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Felix, orator quoque maximus et jaculator; lagucan

Etsi perfrixit, cantat bene. Distat enim, quæ 195 Sidera te excipiant modo primos incipientem

Edere vagitus et adhuc a matre rubentem.
Si Fortuna volet, fies de rhetore consul :
Si volet hæc eadem, fies de consule rhetor.
Ventidius quid enim ? quid Tullius? anne aliud, quam

the Tuscans (cf. SV, on Virg. £. viii. 198. Valerius Licinianus, LU. a most 458.), and from Mercury, who, in rescu- eloquent speaker, was expelled the senate, ing Æneas from the Greeks, placed about this time, on suspicion of an incesαστερόεντα περί σφυρά πέδιλα, τα λίγoυσι tuous intrigue with the vestal Cornelia, xaà 'Eguéwra pogñvar o di oi ripi toppi (ii. 29, note) and banished into Sicily, rawThe Tepe parowe ivixuto osänvains xú- where he set up a school ; exul de senaxaos ayans* v. 23 sqq. in Br. An. t. ii. tore, rhetor de oratore factus. His openp. 302 sq. von hesterna sedet lunata lin- ing speech is very like the above distich : gula planta ; Mart. II. xxix. 7. Of new “ Quos tibi, Fortuna, ludos facis ? Facis nobles, the saying was : thy súyévsıæv in enim ex professoribus senatores, er senaTois dotpayúãoss fixas. J. Ov. Her. ix. toribus professores !” Plin. Ep. iv. 11. 60. (H.) R.

PR. G. cf. eund. vii. 42 sqq. R. Our Nigris medium impediit crus pellibus, times afford more extraordinary instances et latum demisit pectore clarum; Hor. of the sport of Fortune. ACH. The preI S. vi. 27 sq. PR. Yet Martial has sent king of the French, Louis-Philippe, coccina cingit aluta pedem ; II. xxix. 8. once kept a school. and Ovid, speaking of a lady, nivea aluta; 199. P. Ventidius Bassus was born at A. A. iii. 271. (H). cf. also Vopisc. Aur. Asculum in the Picenian territory, and 49. Plin. ix. 17. FE. R.

led in triumph, with his mother, among 193. Jaculator 'a logician.' LU. vi. the captives taken in the Social War by 450. PR. note on 156. M. jaculatio Cn. Pomp. Strabo, father of Pompey the verborum; Quint. vi. 3. R.

Great. He became an errand-boy, next 194. Though hoarse with a cold.' a wagoner, then a muleteer, a soldier, perfririsse tuas questa est præfatio centurion, and (by the influence of Cæsar fauces; Mart. III. xvii. 1. FA. Front. and the two Antonii) tribune of the Strat. I. xii. 11. R.

people, prætor, and, in the same year, 195. The stars which preside over pontiff and consul. He obtained a splenthe natal hour make all the difference.' did triumph (201.) over the Parthians, LU. vi. 553, note ; sqq. R. 570, notes. and, finally, was honoured with a public Pers. v. 45 sqq. PR. ix. 32 sqq. M. funeral. His elevation to the consulship Some, according to the proverb, are was considered, at the time, as an extra“ born with a gold spoon in their mouth.” ordinary event, and gave rise to many

196. A new-born infant looks red, sarcastic effusions. One of these is come owing to its thin and tender skin. PR. down to us : concurrite omnes augures, BRO.

aruspices! portentum inusitatum confia197. Natura, futum, fortuna, casus, tum est recens ; nam mulos qui fricabut unius et ejusdem Dei nomina sunt; Sen. consul factus est

. Time, however, which LU. cf. ii. 39 sq. R.

does justice to merit, established his Quintilianus, consularia per Clementem claims and silenced, perhaps shamed, his ornamentu sortitus, honestamenta nominis enemies. V. Max. vi. 9 sq. Cic. Ep. Fam. potius videtur quam insignia potestatis 10. Gell. xv. 4. Plin. vii. 43. Plut. V. habuisse ; Aus. Gr. Act. p. 712. Fronto- Ant. t. i. p. 931. Dio xlviii sq. App. B.C. nem Antonini Augusti magistrum consu- i. 47. (SW.) iii. 66. 80. iv. 2. v. 31-35. latus ornavit ; ibid. PR. Suet. de Ill. 50. 65. B. P. 71-74. VS. LU. PR. R. Rh. 1. Ausonius himself was advanced G. to the consulship (in a succeeding age) Servius Tullius, who was born of a by his pupil Gratian, A.D. 379. ibid. female slave, succeeded Tarquin the G.

