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Quod nec in Assyrio pharetrata Semiramis orbe,
Mosta nec Actiaca fecit Cleopatra carina.
110 Hic nullus verbis pudor aut reverentia mensæ.
Hic turpis Cybeles et fracta voce loquendi
Libertas et crine senex phanaticus albo

Sacrorum antistes, rarum ac memorabile magni Gutturis exemplum conducendusque magister. 115 Quid tamen exspectant, Phrygio quos tempus erat jam More supervacuam cultris abrumpere carnem? Quadringenta dedit Gracchus sestertia dotem

108. • Even the most luxurious queens, when they went forth to war, discontinued such effeminate habits.' Semiramis, Assyriorum regina, cum ei circa cultum capitis occupatæ nuntiatum esset Babylonem defecisse, altera parte crinium adhuc soluta, protinus ad eam expugnandam cucurrit, nec prius decorem capillorum in ordinem, quam tantam urbem in potestatem suam, redegit. Quocirca statua ejus Babylone posita est illo habitu, quo, ad ultionem exigendum, celeritate præcipiti tetendit; V. Max. ix. 3. Just. i. 2. PR.

Orbe empire.' VA.

109. Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, queen of Egypt and mistress of Antony, was present to witness her paramour's sad' defeat by Augustus at Actium.' LU. cum aurea puppe veloque purpureo se in altum dedit; Plin. xix. 1. See Shakspeare's description of her galley Ant. and Cl. II. ii. M. Flor. iv. 11. for. I Od. xxxvii. R. Prop. IV. vi.

110 In this precious conclave.' reá

τὸν ἱερὸν χρῆμα, δι' ἧς ὁ θεὸς μεται φίλιός τε καὶ ξένιος· Synes. Ep. 7TH Nusquam reverentia mensæ; Claud in Ruf. i. 229. R. Among many absurd and many impious tenets of paganism, there are some of excellent tendency and not undeserving of imitation. Such was their hospitality, founded on the notion that celestials sometimes visited the abodes of men. cf. Hebr. xiii. 2. Gen. xviii. 1-8. xix. 1-3. Olim mos erat et mensæ credere adesse deos; Ov. F. vi. 305 sq. Præsentes numque ante domus invisere castas sæpius, et sese mortali ostendere cœtu calicola, nondum spreta pietate, solebant; Cat. Ixiv. 385 sqq. Hence a stranger, however humble his exterior, was treated with respect: vou po lépes

ἔστ', οὐδ ̓ εἰ κακίων σέθεν ἔλθοι, ξεῖνον ἀτιμῆσαι πρὸς γὰρ Διός εἰσιν ἅπαντες ξεῖνοί TE TTWXO T Hom. Od. 56 sqq. Z 107 sq. "I tried your charity, When in a beggar's shape you took me up, And clothed my naked limbs, and after fed, As you believed, my famish'd mouth. Learn all, By your example, to look on the poor With gentle eyes! for in such habits, often, Angels desire an alms;" Massinger Virg. Mart. IV. iii. G.

111. Such disgraceful licentiousness as prevails at the Megalesian rites among the emasculated priests of the Phrygian goddess.' LU. cf. Diod. Sic. iv.5. Ov. F. iv. PR. R. The grossness of these ceremonies was such, that the parents of the actors were ashamed to be present at the rehearsals, which took place at home, previous to the celebration of the festival. G.

They lisped their obscenities in a falsetto voice.' GE. cf. Augustin. xi. 111. LU.

112. Phanaticus' possessed.' Virg. Æ. vi. 46 sqq. M.


114. See i. 140. R.

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Cornicini, sive hic recto cantaverat ære.

Signatæ tabulæ: dictum "Feliciter!" Ingens
120 Cœna sedet: gremio jacuit nova nupta mariti.
O proceres, censore opus est an haruspice nobis?
Scilicet horreres majoraque monstra putares,
Si mulier vitulum vel si bos ederet agnum?
Segmenta et longos habitus et flamea sumit, and m
125 Arcano qui sacra ferens nutantia loro

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'A descendant of the Gracchi.' cf. 24. PR. Of this horrible transaction no contemporary writer speaks: Nero, however, had set the example; (Tac. An. xv. 38.) and royalty is never at a loss for imitators. vi. 616. G.

118. To a horn-blower, or else to a trumpeter.' Tuba directi æris, cornua flexi; Ov.M.i.98. The Romans used only wind-instruments in their army. M. The clarion' lituus belonged to the cavalry. Hor. II Od. i. 17 sq. Schol. on I Od. i. 23.

119. The marriage-writings are signed and sealed. "We wish you joy!" is the general exclamation.' Understand cedant hæ nuptiæ. PR. Felix hoc; alium desine velle virum. LU. Suet. Dom. 13. 120. A sumptuous banquet is set out.' i. 96. Ov. Tr. ii. 481. HO. M. or An immense supper-party sits down to table.' BRI. cf. 34. v. 82. R.

