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130 Tongilli, magno cum rhinocerote lavarihm of that

Qui solet et vexat lutulenta balnea turba

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Perque forum juvenes longo premit assere Medos
Emturus pueros, argentum, murrhina, villas.
Spondet enim Tyrio stlataria purpura filo. -
135 Et tamen est illis hoc utile: purpura vendit
Causidicum, vendunt amethystina: convenit illis
Et strepitu et facie majoris vivere census.
Sed finem impensæ non servat prodiga Roma.
Fidimus eloquio? Ciceroni nemo ducentos
140 Nunc dederit numos, nisi fulserit annulus ingens.
Respicit hæc primum, qui litigat, an tibi servi
Octo, decem comites, an post te sella, togati

urget, nunc cum petitur dissolvere; Cic. for Cn. Planc. PR. xiv. 94. Mart. IX. iv. 5. VII. xxvi. 10. X. xcvi. 9. Petr. 39. (BU.) Cic. Att. iv. 7. (ER.) R.

Matho; i. 32, note. PR. Hence it may be gathered that the first Satire was written many years after the present. G. Deficit 'fails:' T. another legal term. R. 130. Tongillus perhaps Tongilius. Mart. II. xl. R.

His oil-flask (iii. 263.) was formed of a large rhinoceros' horn.' LU. Plin. viii. 20. Diod. iv. 3. PR. The animal put for its horn; as solido elephanto, for solid ivory;' Virg. G. iii. 26. M. Of a horn flask Martial says; gestavit modo fronte me juvencus: verum rhinocerota me putabis; XIV. lii. cf. liii. R.

131. Vexat; i. 100. cf. vi. 419 sq. or i. 64. R.

132. The young men who are his bearers.' PR.

'He presses with the weight of himself and his litter.' SCH.

Assere; iii. 245. PR. Mart. IX. xxiii. 9. R.

The Medes were not subjugated by the Romans but Media is sometimes taken in a wider sense, so as to include Assyria and other countries of Asia. There was also a Thracian people of this name. cf. ix. 142 sqq. R.


133. To bid for,' though not to buy. BRI. ἀλαζὼν προσποιούμενος ὠνητιᾶν Theoph. Ch. 23, extr. Martial has an excellent epigram on this subject: IX. lx. CAS. G. R.

Argentum; i. 76, note.

Murrhina; vi. 156, note. BRI.
134. Spondet is a surety for him,'
'gains him credit." ii. 12. R.

Tyria purpura filo, a periphrasis. i. 27,
note. Plin. ix. 36 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. iv.
262. Hor. Ep. xii. 21. M.

Stlataria piratical;' from stlata, genus navigii latum magis quam altum; Festus: #ugarınoỡ onápovs sidos Gloss. et melior navis, quam quæ stlataria portat; Enn. Its meaning may be either (1)' decoying,' VS. deceptive,' LU. i. e. (as we should say) 'sailing under false colours ;* or (2) imported in a foreign bottom.' PR.

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135. Venditgets him off,' makes him fetch more money,' FE. ' puffs him off.' cf. 73. R.

136. Violet mantles' thrown over the toga. FE. cf. Mart. I. xcvii. II. lvii. 2. X. xlix. 1. XIV. cliv. R. Plin. xxi. 8. xxxvii. 6. 9. PR.

137. Quæ in publico species! Tac. D.
de Or. 6. R.

138. Dicimus: "Non ego ambitiosus.
sum, sed nemo Romæ aliter potest vivere;
non ego sumtuosus sum, sed Urbs ipsa
magnas impensas exigit;" Sen. Ep. 50..
PR. cf. iii. 180 sqq. R. iii. 169, note.
139. Two hundred sestertii' are not,
quite thirty shillings. M. i. 92, note.
140. Annulus; i. 28 sq. PR.
141. Eight chairmen :' i. 64, note.
PR. Caligula had a litter borne by eight

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slaves. Suet. M.

142. Comites; cf. i. 96. 119. 132. PR.. 46. qui togatorum comitatus et egressus! Tac. D. de Or. 6. τῷ φορείῳ παρεπομένων·

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Ante pedes. Ideo conducta Paulus agebat

Sardonyche atque ideo pluris quam Cossus agebat, 145 Quam Basilus. Rara in tenui facundia panno.