Elder, LU. and was the sixth and the last

200 Sidus et occulti miranda potentia fati?

Servis regna dabunt, captivis Fata triumphos.
Felix ille tamen corvo quoque rarior albo.
Pænituit multos vanæ sterilisque cathedræ,

Sicut Thrasymachi probat exitus atque Secundi 205 Carrinatis : et hunc inopem vidistis, Athenæ,

Nil præter gelidas ausæ conferre cicutas.
Dî, majorum umbris tenuem et sine pondere terram
Spirantesque crocos et in urna perpetuum ver,

6

206.

good king (201. VS.) of Rome : vü. 205. - You too, Athens,' i. e. Athens 260. G. Liv. i. 39 sqq. Flor. i. 6. Eutr. as well as Rome. cicutas will mean PR.

'your hemlock, which you reserve as a 200. Nescia mens hominum fati sor- reward for indigent genius.' tisque futuræ ; Virg. Æ. x. 501. DO.

Cold.' (cf. note on i. 72.) cf. Cic. de Fato. .

Cicuta quoque venenum est, publica Athe201. P. Ventidius ex Parthis, et per niensium pæna invisa. semen habet norium. Parthos de Crassi manibus in hostili solo semini et foliis refrigeratoria vis: miserabiliter jucentibus, triumphum duxit; quos enecat, incipiunt algere ab extremiet qui captivus carcerem exhorruerat, tutibus corporis. remedio est, priusquam victor Capitolium felicitate celebravit; perveniat ad vitalia, vini natura escalfacV. Max. vi. 9. PR.

toria. sed in vino pota irremediabilis 202. Ille i.e. Quintilian. VS.

existimatur; Plin. xxv. 13 s 95,4. Diosc. A proverb like that in vi. 165. DO. iv. 79. in Alex. 11. Cicutam potam Hence the oracle to Phalanthus, itse ang caligo mentisque alienatio et artuum gexágar, {ws rógaxış asvxoà rémurai Ath. latio insequitur ; Scrib. Larg. de Comp. viii. 16, R. White ravens are occasion- Med. 179. Schol. on Pers. v. 145. (K.) ally met with : Aristotle. One was sent R. Plat. Phæd. 66. to Alphonso king of Sicily by the king of There is an allusion here to the conEngland. Another was seen by ŘH. demnation of Socrates, who was adjudged PR.

to die by drinking hemlock. Pers. iv. 1 sq. 203. ` Of the profession of rhetoric.' PR. circum pulpita nostra et steriles cuthe- 207. Date or dent is understood, sit tibi dras basia sola crepant; Mart. I. lxxvii. terra levis, mollique teguris arena; Mart. 13 sq. PR. note on 49. R.

IX. xxx. 11. M. Hence the letters fre204. gaoúp ce xos Xaāxndóssos ooperais quently placed on tombs S. T. T. L. έν Βιθυνία, ός πρώτος περίοδος και κώλον « Light lie the earth on thee :" opposed κατέδειξε και τον νυν της ρητορικής τρόπον to which are the maledictions, sit tibi terεισηγήσασο μαθητής Πλάτωνος του φιλο- ra gravis ! urgeat ossa lapis! duriter ossa ráệou sai leoạác aus Taũ pároges: Yeove caubent! GR. FA. LU. B. istam (Phaσυμβουλευτικούς, τέχνην ρητορικήν, παίγνια, dram) terra defossam premat, gravisque åpogrès enrogizás: Suid. cf. Cic. Or. iitellus impio capiti incubet ; Sen. Hip. 12. 16. 32. Quint. III. i. 10. iii. 4. R. ettr. cf. Pers. i. 37 899. PR. And the Thrasymachus shut up his school at well-known epigram on Sir John VanAthens for want of encouragement, and brugh, the architect of Blenheim; “ Lie afterwards hung himself. VŠ. FA. Plat. heavy on him, earth! for he Laid many de Rep. Dionys. Hal. fr. de Vet. Orat. a heavy load on thee.” VL.

