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Nec pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum ære lavantur.
Sed tu vera puta. Curius quid sentit et ambo

Scipiadæ, quid Fabricius manesque Camilli,
155 Quid Cremeræ legio et Cannis consumta juventus,

Tot bellorum animæ, quoties hinc talis ad illos
Umbra venit? Cuperent lustrari, si qua darentur
Sulphura cum tædis et si foret humida laurus.

comparably sublime is the description of 193 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. vi. 846. M. the state of reprobation, in Holy Writ, as Dionys. ix. 22. Sil. vii. 40 sqq. R. a place “ where the worm dieth not and Legion ;' see iii. 132. the fire is not quenched :” St Mark ix. At Cunnæ in Apulia, Hannibal gained 43 sq. while of the state of blessedness his fourth and greatest victory, defeating the Apostle says, “ Eye hath not seen, two consular armies, and slaying 40,000 nor ear heard, neither have entered into of the Romans, including Æmilius Paullus the heart of man, the things which God one of the consuls, and so many of the hath prepared for them that love him.” equestrian order, that three bushels of 1 Cor. ü. 9. G.

gold rings were sent to Carthage in token 152. The common people, when they of the victory. PR. went to a bath, paid the bath-keeper 156. Illustres bellis animæ ; Lucan. a brass coin, in value about a halfpenny. Phars. VS. bellorum for bellicæ, as anime vi. 446. Hor. I S. ii. 137. M. Children, servientium; Tac. H. iv. 32. for serviles. under four years old, were either not of. Toanàs ipbipou; Yuxas ngáswr. Hom. taken to the baths, or, if they were, paid il. A 3. R. Virg. Æ. vi. 660. Juvenal nothing. VS. Mart. 111. xxx. 4. XIV. adduces these patriots, both as instances clxiii. Seneca calls the bath quadran- of the belief in a future state, the greatest turia res; Ep. 86 m. One ms. has nec safeguard of integrity and incentive to senes credunt, nec qui &c. R.

valour; and as examples of the unfading 153. ' But be thou persuaded that happiness in store for those who faithfully these things are true.' The language is discharge their duties as men and citizens. too emphatic for a mere supposition. G. M. See R. on 149.

157. “To be purified from the conCurius see 3.

tamination of its very presence, if they 154. For Scipioniada, LU. and that could get the requisite articles.' PR. M. for Soipiones. Sil. vii. 107. As Mem- 158. The fumes of sulphur thrown on miudes for Memmius; Lucr. i. 27. R. a lighted torch of the unctuous pine.' M. geminos, duo fulmina belli, Scipiadas, Plin. H. N. xxxv. 15. PR. Lustralem cladem Libyæ ; Virg. Æ. vi. 843 sq. PR. sic rite facem, cui lumen odorum sulAfricanus Major, who conquered Han- phure cæruleo nigroque bitumine fumat, nibal, and Africanus Minor, who rased circum membra rotat doctus purganda Numantia and Carthage. M.

sacerdos, rore pio spargens et dira fuganC. Luscinius Fabricius, the conqueror tibus herbis numinu, purificumque Jovem of Pyrrhus. V. Max. iv. 3, 6. PR. Triviamque precatus, trans caput aversis Virg. Æ. vi. 845. M. Furius Camillus, manibus jaculatur in austrum secum rapfive times dictator, saved the city from turas cantata piacula tædas; Claud. the Gauls, and was styled 'a second VI. Cons. Hon. 324 sqq. Ov. M. vii. Romulus.' PR. He was the first citizen, 261. F. iv. 739 sq. A. A. ii. 329 sq. who was honoured with an equestrian Tib. I. v. 11. ii. 61. Prop. IV. viii. statue in the forum. M.

83 sqq. Hom. Od. X 481. GR. ó páros 155. The Fabii, who had taken the δάδα καιομένην έχων περιήγνισέ με, ίνα μη Veian war upon themselves, were cut off Baattouny ÚTÒ Tüy partaojÚTwy Luc. by the enemy at the Cremera, in Tus- Nec. 9 & 7. R. cany, to the number of three hundred *A branch of bay dipped water' and six. The clan would thereby have was also used to sprinkle the parties who become extinct, but for one boy who was were to be purified. Plin. H. N. xv. 30. left at home. Liv. ii. 48 sqq. Ov. F. ii. PR.

Illuc heu! miseri traducimur. Arma quidem ultra 160 Litora Juvernæ promovimus et modo captas

Orcadas ac minima contentos nocte Britannos:
Sed

quæ nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe,
Non faciunt illi, quos vicimus.