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Quando licet Basilo flentem producere matrem?
Quis bene dicentem Basilum ferat? Accipiat te
Gallia vel potius nutricula causidicorum

Africa, si placuit mercedem ponere linguæ.

Declamare doces? O ferrea pectora Vectî,
Quum perimit sævos classis numerosa tyrannos!
Nam quæcumque sedens modo legerat, hæc eadem stans
Proferet atque eadem cantabit versibus îsdem.
Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros.

Luc. Suet. Tib. 30. (CAS.) rabulæ bene comitati per forum reducuntur; Quint. xii. R.

A chair, into which you may get when you please.' LU. i. 64. R. Togati; iii. 127, note. M.

143. Before you.' circumpedes sunt obsequia servorum: antepedes amicorum; Agroet. de Orthogr. p. 2274. T. anteambulones; Mart. II. xviii. 5. III. vii. 2. xlvi. PR. X. lxxiv. 3. R.

He only hired the ring, being too poor to buy one.' M. cf. iii. 180 sqq. vi. 352 sqq. R. This hired ring seems to have answered even better than the war horse of Æmilius; for Paulus, in process of time, obtained great practice, and, consequently, great riches. Martial had the misfortune to be under his patronage; which, like that of many other parvenus, was so burthensome, that the poet, in a fit of spleen, threatens to shake it off entirely: V. xxiii. This is one of the few occasions on which Martial speaks out; but he was not a man to carry his independent language into practice. G. Might not Emilius and Paulus be one and the same person?

Agebat; 122. 125. R. 144.

144. A sardonyx;' Pers. i. 16. (CAS.) PR. vi. 382. Mart. II. xxix. 2.


145. Basilus; x. 222. R.

'Rare' in the vulgar opinion, not in reality. sæpe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapientia; Cæcil. Cic. T. Q. iii. 56. PR. cf. viii. 47 sqq. R.

146. Cf. Cic. Verr. 3. for Font. 17 &c. PR.

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150. Ferrea quite steeled against the assaults of impatience or fatigue.' cf. i. 31, note. M. Ô dura messorum ilia! Hor. Ep. iii. 4.

Vectius Valens, an eminent professor of rhetoric Plin. xxix. 1. PR.


151. "A school,' Where boys, in long succession, rave and storm At tyranny, through many a crowded form." This unfortunate race, besides having their heads distracted with these everlasting declamations, were sometimes `liable to lose them altogether. Domitian actually put one of them (named Maternus) to death for a rhetorical flourish about tyranny, which was produced in his school. Dio. G. cf. i. 15-17, notes. M. vii. 160-170. Tac. D. de Or. 35. Sen. Contr. vii. Quint. Decl. et Instit. II. x. 4. Petr. i. R. note on 204. pueros magistri in classes distribuebant et iis ordinem dicendi secundum vires ingenii dabant ; Quint. i. 2. PR.

152. What the class sit down and learn by reading over, that they stand up and repeat; the very same lines in the same tone and twang.' ACH. cantilenam eandem canentes; Ter. Phor. III. ii. 10. R. οἱ αὐτοὶ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν τοῖς αὐτοῖς τὰ avrά an author quoted by GR.

154. There was a Greek proverb : dis ngáμßn Sávaros. VS. 'warmed-up cabbage.' M.

155 Quis color et quod sit causæ genus atque ubi summa Quæstio, quæ veniant diversæ forte sagittæ,

Nosse velint omnes, mercedem solvere nemo. "Mercedem appellas? quid enim scio?" Culpa docentis Scilicet arguitur, quod læva in parte mamillæ 160 Nil salit Arcadico juveni, cujus mihi sexta Quaque die miserum dirus caput Hannibal implet ; Quidquid id est, de quo deliberat, an petat Urbem A Cannis; an post nimbos et fulmina cautus Circumagat madidas a tempestate cohortes. 165 "Quantum vís stipulare, et protenus accipe, quod do, Ut toties illum pater audiat." Ast alii sex Et plures uno conclamant ore Sophistæ

155. Color; vi. 280. PR. or 'the ornaments of diction.' LU. Cic. Or. III. 25.52. R.

Genus: either deliberative, or demonstrative, or judicial. LU. Quint. iii. 4. PR. Cic. Inv. i. 5. 15. R. "The upshot of the matter,' the main jet of the question,' G. 'that on which the case hinges.' SCH. Quint. iii. 5 sq. Cic. Inv. i. 6. 8 sqq. R.