208. The ancients used to strew fraSecundus Carrinas was driven by grant nosegays, annually, on the tombs of poverty from Athens to Rome. On ac- their departed friends, and even believed count of a rhetorical declamation against that flowers grew spontaneously on the tyrants, (note on 151.) he was banished graves, so that the shades of the deceased by Caligula. FA. Dio lix. 20. PR. Tac. enjoyed a perpetual spring.' Suet. Aug. A. xv. 45. (LI.) R.

18. Ath. xv. p. 679. Anth. Lat. (BU.)

SAT. VII.

OF JUVENAL.

195

Qui præceptorem sancti volkere parentis
210 Esse loco. ' Metuens virgæ jam grandis Achilles

Cantabat patriis in montibus: et cui non tunc
Eliceret risum citharodi cauda magistri?
Sed Rufum atque alios cædit sua quæque juventus,

Rufum, qui toties Ciceronem Allobroga dixit.
215 Quis gremio Enceladi doctique Palæmonis affert,

Quantum grammaticus meruit labor? Et tamen ex hoc,
Quodcumque est, (minus est autem, quam rhetoris æra)
Discipuli custos præmordet Accenonoëtus

II. iv. 99. 186. 247. Anal. Br. t. ii. p. 213. Satrius Rufus, cui fuit cum Cice25. t. iii. p. 303. This notion seems rone æmulatio; Plin. Ep. 1. v. 11. R. closely connected with the fabled meta- or Q. Curtius Rufus, of whom nothing morphoses of many heroes of antiquity further is known than that he was an into flowers. Pers. i. 35 sqq. Suet. Ner. eminent rhetorician. GR. A very elo75.(CAS.) Prop. I. xvi. 22. (VU.) Per- quent native of Gaul. VS. fumes and odoriferous flowers, 'crocus' Olim populi prius honorem capiebat suf(Plin. xxi. 6.) among the rest, were used fragio, quam magistri desinebat esse dicto at funerals and scattered either on the obediens, &c. G. but now puer septuennis funeral pile or on the bones. Tib. III. ii

. pædagogo tabula dirumpit caput; Plaut. 23 sq. JA. KI, de Fun. Rom. iii. 5. iv. 3. Bac. III. üži, 37. M. OU. GRU, K, R. PR. iv. 109, note. see 214. This · Rufus arraigned the puShaksp. Cymb. IV. ii. and the Dirge by rity of Tully's style, G. charging him Collins. A like custom still prevails in with provincialisms and barbarisms, such France.

as were only current among the natives 209. Alexander, the pupil of Aristotle, of Savoy and those parts. sutis constat is reported to have said : præceptoribus nec Ciceroni quidem obtrectatores defuisse, plura, quam ipsis parentibus, debemus; quibus inflatus et tumens, nec satis pressus, quum ab his vivendi, ab illis bene vivendi supra modum exsultans et superfluens viderationem adipiscamur. cf.238 sq. Sen. Ben. retur; Tac. de Or. 18. 22. (LI.) Calvus vi. 16, extr. Quint. ii. 2. 9 pr. LU. PR. called him solutum et enervem ; Brutus

210. “In awe of the rod,' v. 154. elumbem et fractum. For a defence of regarding his preceptor with respectful him see Gell. xvii. 1. Quint. XI. i. 3. deference. LU. Phillyrides puerum XII. X. 1. Or an historical declamation cithara perfecit Achillen, atque ani- may be alluded to, which went to prove mos placida contudit arte feros : qui that Cicero had, in the affair of Catiline, toties socios, toties exterruit hostes, creditur identified himself with the Allobroges annosum pertimuisse senem : quas Hector rather than with his fellow-countrymen. sensurus erat, poscente magistro, verberibus Sall. B. C. PR. R. jussus præbuit ille manus ; Ov. A. A. i. 215. “To the lap. see St Luke vi. 11 sqq. PR. Stat. Ach. i. 503 sqq. (B.) 38. M. R.