« Et tamen unus
Armenius Zalates cunctis narratur ephebis
165 Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse Tribuno.”

Adspice, quid faciant commercia! venerat obses.
Hic fiunt homines. Nam si mora longior Urbem
Indulsit pueris, non umquam deerit amator:

Mittentur bracæ, cultelli, frena, flagellum. 170 Sic prætextatos referunt Artaxata mores.

Lauro spurguntur ab uda; Ov. F. • To have yielded his person.' Stat. v. 677. R.

IV S. vi. 36 sq. R. 159. See 149. Thus Trimalcio ex- Caligula may be the wretch designated claims · Heu, heu, nos miseros! quam by the name of • Tribune;' Suet. 36. M. totus homuncio nil est! sic erimus cuncti, cf. xi. 7. R. postquam nos auferet Orcus;' Petron. 166. Cf. 78. GR. Bonum esse cum

Believe, or not; there is our final home!' bonis, haud valde laudabile est ; at immensi LU. G. Debemur morti nos, nostraque; est præoonii, bonum etium inter malos exHor. A. P. 63. PR. We are on our stitisse ; Greg. Mag. Mor. i. 1. PR. road thither. But R. takes it to mean, As 'a hostage' his person should have * To such a pass are we wretches come!! been sacred. LU. The breach of honour

160. The same as Hibernia “Ireland.' aggravates the crime. M. LU. Camden thinks the Romans did 167. * Rome is the place for forming not conquer that island, M. (cf. Tac. Ag. men.' R. 24.) but Juvenal may be obliquely ridi- 168. “A seducer.' culing the boastfulness of his degenerate

169. Their national costume and fellow-countrymen. R.

habits will be laid aside.' The Orientals, Modo i. e. by Claudius, LU. or by as well as the Gauls, wore'trowsers.' FA. Agricola; Tac. 10. R.

Pers. iii. 53. PR. viii. 234. Prop. IV. 161. “The Orkneys.' M.

x. 43. Suet. Aug. 82. Ov. Tr. V. x. In Britannia dierum spatia ultra nostri 34. III. x. 19 sq. 'Avažugédes. (See orbis mensuram: et nox clara, et extrema note on Her. v. 49.) •The dagger, or parte Britannic brevis, ut finem atque couteau de chasse,' was an appendage to initium lucis exiguo discrimine internoscas; their girdles: a diminutive noun is used, Tac. Ag. 12. PR. Plin. ii. 75. Cæs. because boys are spoken of. R. B. G. v. 10. R.

170. Sic 'by a protracted residence.' 162. Understand flagitia et facinora. BRI.

Thus Seneca says of Alexander; armis Arturata, on the Araxes, is the capital vicit, vitiis victus est. LU.

of Greater Armenia. (The noun is in the 163. Some one here starts an objec- neuter plural.) BRI. Now ‘Teflis. PR. tion. R.

• The morals of the fashionable Ro164. Armenian hostages are men- mans,' i. 78. M. or 'gross;' Suet. Ves. tioned, Tac. A. xiii. 9. xv.

22. BRI. i. e. by antiphrasis, When the Roman youths assumed the “such as no gentleman would use. virile gown, they were said excedere er Festus. cf. Pers. v. 30. PR, or such as ephebis. Ter. And. I. i. 24.

require a veil or cloak to conceal them.' 165. Ardens : Virg. E. ii. 1. M. R.

899. LU.

ARGUMENT.
Umbricius, an eminent soothsayer, (aruspicum in nostro ævo peritissimus ;

Plin. On the day Galba was murdered, he predicted the impending
treason; Tac. H. i. 27. Plut.) disgusted at the prevalence of vice and
the total disregard of needy and unassuming virtue, is introduced as on
the point of quitting Rome, 1–9. The poet accompanies him a short
distance out of the town, 10–20. when the honest exile, no longer able
to suppress his indignation, stops short, and in a strain of animated

invective, acquaints his friend with the cause of his retirement, 21 sqq. This Satire is managed with wonderful ingenuity. The way by which

Juvenal conducts Umbricius, 1 sqq. is calculated to raise a thousand tender images in his mind; and, when he stops to look at it for the last time, in a spot endeared by religion, covered with the venerable relics of antiquity, and in itself eminently beautiful, we are led to listen with a

melancholy interest to the farewell of the solitary fugitive. The discourse of Umbricius may be resolved under the following heads :

