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“ Hæc” inquit

cures ; et, quum se verterit annus, “ Accipe (victori populus quod postulat) aurum.'

242. The father insists upon having águndæroūrta (Heliogabalus is meant) all these points attended to. VS.

και χρυσούς, ώς σίρ τινα των τυχόντων, • When March comes round again,' aitorta Xiph. Hel. Or (2) gladiator (which was the first month of the Roman in the amphitheatre, Suet. Claud. 21. year,) ‘ you shall be paid.' Macr. i. 12. Or (3) ' actor in the theatre ;' Tac. An. PR.

i. 83. (LI.) SA, p. 911. So that these 243. ' As much gold' (i. e. five pieces, men get as much in one hour, as a cf. 122.) “as is given, at the request of schoolmaster for the whole year. A. VS. the people, to a victorious' (1)‘charioteer FA. PR. cf. Pallad. Ep. xlvi. in Br. An. in the circus, Mart. X. lxxiv, 5. ibârto (JA.) R.


ARGUMENT. In this Satire, in which Juvenal puts on a most serious and impressive air,

he demonstrates that distinction is merely personal; 19–30. that though we may derive rank and titles from our ancestors, yet if we degenerate from the virtues by which they obtained them, we cannot be considered as truly noble. 1-18. 30–38. We estimate animals not from their pedigree but from their excellencies. 56-67. Merit constitutes true nobility; 30 sqq. 211 sqq. in this, men of inferior origin are frequently pre-eminent. 39 sqq. and in this, men of high birth ought to aim at dis

tinction. 68—86. The Satire branches out into many collateral topics. From the profligacy

of the young nobility, he passes, by an easy transition, to the miserable state of the provinces, which were usually placed under their management, and which they plundered and harassed without mercy. 87 sqq. (cf. Pliny Ep. to Max. viii. 24.) This part of his Satire is treated with a freedom of thought, and an elevation of language, worthy of the best

times of the republic. From this, he returns once more to the main subject, 142 sqq. the state of

debasement into which the descendants of the first families had voluntarily sunk : 145 sqq. he severely lashes their meanness, cowardice, and base prostitution of every kind; 183–210. vices which he sets in the strongest light, by contrasting them with the opposite virtues, to be found in persons of the lowest station and the humblest descent. 231 sqq. Seneca is placed in contraposition to Nero: 211-230. Cicero with Catiline and Cethegus on the one hand, and Octavius on the other : 231--244. Marius with Catulus. 245–253. The Decii 254–258 and Servius Tullius 259 sq. are then adduced And lastly the noble traitors

of the house of Brutus are contrasted with the patriotic slave. 261–268. Considered as a whole, this is a very fine performa We may perhaps

discover a triteness in some of these latter instances; but perhaps the poet was willing to sacrifice novelty to notoriety, and imagined that his examples would be more effectual in proportion as they were more

generally recognized. He winds up with the reflexion, that of the two it is far better by personal

merits and exploits to throw a splendor around a low origin than to sully the highest by degenerate vices. 269–271. And the most ancient Roman ancestry, after all, was of a very questionable character in point

of respectability. 272–275. The detailed history of Nero's enormities shows this Satire to have been

written while they were yet fresh in the author's mind, probably before

the death of Vespasian. (see note on 51.) G. R. Horace has handled the same subject (I Satire vi.) more methodically and in

a less declamatory style. K. There is an excellent German translation of this Satire by von Denis. R. Boileau Despreaux has given a version of it, (Satire v.) which, though almost literal, is very inferior to the original. ACH. To these may be added “ High Birth, a Satire addressed to a young Nobleman; in imitation of the Eighth Satire of Juvenal. London, 1821.” 8vo. pp. 48.


STEMMATA quid faciunt? Quid prodest, Pontice, longo
Sanguine censeri pictosque ostendere vultus
Majorum et stantes in curribus Æmilianos

Et Curios jam dimidios humerosque minorem 5 Corvinum et Galbam auriculis


Quis fructus generis tabula jactare capaci
+ Corvinum, posthac multa contingere virga +

1. “Genealogical trees.' stemmate sanguine Divûm; Virg. Æ. iv. 230. quod Tusco ramum millesime ducis; SCH. Pers. iii. 28. LU. The images of noble 2. Family portraits,' which were kept ancestors were connected by festoons in cabinets, and only opened on festivals. formed with garlands of flowers, which Besides these there were masks of waxwent regularly from father to son, so that work, resembling the deceased members the pedigree could be traced thereby. of the family, which were carried in These images were ranged in their halls, funeral processions. Q. LI. T. 19 sq. and porticoes, vi. 163. Plin. xxxv. 3. On statues and triumphal cars, see 145.(HA.) R. Nobilem non facit atrium Plin. xxxiv. LU. cf. vii. 152. R. plenum fumosis imaginibus: animus facit P. Corn. Scipio Æmilianus, who acnobilem, 8c. Sen. Ep. 44. qui imagines quired the appellations of Africanus Minor in atrio exponunt, et nomina familia suæ and Numantinus, 11. ii. 154. 146. He longo ordine, ac multis stemmatum illi- was also the conqueror of Perses king of gata fleauris, in parte prima ædium collo- Macedon; Aur. Vict. PR. P. Scipio cant; noti magis quam nobiles sunt; Id. (the son of Africanus Major) adopted him Ben. iii. 28. LI. RF. satius est me meis into the Cornelian clan. R. rebus gestis florere, quam majorum opinione 4. Curii; ii. 3. LU. niti, atque ita vivere, ut sim ego posteris Mutilated from the effects of time.' meis nobilitatis initium, et virtutis erem- LU. xv. 57. dimidios Crispi equos ; Mart. plum; Cic. in Sallust : nam genus et X. i. 10. cf. ii. 219. xv. 5. R. proavos et quæ non fecimus ipsi, vir ea Humeros minor is a Grecism, as fronnostra voco; Ov. M. xiii. 40 sq. PR. nam tem minor truncam; Sil. iii. 42. V. Flac. quid imaginibus, quid avitis fulta trium- i. 582. Luc. č. 717. R. phis atria, quid pleni numeroso consule 5. M. Val. Mar. Corvinus; i. 108. fasti profuerini, si vita labat? perit omnis acquired the latter name from his vicin illo nobilitas, cujus laus est in origine tory, when military tribune, over a gigansola; Author of the Paneg. ad Pis. 8 sqq. tic Gaul, in which he was aided by a GR. Nihil eruce. faciunt, nec pro- raven. Liv. vii. 26. PR. sunt satureia; Mart. III. lxxv. 3 sq. Ser. Sulpicius Galba, the emperor, ii. Ov. Tr. III. viii. 23. BU. Of Ponticus 104. traced his pedigree up to Jupiter. nothing is known but the name. As One of his ancestors is here meant. LU. Juvenal took an interest in his conduct, Suet. 2 sq. PR. this young nobleman had probably some 6. Cf. 135 sqq. Pers. iv. 46 sqq. R. sparks of worth. As we do not find he • To display ostentatiously.' FA. LU. afterwards distinguished himself, we may quamvis, Pontica pinus, sylvæ filia nobilis, hope that his virtues were greater than jactes et genus et nomen inutile ; Hor. his talents, and, that if he did not add to I Od. xiv. 11 sqq. note on partásober his family honours, the poet's admo- Her. vii. 10. nitions prevented him, at least, from tar- 7. ' The genealogical tables' were nishing them. G. He might be descended made out in the form of trees : the first from the heroic poet of the same name, founder of the family was the root, his in the Augustan age, who was the author immediate descendants the stem, and all of a Thebaid. Prop. I. vii. ix. Ov. Tr. the collaterals from them were the 47. R.

branches.' M. Or (2) • by many fasces :' Longo. Plin. ii. 33. LU. genus alto a VS. of which a dictator had twenty-four,


Fumosos Equitum cum Dictatore Magistros,

Si coram Lepidis male vivitur? Effigies quo 10 Tot bellatorum, si luditur alea pernox

Ante Numantinos ? si dormire incipis ortu
Luciferi, quo signa duces et castra movebant?
Cur Allobrogicis et magna gaudeat ara
Natus in Herculeo Fabius lare, si cupidus, si

a consul twelve, and a master of the victoria cognomen Allobrogici sibimet ac horse six. LU. Or (3) 'to point out posteris peperit; V. Max. vi. 9. (cf. vii. with a wand to the persons before whom 214.) PR. Plin. vii. 50. xxxiii. 11. Liv. you display your pedigree.’SCH. Ep. Ixi. Flor. iii. 2. ER, Cl. Cic. His

8. Obrepsisti ud honores errore hominum, son Q. F. M. Persicus, in consequence commendatione fumosarum imuginum, of his profligacy, was interdicted from the quarum simile habes nihil præter colorem; use of his father's estate by the city Cic. in Pis. 1. The kitchen was in the prætor Q. Pompeius, father of the trihall, on which account the latter was umvir. V. Max. III. v. 2. Sen. Ben. ii. called atrium from the black colour. 21. iv. 30. T. LU. R. G. SV.SIG, Ant. J.C. R.ü: 20. PR. fumosa * The great altar' stood in the Oxstemmata; Mart. VIII. vi. 3. Sen. Ep. market near the Flaminian Circus, and 44. fæda nigro simulacra fumo; Hor. was consecrated to Hercules by Evander. III Od. vi. 4. R.

The Fabii claimed, by virtue of their 9. M. Æmil. Lepidus, puer etiam tum descent from Hercules, the exclusive progressus in aciem, hostem interemit, right to minister at it. VS. T. LU. Schol. civem servavit : cujus tum memorabilis on Liv. i. 7. ix. 29. Plut. V. Fab. operis index est in Capitolio statua bullata Macr. iii. 6. Evandrum Alcides ruri. et incincta prætexta, senatus consulto colasque vocat: constituitque sibi, quæ posita illi, qui jam virtuti maturus, honori marima dicitur, arum, hic ubi pars tempestivus; V. Max. iii. 1. PR.

Urbis de bovenomen habet ; Ov. F. i. Coram ‘in the presence of their images ;' 580 sqq. (H. BU.) PR. Virg. Æ. vij. VS. 144. R.

271. (HY.) R. • One lives ill. nonnullis solet nobilitas Gaudeat not only be vain of it, generis parere ignobilitatem mentis ; Greg. but reap advantage from it.' non sine Dial. PR.

ratione sacra

est magnarum virtutum Quo 'to what end? 142. xiv. 135. memoria: et esse plures bonos juvat, si xv. 61. Ov. Her. č. 53. iv. 157. (H.). gratia bonorum non cum ipsis cadat

10. Alea ; i. 88. the nominative for the Quid nuper Fabium Persicum, cujus ablative. R.

osculum etium impudici vitabant, sacerPernor; Virg. G. ii. 230. Thus vigi- dotem non in uno collegio fecit; nisi Verles fenestræ ; iii. 275. LU. Pers. v. 57. rucosi et Allobrogici et illi trecenti, PR.

(ü. 155.) qui hostium incursioni pro re11. Numantinos ; 3. Flor. ü. 18. PR. publica unam domum objecerant ? hoc

12. The planet Venus was called debemus virtutibus, ut non præsentes solum Vesper or Hesperus in the evening, and illas, sed etiam ablatus e conspectu colamus; Lucifer or Phosphorus in the morning. Sen. Ben. iv. 30. PR. LU. nascere præque diem veniens age, 14. Fabius, the founder of their family, Lucifer, almum; Virg. E. viii. 17. is said to have been the son of Hercules infra solem ambit ingens sidus appellatum by Vinduna, daughter of Evander. Plut. Veneris, alterno meatu vagum, ipsisque V. Fab. Sil. ii. 3. vi. 627 sqq. vii. 35. cognominibus æmulum solis ac lunæ. pre- 44. 48. vii. 217. Ov. Pont. III. ii. 100. veniens quippe et ante matutinum exoriens, F. ii. 237. 375 sqq. Macr. iii. 6. R. Luciferi nomen accipit, ut sol alter, diem The Lares were common to the whole maturans. contra, ab occasu refulgens, clan, and were preserved by each family: nuncupatur Vesper, ut prorogans lucem privata sacra perpetua sunto; a Law of the vicemque lunæ reddens; Plin. ïi. 8. PR. XII Tables. Hence they are called

13. Q. Fab. Mar. Æmilianus Gullica paterni; xii. 89, patrii; Tib. I. x, 15.

15 Vanus et Euganea quantumvis mollior agna;

Si tenerum adtritus Catinensi pumice lumbum
Squalentes traducit avos emtorque veneni
Frangenda miseram funestat imagine gentem?
Tota licet veteres exornent undique ceræ

Synes. Ep. v. 72. Di Penates parentum age.' cf. Sil. i. 211. ïï. 655. iv. 375.
familiæque Lar pater ; Plaut. Merc.i. 5. Virg. G. ii. 161. Apollon. ii. 1007. ii.
PL. They are said to be the sons of 411. Or (2) 'rough and manly,'ü. 11,
Mercury and the nymph Lara : Ov. F. ii. note. Or (3) ‘mourning for the dege-
According to Plato, good men became neracy of their posterity.' R. FA.
Lares after death, and wicked men, 18. The busts and statues of such as
Lemures. PR.

had been guilty of any capital crime were 15. The Euganeans originally dwelt sometimes delivered up to the common between the Alps and the Adriatic ; they executioner to be destroyed, that they were driven to the hills by the Veneti

, might not disgrace the name, by being and settled between the river Athesis carried with the rest in the funeral proand the lake Larius. Liv. i. 1. Their cessions of the family. LU. x. 58. PR. name was frequently applied to the Ve- Plin. Pan. 52. Tac. A. vi. 2. (LI.) R. netians, in whose territory was the town This might have operated as a very powof Altinum at the mouth of the Silis, erful preventive of vice, had it not, like famous for its white wool: Mart. XIV. many other salutary customs, been perclv. (quoted in the note on vi. 150.) verted by the emperors and their favourColum. VII. q. 3. Among other excel- ites to the purposes of private hatred and lent sheep are named, the Circumpaduna; revenge. Motions were sometimes made Plin. viii. 48 s 73, and the Pollentinæ ; in the senate, for breaking the busts of Mart. XIV. clvii. R. Plin. iv. 20. SCH. such as were obnoxious to the tyrant of

* More soft denotes effeminacy: as the day; and even so early as the reign agna Galor si mollior Phalantini ; Mart. of Tiberius, we find that it was not conV. xxxvi. 2. R.

sidered safe, in the splendid funeral of 16. “ If, with anxious care, From his Junia, the wife of Cassius, to bring out soft limbs he pumice every hair, And among the numerous busts of her illusshame his rough-hewn sires !” G. trious family, either that of her husband or

Catina (now Catania) a town of Sicily that of her brother. “ Could but our fanear Ætna, was buried by a shower of thers break the bonds of fate, And see their

pumice stones’ in one of the eruptions Offspring thus degenerate ; How they conof that mountain. Oros. v. 13. It had tend for birth and names unknown, And been notorious for its luxury and profli- build on others' actions, not their own, gacy. VS. T. It suffered much in 1669 They'd burn their titles, and their tombs Å.Ď. PR. and again in 1693. M. Its deface, And disavow the vile, degenerate lands were damaged, according to Thu- race : For fame of families is all a cheat, cydides, in 425 B.C.

'Tis personal virtue only, makes us Pumex; in usu corporum lavigandorum great ;" De Foe, quoted from memory. feminis, jam quidem et viris; Plin. xxxvi. G. 21. PR. Ov. A. A. i. 506. R.

19. Atriaque immodicis arctat imagini17. ^ He exposes to public derision.' bus; Mart. II. xc. 6. LU. non facit noThe metaphor is taken from guilty per- bilem atrium plenum fumosis imaginibus. sons being carried through the forum nemo in nostram gloriam vixit, neque quod with the name and nature of their offence ante fuit, nostrum est. animus facit

nobilem, suspended round their neck. FA. Suet. cui ex quacumque conditione supra forTit. 8. PR. cf. xi. 31. Liv. ii. 38. xxxii. tunam licet surgere. quis est generosus? 23. Mart. I. liv. 3. III. lxxiv. 5. VI. ad virtutem bene a natura compositus ; Ixxvii. 5. R. Or 'conveys their images Sen. Ep. 44. Auth. of Pan. ad Pis. 5

$99 in funeral processions.' GE.

Sall. B. J. 85. Pers. iii. 29. (K.) R. Squalentes may be (1) synonymous Juvenal perhaps had in his eye, Øv. Am. with fumosos, 8. smoky and dusty from I. viii. 65. H.

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