Obrázky na stránke

Nec pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum ære lavantur. Sed tu vera puta. Curius quid sentit et ambo Scipiadæ, quid Fabricius manesque Camilli, 155 Quid Cremeræ legio et Cannis consumta juventus, Tot bellorum animæ, quoties hinc talis ad illos Umbra venit? Cuperent lustrari, si qua darentur Sulphura cum tædis et si foret humida laurus.

comparably sublime is the description of the state of reprobation, in Holy Writ, as a place "where the worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched:" St Mark ix. 43 sq. while of the state of blessedness the Apostle says, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him." 1 Cor. ii. 9. G.

152. The common people, when they went to a bath, paid the bath-keeper a brass coin, in value about a halfpenny. vi. 446. Hor. I S. iii. 137. M. Children, under four years old, were either not taken to the baths, or, if they were, paid nothing. VS. Mart. III. xxx. 4. XIV. clxiii. Seneca calls the bath quadrantaria res; Ep. 86 m. One ms. has nec senes credunt, nec qui &c. R.

153. But be thou persuaded that these things are true.' The language is too emphatic for a mere supposition. G. See R. on 149.

Curius see 3.

154. For Scipioniade, LU. and that for Scipiones. Sil. vii. 107. As Memmiudes for Memmius; Lucr. i. 27. R. geminos, duo fulmina belli, Scipiadas, cladem Libya; Virg. Æ. vi. 843 sq. PR. Africanus Major, who conquered Hannibal, and Africanus Minor, who rased Numantia and Carthage. M.

C. Luscinius Fabricius, the conqueror of Pyrrhus. V. Max. iv. 3, 6. PR. Virg. Æ. vi. 845. M. Furius Camillus, five times dictator, saved the city from the Gauls, and was styled a second Romulus.' PR. He was the first citizen, who was honoured with an equestrian statue in the forum. M.

155. The Fabii, who had taken the Veian war upon themselves, were cut off by the enemy at the Cremera, in Tuscany, to the number of three hundred and six. The clan would thereby have become extinct, but for one boy who was left at home. Liv. ii. 48 sqq. Ov. F. ii.

193 sqq. PR. Virg. Æ. vi. 846. M. Dionys. ix. 22. Sil. vii. 40 sqq. R. Legion;' see iii. 132.

[ocr errors]

At Canna in Apulia, Hannibal gained his fourth and greatest victory, defeating two consular armies, and slaying 40,000 of the Romans, including Æmilius Paullus one of the consuls, and so many of the equestrian order, that three bushels of gold rings were sent to Carthage in token of the victory. PR.

156. Illustres bellis anima; Lucan. Phars. VS. bellorum for bellicæ, as animæ servientium; Tac. H. iv. 32. for serviles. ef. oanàs iqtiμou; Jux às ngwwv Hom. il. ▲ 3. R. Virg. Æ. vi. 660. Juvenal adduces these patriots, both as instances of the belief in a future state, the greatest safeguard of integrity and incentive to valour; and as examples of the unfading happiness in store for those who faithfully discharge their duties as men and citizens. M.

157. To be purified from the contamination of its very presence, if they could get the requisite articles.' PR. M.

158. The fumes of sulphur thrown on a lighted torch of the unctuous pine.' M. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 15. PR. lustralem sic rite facem, cui lumen odorum sulphure cæruleo nigroque bitumine fumat, circum membra rotat doctus purganda sacerdos, rore pio spargens et dira fugantibus herbis numina, purificumque Jovem Triviamque precatus, trans caput aversis manibus jaculatur in austrum secum rapturas cantata piacula tædas; Claud. VI. Cons. Hon. 324 sqq. Ov. M. vii. 261. F. iv. 739 sq. A. A. ii. 329 sq. Tib. I. v. 11. ii. 61. Prop. IV. viii. 83 sqq. Hom. Od. x 481. GR. μáyos dada xaoμévny exwe wegingvio's μs, iva un βλαπτοίμην ὑπὸ τῶν φαντασμάτων Luc. Nec. 9 & 7. R.

A branch of bay dipped in water' was also used to sprinkle the parties who were to be purified. Plin. H. N. xv. 30. PR.