156. The shafts and shots of the adversary.' LU. By the same metaphor we have Martem forensem; Ov. Pont. IV. vi. 29. peroraturus, stricturum se lucubrationis suæ telum, minabatur; Suet. Cal. 53. See v. 173. R.

158. Those who have given the most trouble, are most likely to demur at paying.

159. Cor animalibus ceteris in medio pectore est, homini tantum infra la e vam papillam; Plin. XI. 37 s 69. PR. Pers. ii. 53. cor aliis animus videtur; ex quo excordes, vecordes, concordes que dicuntur, et Nasica ille prudens Corculum, et egregie cordatus homo catus Ælius Sextus: Empedocles animum esse censet, cordi suffusum sanguinem: alii in cerebro dixerunt animi esse sedem et locum; Cic. T. Q. i. 9. R.

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Philostr. iii. whence the proverb 'Agxádior
Bλáornua, an Arcadian sprig.' BRO.

161. Regularly once a week:' Suet. Tib. 32. (CAS.) Ř.

Sent by the wrath of heaven (dirus i. e. deorum ira) to be the dread of Rome (Hor. III Od. vi. 36. IV Od. iv. 42. R.) and the scourge of schoolmasters.'

Whose declamation in the person of Hannibal ;' vi. 170. PR. x. 167. R.

162 sqq. According to Maharbal's advice. Liv. xxii. 51. xxvi. 7-11. Polyb. ix. 3 sqq. Sil. xii. 489-xiii. 93. LU. PR. R.

163. Cf. ii. 155. PR.

165. Stipulate for,' opposed to spondebo. ER.

The schoolmaster offers to place any stake in the hands of a third person, to be paid the parent conditionally: The father can have no conception of the task he has imposed on his son's preceptor. Let him just make the experiment. I am sure no sum of money would induce him to go on week after week hearing such a dull blockhead.' There were certain days, on which the parents came with their friends, to hear their sons recite speeches at school. Quint. ii. 7. x. 5. Pers. iii. 47. PR. M. R.

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167. The whole pack are giving tongue at the same time;' either as barristers, or in running down the intolerable hardships of a sophist's life. PR.

Sophista professors of rhetoric and the belles lettres.' Cic. Acad. iv. 23. Fin. ii. 1. R.

Et veras agitant lites, raptore relicto; Fusa venena silent, malus ingratusque maritus, 170 Et quæ jam veteres sanant mortaria cæcos.

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Ergo sibi dabit ipse rudem, si nostra movebunt
Consilia, et vitæ diversum iter ingredietur,
Ad pugnam qui rhetorica descendit ab umbra,

Summula ne pereat, qua vilis tessera venit ticket for soup, 175 Frumenti: quippe hæc merces lautissima. Tenta, Chrysogonus quanti doceat vel Pollio quanti

Lautorum pueros, artem scindens Theodori.
Balnea sexcentis et pluris porticus, in qua
Gestétur dominus, quoties pluit.

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175 sqq.

173. Cf. Sen. Contr. iii. præf. R. The poorer citizens were furnished monthly, on the nones, by the magistrates with a small tablet' of lead or wood; which, on being presented to the keepers of the public granaries, entitled the bearers to a certain quantity of corn,' either gratis, or upon some small payment: Tac. A. xv. 39. These tallies, as appears from the text, were transferable those who were not in want of corn disposed of them for a trifling sum.' LU. LI. Pers. v. 73 sq. (K.) PR. cf. Suet. Aug. 42. Cæs. 41. (CAS.) Dio xliii. 21. lx. 10. Or vilis frumenti of damaged corn.' K. R.

Anne serenum

175. For this is the utmost return they have to expect.' R. lautissima, with reference to lautos just below, may be a sneer at the paltry pittance which noblemen devoted to the education of their sons: a right honourable remuneration truly!'

176. Chrysogonus, vi. 74. was a favourite singer, and Pollio, vi. 387. a favourite musician; both of them men of loose principles. Theodorus (according to Hesychius) was an infamous profligate. 'The wealthy nobles place their sons, at an enormous expence, under the tuition of this singing-master and this musicmaster, from whom they learn every thing that is bad.' ACH. See note on vi. 452. He says the Art' of Theodorus ; because Theodorus of Gadara, an eminent rhetorician in the reign of Tiberius, (Suet. 57. Quint. iii. 1. 11. i. 12. iv. 2. Strab. xiii. p. 625. xvi. p. 759. Lucian in Macrob.) wrote several works. PR.


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178. On the magnificence of the Ro'baths,' see Sen. Ep. 51. 86. Plin. Ep. ii. 17. v. 6. Vitr. v. 10. GR.

Sexcentis; nearly £5000. i. 92, note. Porticus; iv. 5 sqq. GR. "More for a spacious portico they pay, In which to amble on a showery day. Shall they, for brighter skies, at home remain? Or dash their pamper'd mules through mud and rain? No: let them ride beneath the stately roof, For there no mire can soil the shining hoof." G. intra limen latus essedo cursus; Mart. XII. lvii. 23.

180 Exspectet spargatque luto jumenta recenti ? Hic potius namque hic mundæ nitet ungula mulæ. Parte alia longis Numidarum fulta columnis Surgat et algentem rapiat cœnatio solem. Quanticumque domus, veniet, qui fercula docte 185 Componat; veniet, qui pulmentaria condat. Hos inter sumtus sestertia Quintiliano,

Ut multum, duo sufficient.

Constabit patri, quam filius.

Res nulla minoris

"Unde igitur tot

Quintilianus habet saltus?" Exempla novorum 190 Fatorum transi: felix et pulcer et acer; ut Felix et sapiens et nobilis et generosus Appositam nigræ lunam subtexit alutæ:

182. Columnas ultima recisas Africa; Hor. II Od. xviii. 4 sqq. LU. Plin. xxxvi. 6. PR. Id. v. 3. Stat. S. I. v. 36. (B.) R. Id. quoted in the note on iii.


183. The rich had different diningparlours, according to the different seasons of the year. Varr. L. L. iv. cf. Suet. Aug. 72. Ner. 31. CAS. Col. i. 5 sq. Plin. Ep. I. xvii. 10 sqq. R. This saloon caught the cool sun;' i.e. either the winter's sun by a southern aspect, or the early summer's sun by an eastern one. PR.

184. "Cost these whatever sum, Cooks and confectioners are yet to come." G. Fercula; i. 94. docte componat; cf. v. 120 sqq. R.

185. Pulmentaria 'victuals' in general: so called from puls, which the Romans long used instead of bread. Pers. vi. 40. Cic. T. Q. v. 90. PR. xiv. 171. Plin.

xviii. 8. R.

186. Little more than £16 per annum, to the first-rate rhetorician. vi. 280. R. and 75. G.

187. At the outside.' The whole of this passage, from v. 178. seems an imitation of Crates the Theban: ribu paγείρῳ μνᾶς δέκα, ἰατρῷ δραχμὴν, κόλακι τάλαντα δέκα, συμβούλῳ καπνὸν, πόρνῃ Táλavrov, Qiλoców giúßoλov Eph. in his Life by Laert. GR.

188. Filius the education of a son.'

Juvenal instances Quintilian as a rich man, while Pliny, in a letter which does equal honour to himself and his master, (for such Quintilian was,) talks of his

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moderate fortune. vi. 32. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the different circumstances of the two writers. What appeared immense to Juvenal, might be far from seeming so to such a wealthy man as Pliny. It is satisfactory, however, to know, that this amiable and virtuous character experienced none of the neglect and poverty which overwhelmed so many of his brethren. G. R. He taught rhetoric for twenty years; he was also the first who opened a public school at Rome; and he had an annual salary from the treasury, of more than £800. cf. Mart. II. xc. Cassiodor. LU. R. G.

189. Instances of unprecedented good fortune.' T.

190. He is lucky; and luck is every thing: if a man has but luck, he has all goods, corporeal, intellectual, and external.' LU. cf. Hor. I Ep. i. 106 sqq. I S. iii. 121 sq. R.

192. Senators had black shoes of tanned leather; the form was somewhat like a short boot, reaching nearly to the middle of the leg, as they are sometimes seen in statues and bas-reliefs; with a crescent, or the letter C, in front of them; because the original number of senators was one hundred. VS. FA. G. Plut. Q. R. PR. This moon was a silver or ivory buckle worn above the instep: τὸ σύμβολον τῆς εὐγενείας περιηρ τημένος τῷ ὑποδήματι· τοῦτο δὲ ἔστιν

pugov iλspávtivov μnvosides Philostr. V. Her. ii. 8. p. 55. (OL.) Marcellus derives the origin of this ornament from


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