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The bride' i. e. Gracchus; the bridegroom' i. e. the trumpeter. LU. cf. Tac. An. xi. 27. Ov. Âm. I. iv.

5. R.

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121. Proceres; see Pers. i. 52. PR. There is a bitter sarcasm in this appeal to the patricians,' who were themselves deeply implicated in many of these disgusting proceedings. GR.

'Do we need a censor to correct such enormities? or rather a soothsayer to expiate such portentous prodigies?' VS. vi. 549 sqq. PR. There were two censors, who had the power to degrade citizens from their several ranks and to expel senators from the house. They were formerly so strict as to be formidable even to their colleagues. M. See 2. HR.

It was the office of the soothsayer, when any prodigy occurred, to ascertain and prescribe the expiation which the Gods required. M.

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Virgins on their wedding-day wore a light flame-coloured hood, that the spectators might confound the glow shed over the cheek by the tint of the veil, with the suffusion of modesty: G. Mart. XI. 1xxviii. 3. PR. vi. 225. x. 334. timidum nupta leviter tectura pudorem lutea demissos velarunt flammea vultus; Luc. ii. 360 sq.

From the bride's being enveloped in this veil, she was said nubere viro. R. See notes on 134 and 137.

125. Ov. F. iii. 259 sqq. PR. Most of the Commentators by sacra understand ancilia. The epithet arcano may then refer either to the ignorance as to the genuine shield, or to the strap on the inside by which the shields were suspended; and nutantia to the swinging of the shields to and fro, as the priests leaped and danced. FA. It would seem more natural to understand simulacra with sacra, supposing twelve of the Salii to have borne the ancilia, and the other twelve priests to have carried images of the Gods, which, by means of a concealed thong, were made to nod their heads in answer to the acclamations and plaudits of the surrounding multitude. Thus the image of Venus, which was borne in procession at the Circensian games, annuit et motu signa secunda dedit; Ov. Am. III. ii. 58. M. A similar trick is said to have been played off some few years ago by the priests in Portugal, with an image of the Virgin, to confirm Don Miguel's right

An; Öv. F. ii. 394. H.
122. Monstrum is any thing out of to the throne.

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Sudavit clypeis ancilibus. O pater Urbis,
Unde nefas tantum Latiis pastoribus? unde
Hæc tetigit, Gradive, tuos urtica nepotes?

Traditur ecce viro clarus genere atque opibus vir:

130 Nee galeam quassas nec terram cuspide pulsas - 1/2-12.

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Nec quereris patri? Vade ergo et cede severi
Jugeribus campi, quem negligis! "Officium cras
Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini."
Quæ causa officii? "Quid quæris? Nubit amicus,

126. The Salii were priests of Mars, (so called from their dancing, Ov. F. iii. 387.) chosen out of the first families at Rome, as guardians of the heaven-descended buckler on which depended the fate of the empire. Numa had eleven other shields made, exactly similar to the original. The Salii were at first twelve: Tullus Hostilius doubled the number. FA. exnowy ὑπορχοῦνται διαπορευόμενοι τὴν πόλιν κινοῦνται δὲ ἐπιτερπῶς, ελιγμούς τινας καὶ μεταβολὰς ἐν ῥυθμῷ τάχος ἔχοντι και πυκνότητα μετὰ ῥώμης καὶ κουφότητος árodidóvres Plut. Num. R. Virg. Æ. viii. 285.

The neuter ancile is an adjective and agrees with scutum: as ancilia arma; V. Max. I. i. 9. it is derived from ancisus cut around;' Ov. F. iii. 377 sq. or from ȧyzúv curved;' Plut. Num. p. 69.

PR. R.

Mars himself is here apostrophized, the father of Romulus, the founder, and Remus. FA. Hor. I Od. ii. 35 sqq. M. "Wherein is thy paternal care displayed?'


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127. Where is the simplicity and innocence of that hardy race, to which Romulus and our forefathers belonged?' VS. PR. iii. 67. R. viii. 275. On the origin of the name Latium, see Virg. Æ. viii. 319 sqq. M.

128. Mars was called Gradivus (xiii. 113. Virg. Æ. iii. 34.) either from gradiendo taking long strides,' or 'marching orderly;' or from xgadawy brandishing his spear;' GR. μan gà ßißàs, πραδάων δολιχόσκιον ἔγχος· Hom. Il. H 213. M. or from a Thracian word signifying brave.' PR.

Urtica a burning itch' like that excited by the nettle.' LU. xi. 166. R.

129. Is consigned over.' Mart. XI.

1xxviii. 11. GR. cf. Suet. Ner. 29. FA. See 117. R.

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130. And yet thou evincest no symptoms of indignation!' FA. xiii. 113 sqq. cf. Hom. Od. E 285. Virg. Æ. vii. 292. V. Flac. i. 528. vii. 577. R. Cuspis was the point of a sword or spear.' LU.

131. Mars was the son of Jupiter and Juno. PR. Hom. II. E 896. According to others of Juno only. Ov. F. v. 229. M. If the evil is grown too enormous to be checked by thy own power, complain to thy father, who is armed with lightnings. FA.

Cede for discede. FA. iii. 29. Virg. Æ. vi. 460. M. Make room for some other deity, who will take more care of his charge.' R.

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The campus Martius (Liv. ii. 5.) is put for Rome,' and is called severus ironically, with reference to the present impunity of crime as contrasted with the ancient severity of punishment: (extraordinary public trials used to be held in the Field of Mars.') PR. R. This epithet also belongs to the god himself; Mart. X. xxx. 2. GR. M.

132. The satirist now introduces a conversation relating to one of these infamous weddings. Officium was 'a duty undertaken out of kindness or compliment:' nuptiale (Petron.) or nuptiarum (Suet. Claud. 26.) is here understood. Plin. Ep. i. 9. T. M. R.

133. Marriage contracts were often signed in the portico of the temple of Romulus on the Quirinal hill:' T. M. Mart. XI. i. 9. PR. in colle Quirini; Hor II Ep. ii. 68. I Od. ii. 46. Ον. Μ. xiv. 836. R.

134. Cannot you guess? a gentleman of my acquaintance is to be led to the altar.' Nubere applies only to the bride, ducere to the bridegroom. GR. 117. i. 62.78. R. See 124 and 137.

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135 Nec multos adhibet." Liceat modo vivere; fient,
Fient ista palam, cupient et in acta referri.
Interea tormentum ingens nubentibus hæret,
Quod nequeunt parere et partu retinere maritos.
Sed melius, quod nil animis in corpora juris
140 Natura indulget. Steriles morientur et illis
Turgida non prodest condita pyxide Lyde
Nec prodest agili palmas præbere Luperco.
Vicit et hoc monstrum tunicati fuscina Gracchi,

135. There will be but a small party to witness the ceremony:' because the Scatinian law was still in being. LU. Pontice, si qua facis, sine teste facis, sine turba; non adhibes multos: Pontice, 1 cautus homo es; Mart. VII. c. 3 sq. GRÆ. If it please the gods to spare our lives.' PR.

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136. The repetition of the word fient adds force to the prediction. Instances of this kind occur constantly in the Greek


Salvian, who wrote in the fifth century, speaking of this dedecoris scelerisque consortium, as he calls it, says that it spread all over the city, and though the act itself was not common to all, yet the approbation of it was. M.



Acta the public registers.' FA. ix. 84. R. LI. on Tac. An. v. 4. 137. Nubentibus 'these male brides.' 138. Such was the complaint of Eutropius generis pro sors durissima nostri! famina cum senuit, retinet connubia partu, uxorisque decus matris reverentia pensat: nos Lucina fugit, nec pignore nitimur ullo; Claud. in Eut. i. 71 sqq. FA.

Children constitute a bond of love: and sterility was a frequent cause of divorce. PR. vi. 142 sqq. R.

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139. It is just as well that nature prohibits the fulfilment of such extravagant wishes.' BRI.

141. Lyde was some woman who compounded, and sold in small boxes, (ružis from being originally made of box wood,' BO.) a specific against barrenness. T. The epithet may either imply her own corpulence, as being an old woman, BE. or the effects of her nostrum. GR. Some physicians say that a woman can conceive, if she carries in her bosom a spider shut up in a box! J. and Arachne might be called Lyde from the place of her nativity. FA. A strange interpretation!

142. The festival of the Lupercalia was instituted in honour of Pan (ovium custos; Virg. G. i. 17.) because lupos arcet. A goat, the emblem of fecundity, being sacrificed, those who officiated put on the skin of the victim and ran about with either a thong of the skin or a wand in their hands, with which they struck the palms of the women who threw themselves in their way to have the benefit of the charm. Excipe fecundæ patienter verbera dextræ; Ov. F. ii. 427 &c. LU. Ille caprum mactat: jussæ sua terga marita pellibus exsectis percutienda dabunt; 445 sq. Shakspeare alludes to it:

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Forget not in your speed To touch
Calphurnia for our elders say, The
barren touched in this holy chase, Shake
off their sterile curse;" J. Cæs. I. ii. M.
This superstitious practice was one of
the last Pagan ceremonies that was aban-
doned, and excited the indignation of
many Christian writers. It was finally
abolished by Gelasius; in whose time
nobiles ipsi currebant ; et matronæ nudato
corpore vapulabant. G. The festival,
which took place in February, was pro-
bably introduced into Italy by Evander :
cf. Virg. Æn. viii. 343 sq.
there described, which was also the spot
where Romulus and Remus were after-
wards found, was fixed upon by the
Romans for the site of Pan's temple.

The grove

143. See the notes on viii. 192 sqq. and 199 sqq. R. 'Outdoes.' This may be an instance of that spirit of aggravation which so much distinguishes Juvenal. Whatever be the vice which he lashes, he bestows the whole of his fury upon it; and in many places the climax of moral reprehension is strangely perverted. I. All the writers of Roman history, however, viewed the gladiatorship of the nobility with the utmost horror. G.


Lustravitque fuga mediam gladiator arenam

145 Et Capitolinis generosior et Marcellis

Et Catulis Paullique minoribus et Fabiis et

Omnibus ad podium spectantibus. His licet ipsum
Admoveas, cujus tunc munere retia misit. ed i det
Esse aliquid Manes et subterranea regna

150 Et contum et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigras
Atque una transire vadum tot millia cymba,

144. Cf. viii. 208. Traversed in flight.' M.

The centre of the amphitheatre was strewed with sand' to hide the blood which was spilt. PR.

145. (1) M. Manlius surnamed Capitolinus from his defence of the capitol against the Gauls. (2) M. Claudius Marcellus the captor of Syracuse. (3) Q. Lutatius Catulus who gained the naval victory off the gates. (4) L. Emilius Paullus the conqueror of Macedonia. (5) Q. Fabius Maximus surnamed Cunctator who kept Hannibal in constant check by his cautious moves. LU.

'More noble;' vi. 124. vii. 191. viii. 30. 224. R.

146. Minores; i. 148. R. Perhaps the two sons of Paullus, one of whom was adopted into the family of the Scipios, the other into that of the Fabii Maximi.

147. The front' or lowest row of seats was reserved for senators: Suet. Aug. 44. LU. The podium was the projecting part of the partition which divided the seats from the arena. Between this, and the first row on which the senators sat, there was probably just space enough left for the chairs of the curule magis. trates, &c. LI.

A narrow slip.' G. Пodtáv Herod. viii. 31.

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'You may even add the personage himself,' i. e. the prætor; or, rather, 'the emperor' Nero or Domitian. PR. See note on i. 97.

148. The person at whose expense the games were exhibited' was called munerarius. GR.

149. The poet now proceeds to attribute all this gross and degrading profligacy to scepticism and infidelity; to the disbelief of a future state of rewards and punishments, and, consequently, of the moral government of the universe. LU. PR. M. G. But PYE and R. take the sense to be


'The absurd stories of the infernal regions
are now hardly credited in the nursery;
(cf. xiii. 151 sqq. Arist. R. 181 sqq. vix
navita Porthmeus subficiet simulacra virûm
traducere cymba: classe opus est; Petron.
Sat. 121 extr. Prop. III. v. 39 sqq.
Lucr. iii. 991 sqq. Pythagoras in Ov.
Met. xv. 153 sqq. &c.) but suppose them
true, how would the shades of our ancient
heroes be horrified at the appearance of
such scandalous wretches among them!'

Sunt aliquid manes; letum non omnia
finit; Prop. IV. vii. 1. Ov. Met. vi.
543. Hom. Il. 103. R.


150. Ipse (Charon) ratem conto sub-
igit, et ferruginea subvectat
cymba; Virg. Æ. vi. 302 sq. VS. One
ms. has cantum; if this be the true read-
ing, cantum et ranas is equivalent to
cantum ranarum: cf. Arist. R. 205 sqq.
R. The text would then better suit the
common interpretation of the whole pas-

Stygia palus; Virg. Æ. vi. 323 sq. PR.
G. iv. 480. M. Turbidus hic cœno vas-
taque voragine gurges æstuat; Æ. vi.
296 sq.

151. Cf. Virg. ll. cc. Φησὶ γοῦν ὁ πορθμεὺς μὴ διαρκέσαι αὐτοῖς τότε τὸ σκάφος, ἀλλὰ σχεδίας διαπηξαμένους τοὺς πολλοὺς αὐτῶν διαπλεῦσαι Luc. Dial. Mort. xii. 5. R.

Juvenal describes the world of spirits as peopled by the figments of the poets; the circumstances he has not invented, but selected; and it does not follow, that, because he believed in a future state, he therefore gave credit to such absurdities. We may attribute the sketch he has given to his satirical turn, which he could not forbear indulging to the disparagement of his argument. Virgil, to whom our author is here plainly alluding, does not give a very dignified narrative of his hero's passage over the Styx: E. vi. 411-416. Such puerilities excite our pity; especially when we think how in

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