Illuc heu! miseri traducimur. Arma quidem ultra
160 Litora Juvernæ promovimus et modo captas
Orcadas ac minima contentos nocte Britannos:
Sed quæ nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe,
Non faciunt illi, quos vicimus. "Et tamen unus
Armenius Zalates cunctis narratur ephebis
165 Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse Tribuno."

Adspice, quid faciant commercia! venerat obses.
Hic fiunt homines. Nam si mora longior Urbem
Indulsit pueris, non umquam deerit amator:
Mittentur bracæ, cultelli, frena, flagellum.
170 Sic prætextatos referunt Artaxata mores.

Lauro sparguntur ab uda; Ov. F. v. 677. R.

[ocr errors]

159. See 149. Thus Trimalcio exclaims Heu, heu, nos miseros! quam totus homuncio nil est! sic erimus cuncti, postquam nos auferet Orcus;' Petron. Believe, or not; there is our final home!' LU. G. Debemur morti nos, nostraque; Hor. A. P. 63. PR. We are on our road thither.' But R. takes it to mean, 'To such a pass are we wretches come!' 160. The same as Hibernia Ireland.' LU. Camden thinks the Romans did not conquer that island, M. (cf. Tac. Ag. 24.) but Juvenal may be obliquely ridiculing the boastfulness of his degenerate fellow-countrymen. R.

Modo i. e. by Claudius, LU. or by Agricola; Tac. 10. R.

161. The Orkneys.' M.

In Britannia dierum spatia ultra nostri orbis mensuram: et nox clara, et extrema parte Britannia brevis, ut finem atque initium lucis exiguo discrimine internoscas; Tac. Ag. 12. PR. Plin. ii. 75. Cæs.

B. G. v. 10. R.

162. Understand flagitia et facinora. Thus Seneca says of Alexander; armis vicit, vitiis victus est. LU.

163. Some one here starts an objection. R.

164. Armenian hostages are mentioned, Tac. A. xiii. 9. xv. 1 sqq. LU.

When the Roman youths assumed the virile gown, they were said excedere ex ephebis. Ter. And. I. i. 24.

165. Ardens: Virg. E. ii. 1. M.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

169. Their national costume and habits will be laid aside.' The Orientals, as well as the Gauls, wore 'trowsers.' FA. Pers. iii. 53. PR. viii. 234. Prop. IV. x. 43. Suet. Aug. 82. Ov. Tr. V. x. 34. III. x. 19 sq. 'Avagugides. (See note on Her. v. 49.)

The dagger, or couteau de chasse,' was an appendage to their girdles: a diminutive noun is used, because boys are spoken of. R.

[ocr errors]

170. Sic by a protracted residence.' BRI.

Artaxata, on the Araxes, is the capital of Greater Armenia. (The noun is in the neuter plural.) BRI. Now 'Teflis.' PR.

The morals of the fashionable Romans,' i. 78. M. or 'gross;' Suet. Ves. 22. BRI. i. e. by antiphrasis, 'such as no gentleman would use.' Festus. cf. Pers. v. 30. PR. or 'such as require a veil or cloak to conceal them.' R.


Umbricius, an eminent soothsayer, (aruspicum in nostro ævo peritissimus;
Plin. On the day Galba was murdered, he predicted the impending
treason; Tac. H. i. 27. Plut.) disgusted at the prevalence of vice and
the total disregard of needy and unassuming virtue, is introduced as on
the point of quitting Rome, 1-9. The poet accompanies him a short
distance out of the town, 10-20. when the honest exile, no longer able
to suppress his indignation, stops short, and in a strain of animated
invective, acquaints his friend with the cause of his retirement, 21 sqq.
This Satire is managed with wonderful ingenuity. The way by which
Juvenal conducts Umbricius, 11 sqq. is calculated to raise a thousand
tender images in his mind; and, when he stops to look at it for the last
time, in a spot endeared by religion, covered with the venerable relics
of antiquity, and in itself eminently beautiful, we are led to listen with a
melancholy interest to the farewell of the solitary fugitive.