Of Enceladus nothing further is known. 211. • Learnt to sing and accompany Palemon; vi. 452. LU. He was in his voice on the lyre.'PŘ. nobilis grandi the receipt of a good annual income ; G. cecinit Centaurus alumno ; Hor. Ep. as his school brought him in forty sestertia xüi. 11. R.

and he had little less in private property: Mount Pelion in Thessaly ; LU. the making together about £650 per annum. abode of the Centaurs. Apoll. II. v. 4. R.

212. Chiron, (iii. 205. PR.) one of the 216. Grammaticus; Petr. 55. Ath. xv. sons of Saturn and Phillyra, being a 1. Quint. i. 4. Gell. xiv. 5. PR. Pallad. centaur, had the body and tail of a Ep. 46 in Br. An. t. ii. p. 417. R. borse. LU. He had many heroes for 218. • The servant, who takes his his pupils. Apoll. III. xii. &. (HY.) R. little master to the day-school, must have

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Et, qui dispensat, franget sibi. Cede, Palæmon, 220 Et patere inde aliquid decrescere, non aliter, quam

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lanket Dummodo non pereat, mediæ quod noctis ab hora Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet,

Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro;
225 Dummodo non pereat, totidem olfecisse lucernas,

Quot stabant pueri, quum totus decolor esset
Flaccus et hæreret nigro fuligo Maroni.
Rara tamen merces, quæ cognitione tribuni

Non egeat. Sed vos sævas imponite leges, 230 Ut præceptori verborum regula constet,

person. M.

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the first nibble.' The metaphor is 223. The master sat in his chair, taken from a slice of bread sent, by the 203. while the boys stood; 226. GR. R. hands of a hungry messenger, to a third 224. They combed wool with a card,

which had crooked iron' teeth, like 219. · The steward breaks a bit off, those now in use. M. doctissimus artis before it leaves his hands.' M.

lanificæ, moderator pectine unco; Courage, Palæmon, be not over Claud. Eut. ï. 381 R. nice, But suffer some abatement in your Deducere ; 54. Tib. I. vi. 78–80. price; As those who deal in rugs, will (HY.) R. ask you high, And sink by pence, and 225. Each boy had his lamp, because half-pence, till you buy." G. Neither it was not yet day-light. LU. the advice nor the simile could be very 226. From this passage we learn, that palatable to the arrogance and self-im- Virgil and Horace were the standard portance of the grammarian. BRI. It is books in the grammar schools of those said however that he was very attentive days. cf. Quint. X. i. 85. PR. I. i. 12. to the main chance ; cum officinas pro- vi. 5. Petr. 5. Cic. de Or. i. 42. R. mercalium vestium exerceret ; &c. Suet. 228. “ E'en then, the stipend thus Ill. Gr. 23. R.

reduced, (216 sqq. R.) thus small, With220. Inde i. e. ex hoc ; 216.

out a law-suit, rarely comes at all.” G. 221. • The salesman' or ' factor,' who ' The tribune, who presided in the sold upon commission, and sometimes court of requests for the recovery of travelled about with goods for the manu- small debts,' and was therefore called facturer, of. Hor. lii Od. vi. 30. JN. ærarius. GR. A. Trials, which at Prop. IV. i. 38. (BK.) R. Mart. XII. first were entirely in the hands of the lyü. 14.

senators, by the Sempronian law of C. Tegetis ; v. 8. Cadurci; vi. 537. R. Gracchus were transferred to the eques222. The early hour at which these trian order, then by the Livian and schools opened is noticed also by Martial: Plautian laws to the senators and knights, (note on 126.) quid tibi nobiscum, ludi afterwards by C. Sulla they were restored scelerate magister, invisum pueris virgini- to the senate, and lastly by the Aurelian busque caput ? nondum cristati rupere law of L. Aur. Cotta they were made silentia galli : murmure jam savo verberi- common to the three classes : the tribusque tonas.

Vicini somnum non tota bunes of money matters were chosen nocte rogamus: nam vigilare leve est, per- from the plebeians. Julius Cæsar when vigilare grave; I. lxix. 1 sqq. 9 sq. PR. dictator abolished the latter decuria, which nec cogitandi nec quiescendi in Urbe locus est was presently reinstated by Augustus. R. pauperi ; negant vitam ludimagistri mane, 229. “I would have you, who are pa&c. numerare pigri damna quis potest rents, show the master no mercy.' PR. somni? XII. lvii. 3 sqq. 15. Pers. iii. 230. ' He must know the rules for

1 sqq. R.

every word.' M.

Ut legat historias, auctores noverit omnes,
Tamquam ungues digitosque suos ; ut forte rogatus,
Dum petit aut thermas aut Phobi balnea, dicat

Nutricem Anchisæ, nomen patriamque novercæ 235 Anchemoli; dicat, quot Acestes vixerit annos,

Quot Siculus Phrygibus vini donaverit urnas.
Exigite, ut mores teneros ceu pollice ducat,
Ut si quis cera vultum facit : exigite, ut sit

Et pater ipsius cætus, ne turpia ludant,
240 Ne faciant vicibus.fiNon est leve, tot puerorum

Observare manus oculosque in fine trementes.”

ور

231. : Universal history, and all the Casperia ; SV. Virg. Æn. x. 389. PR. classics, he must have at his fingers’ends.' the former, Tisiphone. VS. Quint. I. viii. M. non satis est poetas legisse, excutiendum Sen. de Br. V. 18. R. omne scriptorum genus, non propter his- 235. Acestes, king of Sicily; ævi matutorias modo sed et verba, que frequenter rus ; Virg. Æn. v. 73. PR. jus ab uuctoribus sumunt. sola grammatica 236. Quot : cf. Virg. Æn. i. 195 sq. omni studiorum genere plus habet operis (HY.) PR. quam ostentationis; Quint. I. iv. PR. XI. Siculus ' the Sicilian king.' see note on ii. 114. R.

τον Κόλχον Ηer. 1. 2. 233. (1) · Either the hot or the cold 237. The moral education of his pupils baths.' ŻU. Phæbus is said to have must be equally attended to. Suet. Ill. been a bath-keeper at Rome. This was Gr. 23. R. Pers. v. 36-40. PR. the name of one of Nero's freed-men : • That he mould.' Pers. v. 40. (K.) Tac. An. xvi. 5. (2) * Either artificial PR. ercudent alii spirantia mollius or natural baths;' the latter being warmed æra, vivos ducent de marmore vultus ; only by the sun. (3) · The baths of Virg. Æ. vi. 848 sq. M. Mart. VIII. vi. Baiæ or Cumæ ;' the latter being de- 10. Ov. M. i. 402. fingere mentes ; Sil. signated by the name of its guardian i. 441. robora in rectum, quamvis flexa god: non Phæbi vada, principesque Baia; revocabis ; curvatas trabes calor explicat et Mart. VI. xlii. 7. PR. R. Wealthy aliter nutæ in id finguntur, quod usus noblemen used to send for literary men noster exigit : quanto facilius animus acto enjoy their conversation at the baths. cipit formam, flexibilis et omni humore HG.

obsequentior ; Sen. Ep. 50. R. 234. This absurd curiosity about trifles 238. Thus Horace speaks of the young (which, as Seneca well observes, nec as cereus in vitium flecti; A. P. 163. juvat nec prodest scire) was but too com- PR. cf. Pers. iii. 23 sq. ut Hymettia mon among the ancients. Gellius gives sole cera remollescit, tractataque pola us many pleasant instances of it, to which lice multas flectitur in facies, ipsoque his learned translator has added more. fit utilis usu; Id. x. 284 sqq. qualiter Juvenal seems to allude to Tiberius, who artifici victure pollice ceræ accipiunt used to harass these poor men, by en- formas, ignemque manumque_sequuntur ; quiring who was Hecuba's mother, what Stat. Ach. i. 332 sq. Plin. Ep. VII. ix. the Sirens used to sing, &c. &c. It is 11. R. impossible to suppress a smile at the per- 239. Pater ; Quint. II. ü. PR. cf. 209 verse industry of modern critics in hunt- sq. R. ing out what Juvenal represents as puz- 'Lest they play obscenely.' M. zling those of his own time.

· The nurse

240. ' Lest they corrupt each other.' of Anchises and the step-dam of Anche- VS. molus' are no longer secrets. G. Sen. Ep. The schoolmaster observes, that he has 88. 98. 108. Gell. xiv. 6. Suet. Tib. 56. no light task imposed on him. R. 70. FA. The latter is said to have been 241. “Tremulous ;' i. 94. R.

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