Flattery and Vice are the only thriving arts at Rome; 21–57. in these points the Romans are left far in the distance by the foreigners, more especially the Greeks, who resort to the city in such shoals, 58—125., Poor clients are not only defrauded of their dues by wealthy competitors, 126— 130. but have the mortification of seeing low-born fellows put over their head, 131–136. 153 sqq. and of finding themselves universally. slighted, 137—163. Then the expence of living in Rome is enormous, 147 sqq. 164 sqq. 223—225. Besides, you are in constant apprehension of being either buried by some overgrown, top-heavy, building, or burnt in your bed : 190—222. that is, if you can contrive to fall asleep in the midst of such a din and racket, 232–238. Unless you are rich you cannot move about town with any comfort, 239–267. and if you stir out after dark, you are almost sure of a broken head, either from some missile out of a garret-window, 268—277. or from the cudgel of some choice spirit, who has sallied into the streets in quest of an adventure : 278-301. should you try to avoid such a rencounter by striking into the lanes, you run the risk of being robbed and murdered by one of those numerous ruffians, who, for the accommodation of the honest citizens, have been hunted into Rome, and there left to exercise their vocation unshackled, as the blacksmiths cannot keep pace with the

demand for irons, 302–314. After alleging these various reasons for leaving town, Umbricius bids an

affectionate farewell to his friend, 315—322. G. R. This Satire is imitated by Math. egnie Sat. iii. by Nic. Boileau, Sat. i.

and vi, and by Smollett, Satirical Description of London and Bath in the Expedition of Humphry Clinker.' R.

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QUAMVIS digressu veteris confusus amici,
Laudo tamen, vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis
Destinet atque unum civem donare Sibyllæ.

Janua Baiarum est et gratum litus amoeni
5 Secessus. Ego vel Prochytam præpono Suburæ.

Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus
Tectorum assiduos ac mille pericula sævæ

Urbis et Augusto recitantes mense poetas? 10 Sed dum tota domus reda componitur una,

Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam.

1. · Troubled.' R.

141. Mart. VI. lxvi. 2. VII. xxxi. 12. 2. Cumæ, which was now decayed X. xciv. 5. XII. xvüi. 2. Pers. v. 32. and but thinly inhabited,' was the ancient LU. PR. M. R. capital of Campania and one of the oldest 6. ' Lonely ;' Sil. ïi. 429. R. cities in Italy, built by a colony of 7. Cf. LI, on Tac. An. xv. 43. HEU, Cumæans from Asia. . M. cf. x. 102. Comm. de Pol. Rom. . 17. and 45. Sen. Virg. G. ii. 225. Hor. I Ep. vii. 45. ii. Contr. ix. 2. R. præterea domibus flam81 $99. R.

mam domibusque ruinam; Prop. II. 3. At least one citizen to the Sibyl,' xxvii. 9. BRI. G. i. e. 'to Cumæ.' cf. Plaut. Pers. IV. 8. It is cruel to keep persons in conm. 6. R. In this town there was a stant fear of their lives. GR. celebrated temple of the Sibyl, hence Equidem, nos quod Romae sumus, called Cumæan. The Sibyls were ten in miserrimum esse duco,quod omnibus number; and the name is derived from casibus subitorum periculorum βουλή and Σιδς i. e. Διός, LU. or Σιού for magis objecti sumus, quam si abessemus ; 0:07. PR. Virg. Æ. vi. 10. $99.

M. Cic. VI Ep. BRI. 4. ' It is the grand thoroughfare to 9. There is much malicious humour in Baiæ, (cf. viii. 160. R.) which was a this climax : ‘fires, falls of houses, and very fashionable watering-place; nullus poets reciting their verses in the dog-days!' in orbe sinus Baiis prælucet amænis ; Hor. În the very hottest month, when every I Ep. i. 83. BRI.

Both these towns one who could, ran away from Rome, were pleasantly situated in the Bay of those who remained behind were called Naples. LU.

upon to help make an audience for these 5. Prochyta, now • Procita,' was a incessant spouters. Metastasio's translabarren rock, about three miles in circum- tion of this passage is peculiarly happy, ference, off Cape Misenus. Some derive a tanti rischi Della città trovarsi esposto, the name from #goxcúvas, from its having e al folle Cicalar de poeti a' giorni been thrown out of the sea by an earth- estivi.cf. i. 1 sqq. Pers. i. 17. Hor. I quake. Plin. H. N. ü. 88. iii. 6. Sil. viii. S. ix. A. P. 453 sqq. BRI. PR. G. 542. Virgil calls it alta ; Æ. ix. 715. 10. ` All his family and furniture are Statius aspera; II S. ii. 76. LU. PR. R. stowed in a single wagon.' PR. This It is now converted into a pretty, fertile, shows the frugal moderation of Umbritius.