The discourse of Umbricius may be resolved under the following heads:
Flattery and Vice are the only thriving arts at Rome; 21-57. in these
points the Romans are left far in the distance by the foreigners, more
especially the Greeks, who resort to the city in such shoals, 58-125.
Poor clients are not only defrauded of their dues by wealthy competitors,
126-130. but have the mortification of seeing low-born fellows put over
their head, 131–136. 153 sqq. and of finding themselves universally
slighted, 137–163. Then the expence of living in Rome is enormous,
147 sqq. 164 sqq. 223–225. Besides, you are in constant apprehension
of being either buried by some overgrown, top-heavy, building, or burnt
in your bed: 190–222. that is, if you can contrive to fall asleep in the
midst of such a din and racket, 232-238. Unless you are rich you
cannot move about town with any comfort, 239-267. and if
you stir out
after dark, you are almost sure of a broken head, either from some
missile out of a garret-window, 268–277. or from the cudgel of some
choice spirit, who has sallied into the streets in quest of an adventure:
278-301. should you try to avoid such a rencounter by striking into
the lanes, you run the risk of being robbed and murdered by one of
those numerous ruffians, who, for the accommodation of the honest
citizens, have been hunted into Rome, and there left to exercise their
vocation unshackled, as the blacksmiths cannot keep pace with the
demand for irons, 302-314.

After alleging these various reasons for leaving town, Umbricius bids an
affectionate farewell to his friend, 315–322. G. R.

[ocr errors]

This Satire is imitated by Math. Regnier, Sat. iii. by Nic. Boileau, Sat. i. and vi. and by Smollett, Satirical Description of London and Bath in the Expedition of Humphry Clinker.' R.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

QUAMVIS digressu veteris confusus amici,
Laudo tamen, vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis
Destinet atque unum civem donare Sibyllæ.
Janua Baiarum est et gratum litus amœni
5 Secessus. Ego vel Prochytam præpono Suburæ.
Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus
Tectorum assiduos ac mille pericula sævæ

Urbis et Augusto recitantes mense poetas ?
10 Sed dum tota domus reda componitur una,
Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam.

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]

2. Cuma, which was now decayed and but thinly inhabited,' was the ancient capital of Campania and one of the oldest cities in Italy, built by a colony of Cumæans from Asia. LU. M. cf. x. 102. Virg. G. ii. 225. Hor. I Ep. vii. 45. ii. 81 sqq. R.

3. At least one citizen to the Sibyl,' G. i. e. to Cumæ.' cf. Plaut. Pers. IV. iii. 6. R. In this town there was a celebrated temple of the Sibyl, hence called Cumaan. The Sibyls were ten in number; and the name is derived from βουλὴ and Σιὸς i. e. Διὸς, LU. or Σιοῦ for Osov. PR. Virg. Æ. vi. 10 sqq. M.

4. It is the grand thoroughfare to Baia, (cf. viii. 160. R.) which was a very fashionable watering-place; nullus in orbe sinus Baiis prælucet amanis; Hor. I Ep. i. 83. BRI. Both these towns were pleasantly situated in the Bay of Naples. LU.

5. Prochyta, now 'Procita,' was a barren rock, about three miles in circumference, off Cape Misenus. Some derive the name from goxuvas, from its having been thrown out of the sea by an earthquake. Plin. H. N. ii. 88. iii. 6. Sil. viii. 542. Virgil calls it alta; Æ. ix. 715. Statius aspera; II S. ii. 76. LU. PR. R. It is now converted into a pretty, fertile, spot. G.

Subura, the etymology, and, consequently, the orthography of this word is uncertain: cf. Varr. L. L. iv. 8. Quint. I. vii. 28. 50, p. 82. It now retains the name of la Suburra.' It was a noisy street, full of shops, and frequented by thieves and prostitutes. x. 156. xi. 51.


141. Mart. VI. lxvi. 2. VII. xxxi. 12. X. xciv. 5. XII. xviii. 2. Pers. v. 32. LU. PR. M. R.

6. Lonely;' Sil. iii. 429. R.

7. Cf. LI, on Tac. An. xv. 43. HEU, Comm. de Pol. Rom. §. 17. and 45. Sen. Contr. ix. 2. R. præterea domibus flammam domibusque ruinam; Prop. II. xxvii. 9. BRI.

8. It is cruel' to keep persons in constant fear of their lives. GR.

Equidem, nos quod Romae sumus, miserrimum esse duco,-quod omnibus casibus subitorum periculorum magis objecti sumus, quam si abessemus ; Cic. VI Ep. BRI.

