5. Chrysippus, the Stoic, pupil of Zeno
The Sauromate, or Sarmate, (iii. 79. Est i, e. in their estimation. LU.
patetic sect, tutor of Alexander the great.
Pittacus, Dictator of Mitylene, one of
sor in the Stoic School : while student he
. 7 sq. IX. xxviii. 5 sqq. Quid ? Juvenal before him, when he gave the
magno per me servantur honore. G. Bacchanalia: cf. Liv. xxxix. 8 sqq. PR.
9. Solemn debauchees:' arumi
umnosique A Grecism for bacchantium more. M. Solones, obstipo capite et figentes lumine Nunc Satyrum, nunc agrestem Cyclopa terram; Pers. iii. 79. GR. Philosophi vulmovetur; Hor. II Ep. ii. 125. In tum et tristitiam et dissentientem a these rites the grossest vices were prac- ceteris habitum pessimis moribus prætentised under the cloak of religion. R.
Quint. I. pr. %. 15. Pigritia 4. These unlearned pretenders had arrogantioris (homines), qui, subito fronte brought out of the schools little wisdom, conficta immissaque barba, paulum aliquid but plenty of conceit. HR.
sederunt in scholis philosophorum, ut dei Understand loca: every corner of in publico tristes, domi dissoluti, captheir libraries and halls.' LV.
tarent auctoritatem contemtu ceterorum ; Gypso of plaster casts or busts.' LU. Id. XII. iii. 12. HR.