BRI. Reda is derived from the same CelSubura, the etymology, and, conse- tic root as our verb RIDE.

It was a fourquently, the orthography of this word is wheeled vehicle. R. uncertain : cf. Varr. L. L. iv. 8. Quint. 11. ' He stopped for it.' VS. While I. vi. 28. 60, p. 82. It now retains the he and Juvenal are standing there, the name of 'la Suburra.' It was a noisy following conversation takes place. M. street, full of shops, and frequented by • The ancient triumphal arches' of thieves and prostitutes. x. 156. xi. 51. Romulus, which were built of brick

spot. G.

G

Hic, ubi nocturna Numa constituebat amicæ,
Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur

are et
Judæis, quorum cophinus fænumque supellex,
15 (Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est

Arbor et ejectis mendicat silva Camenis)
In vallem Egeriæ descendimus et speluncas
Dissimiles veris. Quanto præstantius esset
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas

R.

6

findes

originally, afterwards of marble. LU. Or by an edict of Domitian, CU. as, forthe arches of the aqueduct. T. HK. merly, by a decree of Claudius: not

Capena was the gate opening to the long afterwards, however, the city was Appian road : VS. now called “St again full of them. vi. 542

$99. Sebastian's Gate.” GR.

It was

wet' The hay probably served by way of a from the number of springs there (whence pillow to keep their heads from the damp it had the name of Fontinalis) FE. and ground. BRI. G. The xóoivos was a also from the constant dripping of the basket, in which the Jews used to carry aqueducts. Capena grandi porta qua their provisions, to keep them from pollupluit gutta ; Mart. III. xlvii. 1. LU. X. tion. See St Matt. xiv. 20. xvi. 9 sq. xxxv. 14. Liv. xxxv. 10. R. It was also St Mark vi. 43. viii. 19 sq. St Luke ix. 17. called Triumphalis, from the triumphs St John vi. 13. M. When it is said that passing through it. PR.

the disciples of our Lord gathered up twelve 12. Numa Pompilius, ut populum baskets full of fragments, it may mean Romunum sucris obligaret, volebat videri that each apostle filled his own basket. sibi cum dea Egeria congressus esse noctur- 15. “ Not a tree but pays its rent:' for nos, ejusque monitu accepta diis inmortali- the grove was crowded with these poor bus sacra instituere; V. Max. i. 2. Liv. wretches, who were glad to avail themi. 19. 21. PR. Nympha, Nume conjur, selves even of this comfortless shelter. M. consiliumque fuit ; Ov. F. iii. 262. 276. Suet. Dom. 12. R. &c. GR. M. xv. 482 sqq. Dionys. i. 60

The phrase mercedem pendere (whence sqq. Plut. Num. R.

our word POUND) originated from sums Made assignations;' vi. 487. Prop. of money being weighed, instead of IV. viii. 33. R.

counted. LU. 13. Lucus erat, quem medium er

16. Cf. vi. 541 sqq.

• The old tenants. opaco specu fons perenni rigabat aqua: being served with an ejectment.' By quo quia se persæpe Numa sine arbitris

the forest is meant the new tenantry velut ad congressum deue inferebat ; of the forest,' which ‘goes a begging' to Camenis eum lucum sacravit, quod collect both a livelihood and the rent earum sibi concilia cum conjuge sua gainst next quarter-day. LU. Or the Egeria essent; Liv. i. 21. .

forest swarms with beggars.' M. More than one delubrum were often 17. “I and Umbricius.' LU. within the same templum or τέμενος. .

Grottoes, altered till they have lost
Locare to let,' conducere ' to hire or all resemblance to nature.' LU.
rent;' 31. Such was the a varice of the 18. Cf: xi. 116 sq. Perhaps we should
Romans that they exacted rent from these read praesentius; cf. Virg. E. i. 42.
Jews, though they were so poor, that a

G. i. 10. Æ. ix. 404. GR. H. R.
basket with a small bundle of hay con- 19. Our poet here is indebted to Ovid :
stituted the whole of their goods and vallis erat, piceis et acuta densa cupressu;
chattels:' vi. 541. and such their im- cujus in extremo est antrum nemorale
piety that they did not scruple to let the recessu, arte laboratum nulla : simulaverat
sacred grove to these persecuted outcasts. artem ingenio natura suo: nam pumice
LU. PR. R.

vivo et levibus tophis nativum durerat 14. The heathens confounded the

Fons sonat a dextra tenui perChristians and the Jews. The latter lucidusunda, margine gramineo had been expelled from Rome, recently, patulos incinctus hiatus; Öv. M. iii.

6

arcum.

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