[ocr errors]

9. There is much malicious humour in this climax fires, falls of houses, and poets reciting their verses in the dog-days!' In the very hottest month, when every one who could, ran away from Rome, those who remained behind were called upon to help make an audience for these incessant spouters. Metastasio's translation of this passage is peculiarly happy,

[ocr errors]

a tanti rischi Della città trovarsi esposto, e al folle Cicalar de' poeti a' giorni estivi." cf. i. 1 sqq. Pers. i. 17. Hor. I S. ix. A. P. 453 sqq. BRI. PR. G.

10. All his family and furniture are stowed in a single wagon.' PR. This shows the frugal moderation of Umbritius. BRI. Reda is derived from the same Celtic root as our verb RIDE. It was a fourwheeled vehicle. R.

11. He stopped for it.' VS. While he and Juvenal are standing there, the following conversation takes place. M.

The ancient triumphal arches' of Romulus, which were built of brick

are let,

Hic, ubi nocturnæ Numa constituebat amicæ,
Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur
Judæis, quorum cophinus fœnumque supellex,
15 (Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est
Arbor et ejectis mendicat silva Camenis)
In vallem Egeria descendimus et speluncas
Dissimiles veris. Quanto præstantius esset
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas

originally, afterwards of marble. LU. Or
the arches of the aqueduct. T. HK.
Capena was the gate opening to the
Appian road: VS. now
Sebastian's Gate." GR. It was
from the number of springs there (whence
it had the name of Fontinalis) FE. and
also from the constant dripping of the
aqueducts. Capena grandi porta qua
pluit gutta; Mart. III. xlvii. 1. LU. X.
xxxv. 14. Liv. xxxv. 10. R. It was also
called Triumphalis, from the triumphs
passing through it. PR.

12. Numa Pompilius, ut populum Romanum sacris obligaret, volebat videri sibi cum dea Egeria congressus esse nocturnos, ejusque monitu accepta diis immortalibus sacra instituere; V. Max. i. 2. Liv. i. 19. 21. PR. Nympha, Numa conjux, consiliumque fuit; Ov. F. iii. 262. 276. &c. GR. M. xv. 482 sqq. Dionys. ii. 60 sqq. Plut. Num. R.

Made assignations;' vi. 487. Prop. IV. viii. 33. R.

13. Lucus erat, quem medium ex opaco specu fons perenni rigabat aqua: quo quia se persæpe Numa sine arbitris velut ad congressum deue inferebat; Camenis eum lucum sacravit, quod earum sibi concilia cum conjuge sua Egeria essent; Liv. i. 21. PŘ.

More than one delubrum were often within the same templum or τέμενος.

Locare to let,' conducere to hire or rent;' 31. Such was the avarice of the Romans that they exacted rent from these Jews, though they were so poor, that a basket with a small bundle of hay constituted the whole of their goods and chattels vi. 541. and such their impiety that they did not scruple to let the sacred grove to these persecuted outcasts. LU. PR. R.

14. The heathens confounded the Christians and the Jews.' The latter had been expelled from Rome, recently,

by an edict of Domitian, CU. as, for-
merly, by a decree of Claudius: not
long afterwards, however, the city was
again full of them. vi. 542 R.

The hay probably served by way of a
pillow to keep their heads from the damp
ground. BRI. G. The xóQivos was a
basket, in which the Jews used to carry
their provisions, to keep them from pollu-
tion. See St Matt. xiv. 20. xvi. 9 sq.
St Mark vi. 43. viii. 19 sq. St Luke ix. 17.
St John vi. 13. M.

When it is said that the disciples of our Lord gathered up twelve baskets full of fragments, it may mean that each apostle filled his own basket.

[ocr errors]

15. Not a tree but pays its rent:' for the grove was crowded with these poor wretches, who were glad to avail themselves even of this comfortless shelter. M. Suet. Dom. 12. R.

The phrase mercedem pendere (whence our word POUND) originated from sums of money being weighed, instead of. counted. LU.

[ocr errors][merged small]

16. Cf. vi. 541 sqq.
The old tenants.
being served with an ejectment.'
the forest' is meant the new tenantry
of the forest,' which goes a begging' to
collect both a livelihood and the rent
Or' the
against next quarter-day. LU.
forest swarms with beggars.' M.

[ocr errors]

17. I and Umbricius.' LU.
Grottoes, altered till they have lost
all resemblance to nature.' LU.

18. Cf. xi. 116 sq. Perhaps we should
read praesentius; cf. