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60 Dives erit, magno quæ dormit tertia lecto. Tu nube atque tace: donant arcana cylindros. De nobis post hæc tristis sententia fertur: Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura columbas.” Fugerunt trepidi vera ac manifesta canentem 65 Stoicidæ. Quid enim falsi Lauronia? Sed quid Non facient alii, quum tu multicia sumas, Cretice, et hanc vestem populo mirante perores In Proculas et Pollitas? Est mocha Labulla: Damnetur, si vis, etiam Carfinia. Talem 70 Non sumet damnata togam.

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insinuates that the husband had neglected her, to follow his vile propensities. LU. Uxor virgo maneret; ix. 72. puella; 74. M. See also i. 84. iii. 160. iv. 35. 114. xiii. 80. &c.

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60. A wife, who consents to sleep three in a bed, is sure to make her fortune by the hush-money she will receive.' LU. M.

61. Lauronia here apostrophizes the unmarried, telling them beforehand what they have to expect. M.

Your keeping a secret will ensure presents of costly jewels.' LU. Plin. xxxvii. 5. GR. cf. vi. 459. PR.

62. If this be so, the melancholy truth is told of us in the proverb.' FA. 63. See 2. HR. Of course' ravens' and 'doves' designate 'men' and 'women.' LU. Democrates, Zaleucus, and Anacharsis compared laws to cobwebs, which only catch small insects, whereas larger ones break through them. Ter. Phor. III. ii. 16. R.

64. Trepidi conscience-stricken;' as the Pharisees were in St John viii. 9. M. There is sarcasm in this word, for the Stoics professed to be ἀπαθεῖς. LU.

Canentem delivering oracularly:' cantare; Plaut. Bac. IV. ix. 61. Mos. IV. ii. 64. Rud. II. v. 21. R.

65. Stoicidæ 'These new-fangled Stoics;' formed as acide, Priamida, &c. PR. Thus Eraxis note on 20. R. Or rather 'apes of the Stoics.' HR.

Now the satire proceeds to the Stoici pæne Epicurei: cf. Î1. HR.

66. Quid domini faciant, audent quum talia fures! Virg. E. iii. 16. GRE.

'Thou, a magistrate!' PR.

"Sed Julius ardet;

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186. called serica as coming from India through the country of the Seres, now Bocharia. They were first imported under the Emperors for ladies' dresses, but, being transparent (78. Tib. IV. vi. 13.), gave great offence: video sericas vestes, si vestes vocandæ sunt, in quibus nihil est quo defendi corpus aut denique pudor possit: &c. Sen. Ben. vii. 9. denudat fœminas vestis; Plin. xi. 23. P. Syrus calls them ventus textilis and nebula linea. GR. R. G. See notes on vi. 259 sq.

Sumas is the opposite to ponas. GR. cf. 74. iii. 56.

67. By the name of Creticus (viii. 38.), is designated a degenerate descendant of the Cæcilius Metellus who acquired that appellation from the conquest of Crete; with some allusion to the inexorable severity of the ancient Cretan judges, Minos and Rhadamanthus. GRÆ. HR. R.

Perorare to sum up,' 'to deliver a studied harangue.' M.

68. By Procula (iii. 203.), Pollita, &c. are meant females amenable to the Julian law. R.

70. There is no denying her guilt: you may sentence her to infamy: and, when condemned, she may be obliged to lay aside the decent vest (stolam) and assume the gown of penance (togam): but, bad as she is, she would never degrade herself by wearing such a gown.' LU. Cicero distinguishes the virilis toga from the muliebris stola; Phil. but females of disreputable character were obliged to wear the former: hence the virtuous and the loose part of the sex were discriminated as stolate and togata. cf. Hor. I S. ii. 63. 82. Tib. I. vi. 68. IV. x. 3. Mart. II. xxxix. X. lii. R1.

Multicia thin muslin robes,' 76. xi. PR. G. R.

Estuo." Nudus agas! Minus est insania turpis.
"En habitum, quo te leges ac jura ferentem
Vulneribus crudis populus modo victor et illud
Montanum positis audiret vulgus aratris."
75 Quid non proclames, in corpore judicis ista
Si videas? Quæro, an deceant multicia testem?
Acer et indomitus libertatisque magister,
Cretice, perluces. Dedit hanc contagio labem
Et dabit in plures; sicut grex totus in agris
80 Unius scabie cadit et porrigine porci,
Uvaque conspecta livorem ducit ab uva.

Fœdius hoc aliquid quandoque audebis amictu.
Nemo repente venit turpissimus.

These are the dog-days:' LU. tosam fervens Julius coquit messem; Mart. X. lxii. 7. R.

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71. If you are so dreadfully hot, you had better strip at once! you might then have some claim upon our pity as a lunatic.' LU. Nudus (as yvuvos) means with nothing but the tunic on; (Virg. G. i. 299.) R. instead of which, competitors at the games wore campestria drawers.' Hor. I Ep. xi. 18. AD.

With agas understand causas. R. 72. A pretty dress, forsooth, you would adopt!' ef. Virg. Æ. iv. 597. xii. 359 sqq. &c. R.

73. "Our legions, with fresh laurels crown'd, And smarting still from many a glorious wound." G.

75. As Mare, terra, cœlum, Di vostram fidem!" Plaut. or O tempora! O mores!" Cic. Cat. GR. Mart. IX. lxxi. R. See note on 25. PR.

76. It would be indecent even in a witness: much more in a judge; and that judge a stoic!' An argument a fortiori. BRI. GR.

77. Sour and rigid.' R.

It was the tenet of the Stoics or povos ὁ σοφὸς ἐλεύθερος, καὶ πᾶς ἄφρων δοῦλος. libertas est potestas vivendi ut velis; Cic. Par. V. i. 4. M. ἐλευθερία, ἐξουσία αὐτοgayias D. Laert. vii. 121. cf. Hor. II S. vii. 83 sqq. I Ep. xvi. 63. R.

78. Perluces has a double meaning: the veil thrown over your disposition is as flimsy as that which exposes, rather than conceals, your person.' PR. In the latter sense we have a beau described as

Accipient te

crine nitens, niger unguento, per lucidus ostro; Mart. XII. xxxviii. 3. R.

The distemper is catching: it will spread.' BRI. Adspice, quid faciant commercia! 166. contagia vites; hæc etiam pecori sæpe nocere solent: &c. Ov. R. A. 613 sqq. Virg. E. i. 51. VS. R. Qorigovaiv on xeñol dμiñías nanai Menander quoted by St Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 33.

79. Virg. G. iii. 441 sqq. 468 sqq. R. "One sickly sheep infects the flock, And poisons all the rest;" Watts, D. S. xxi. 15 sq.

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81. According to the proverb, uva uvam videndo varia fit: VS. βότρυς πρὸς βότρυν rivera Suidas. GR. It was a vulgar notion that the dark colour, in ripening, was communicated from grape to grape.'


'One plum gets colour by looking at another' is a common saying in Persia: Gladwin, Bahar Danush. G. Livor is

the purple tinge;' μrλavóxews Bórgus Anacr. 1. 1. lividos distinguet autumnus racemos purpureo varius colore; Hor. II Od. v. 10 sqq. variat liventibus uva racemis; Prop. IV. ii. 13. R.

82. You will not stop here :' quandoque some of these days.

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Perhaps we should read aliud. LU.

83. "Never let man be bold enough to say, Thus, and no farther let my passion stray: The first crime past compels us on to more, And guilt proves fate, which was but choice before." The author I have forgotten. M. "There is a method in man's wickedness, It grows up by degrees. I am not come so high

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Paulatim, qui longa domi redimicula sumunt
85 Frontibus et toto posuere monilia collo

Atque Bonam teneræ placant abdomine porcæ
magno cratere Deam. Sed more sinistro
Exagitata procul non intrat femina limen.
Solis ara Deæ maribus patet. "Ite profana!"
90 Clamatur: nullo gemit hic tibicina cornu.
Talia secreta coluerunt Orgia tæda

Cecropiam soliti Baptæ lassare Cotytto.


as killing of myself; there are A hundred
thousand sins 'twixt it and me, Which
I must do I shall come to't at last;"
Beaum. King and no King. Gresset
applies it very happily to the singular
depravity of the unfortunate Ver-Vert:
"Il démentit les célébres maximes Où nous
lisons, qu'on ne vient aux grands crimes
Que par degrés. Il fut un scélérat Profes
d'abord, et sans noviciat." G.

Venit for fit, as venias for fias; vii. 29.
R. In French devenir, in Italian
divenire, to become.'

In time, no doubt, you will be considered qualified for admission into that abominable club of atheists, which has been formed for the sole purpose of burlesquing the rites of the Good Goddess.' G. vi. 314. Ov. A. A. iii. 244. R.

84. Domi in private.'

Redimicula fillets' or 'ribbons' hanging from their caps: et tunica manicas et habent redimicula mitra; Virg. Æ. ix. 614, &c. PR. iii. 66. R.

85. Monilia are so called as having been originally memorials' of merit. TÏ. See note on στρεπτοφόρος Her. viii. 113. 'These necklaces' often consisted of so many rows as to cover the whole neck.' M.

86. It appears that more than one goddess was worshipped under this name: Macrob. Sat. i. 12. PR. vi. 314 sqq. R.

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Antiqui sumen vocabant abdomen; Plin. xi. 84. PR. It may here be put, by synecdoche, for the whole animal, as in xii. 73. M.

87. Cf. xii. 8. PR. Ov. F. iii. 418. R. The large bowl' hints at the free indulgence which prevailed even among the ladies at their secret rites. G. vi. 315. On crater see note on Her. iii. 130.

'By a contrary regulation.' FA.

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90. Here no female minstrel sounds the plaintive horn.' The horn, flute, and trumpet were used (as the bell among us) to summon the worshippers together. LU. (cf. Dan. iii.) The Phrygian flute (tibia, iii. 63.) was curved and is constantly called cornu: as nota Bona secreta Dea, quum tibia lumbos incitat et cornu pariter vinoque feruntur; vi. 314 sq. adunco tibia cornu; Ov. Met. iii. 533. xi. 16. F. iv. 181. 'The Berecynthian horn' (Hor. I Od. xviii. 13 sq.) is used as synonymous with 'the Berecynthian flute;' III Od. xix. 18 sq. IV Öd. i. 22 sq. R.

Gemere; vii. 71. R.

91. Orgies' were so called from the enthusiastic rage (gy) with which they were celebrated.' FA.

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'Mystic torches' were carried in the Eleusinian procession. R.

92. The Athenians were called Cecropians from Cecrops their first king. GR.

Bapta so called from being deeply imbued in impurities,' or from their plunging in water' to purify themselves after their nefarious rites. GR. It is the title of a comedy of Eupolis, wherein he lashed such effeminate practices; in consequence of which, Alcibiades, who was the principal object of attack, endeavoured to have the author assassinated. VS.

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Ille supercilium madida fuligine tactum
Obliqua producit acu pingitque trementes
95 Adtollens oculos: vitreo bibit ille Priapo
Reticulumque comis auratum ingentibus implet,
Cærulea indutus scutulata aut galbana rasa
Et per Junonem domini jurante ministro.
Ille tenet speculum, pathici gestamen Othonis,

'So as to fatigue and disgust even Cotytto, the goddess of wantonness,' whose worship was introduced from Edonia in Thrace. GR.

93. We have here a picture quite in Hogarth's style. We are admitted into the conventicle of this detestable club, and behold the members at their several employ


The custom of tinging the eyes and eyebrows originated in the East. "Jezabel put her eyes in paint;" 2 Kgs. ix. 30, margin; "i.e. in stibium, which made the eyes look black, and was accounted beautiful and also dilated the eyebrows, and made the eyes appear big; which, in some countries, was also thought very amiable.' PT. "La grande beauté des dames Arabes et de toutes les femmes de l'Orient est d'avoir de grands yeux noirs bien fendus et à fleur de téte; Mémoires d'Arvieux t. ii. p. 297. We read of Astyages as κεκοσμημένος ὀφθαλμῶν ὑποYeap Xen. Cyr. 1. iii. 2. From the East, this fashion travelled to Greece; from Greece to Rome: the Greek ladies used antimony or black lead; the Romans lamp-black mixed with bear's grease. Plin. xxxviii. 11. AR. Black was the favourite colour; Hor. A. P. 37. PR. Mart. IX. xxxviii. 6. Nigro pulvere oculorum exordia producuntur; Tert. de Hab. Mul. 2. R. The fashion continued till a late date: μndè pédaive reoïow væò βλεφάροισιν ὄπωπας Naumach. G. and Jerome speaks of orbes stibio fuliginatos. FA. The operation, as performed by the Turkish females at Aleppo, is thus described by Shaw and Russel : Their method of doing it is by a cylindrical piece of silver, steel, or ivory, about two inches long, made very smooth, and about the size of a common probe. This they wet with water, in order that the powder of lead ore may stick to it, and applying the middle part horizontally to the eye, they shut the eyelids upon it, and so

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drawing it through between them, it blacks the inside, leaving a narrow black rim all round the edge." M. See BO. p. 23.

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Turning up his eyes, which quiver under the operation,' from the extreme sensitiveness of the part. They might be also 'tremulous from wantonness.' vii. 241. oculos udos ac tremulos, ac prona libidine marcidos, jam jamque semiadopertulos; Apul. Met. iii. p. 135. Ov. A. A. ii. 721. Pers. i. 18. Hor. I Od. xxxvi. 17. Lucian. Am. 14. LU. M. R.

95. In poculis libidines cælare juvit ac per obscœnitates hibere; Plin. xxxiii. pr. GR.

Priapus, the son of Bacchus and Venus, was the god of gardens and the tutelary deity of Abydos. PR.

96. His long and thick tresses are confined in network of gold.' Plin. xii. 14. PR. M. Otho and Elagabalus powdered their hair with gold dust. ΗΝ.


97. Understand vestimenta. checks, or green (or pale yellow) stuffs, shorn of the pile.' Whence galbanos

habet mores; Mart. I. xcvii. 9. LU. homo galbanatus; Id. III. lxxxii. 5. M. The Gauls invented checked stuffs. Rasa are opposed to pera. GR. They came into fashion in the Augustan age. PR. Mart. II. lxxxv. 4. Lana Istria Liburniaque pilo propior quam lane, pexis aliena vestibus, et quam Salacia scutulato textu commendat in Lusitania; Plin. viii. 48 s 73. xi. 24 s 28. R.

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98. Nay even the valet swears by his lord's Juno.' BR. Men used to swear by the Gods, women by the Goddesses, Plin. ii. 7. PR. and servants by their master's Genius. cf. Tib. III. vi. 48. R. Notes on Hor. ÎII Od. xvii. 14.

99. Another parody on Virgil: magni gestamen Abantis; Æ. iii. 286. vii. 246. and corripit haslam Actoris Aurunci spolium; E. xii. 93 sq. This wretch was proud of the effeminate Otho's mirror,'

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100 Actoris Aurunci spolium, quo se ille videbat
Armatum, quum jam tolli vexilla juberet.
Res memoranda novis annalibus atque recenti
Historia, speculum civilis sarcina belli.

Nimirum summi ducis est, occidere Galbam
105 Et curare cutem; summi constantia civis,
Bebriaci campo spolium affectare Palatî
Et pressum in faciem digitis extendere panem:

no less than Turnus was of the gallant Actor's spear.' LU. Or of which Otho had erst despoiled some other redoubted champion.' Their mirrors were made of polished metal, and sometimes equalled the full length of the figure. Sen. Q. N. i. 17. HN. Stat. III S. iv. 94. BO. On the effeminacy of Otho, see Suet. 2. and 12. Tac. H. i. 71. &c. R. Though a favourite of Nero, he was the first to join Galba, of whose assassination he afterwards became the author. As an enemy of Galba (whom Vespasian suspected of a design upon his life) and of Vitellius, he was regarded with favour by the Flavian family, and consequently with aversion by Juvenal. Tacitus represents differently his last march: nec illi segne aut corruptum luxu iter; sed lorica ferrea usus est, et ante signa pedester, horridus, incomptus, fama que dissimilis; H.ii. 11. G.

101. When an army encamped, the standards were pitched in the ground near the general's tent. When battle was to be given, the general commanded the standard to be taken up.' Tolli is opposed to statui. GR. M. The vexillum was 'a red flag,' which was hoisted on a spear from the top of the general's tent as a signal of preparation for battle. LI. 'Otho gave his orders from his toilet, while he was admiring himself in the glass.'


102. In 'Annals,' the facts are digested under their several years. PR.

103. In a civil war, when the empire of the world was at stake!' viz. that between Otho and Vitellius. Nec deerant qui ambitione stolida luxuriosos apparatus conviviorum, et irritamenta libidinum, ut instrumenta belli mercarentur; Tac. H. i. 88. FA.

104. The antithesis here depends on the punctuation. HK. 'At one time to be acting the assassin, at another the petit

maitre.' After his suicide, his soldiers extolled him as fortissimum virum, unicum imperatorem; Suet. 12. Our satirist observes that such a character was undoubtedly (nimirum is used ironically, xiv. 54. Sil. v. 114. Hor. II S. ii. 106. as scilicet in 122. v. 76. vi. 239. vii. 159. xiv. 156.) Otho's due.' Suet. Galb. 19. Tac. H. i. 41 sqq. It was a great feat to murder an old man' manibus pedibusque articulari morbo distortissimis; S. G. 21. 23.

It was a worthy occupation to be softening his cheeks with cosmetics:' munditiarum pæne muliebrium; vulso corpore; quin et faciem quotidie rasitare, ac pane madido linere consuetum: idque instituisse a prima lanugine, ne barbatus unquam esset; Suet. Oth. 12. PR. HN. R.

105 and 107. vi. 464. Hor. I Ep. iv. 15. R. In cute curanda plus æquo operata juventus; Id. ii. 29.

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Consistency worthy of the first citizen in the republic! R. It was currently reported after his death, Galbum ab eo non tam dominandi, quam reipublicæ ac libertatis restituendæ causa interemptum ; Suet. Oth. 12.

106. The battle of Bebriacum' (between Verona and Cremona) decided the fate of the empire and transferred the purple to Vitellius. Tac. H. ii. 14 sqq. Suet. Oth. 8 sq. PR. R.

The spoil of the palace' intimates that the imperial dignity had become the prey of each daring adventurer. R.

107. Slices of bread, made of rice, beans, or wheat, and soaked in asses' milk, were spread over the face as a cosmetic. LU. vi. 461 sqq. CAS. Cutem in facie erugari et tenerescere, et candorem custodiri lacte_asinino putabant; unde Poppea uxor Neronis, quocunque ire contigisset, secum sexcentas asellas ducebat; Plin. xxviii. 12. xi. 41. PR. Tib. I. viii. 11. R.

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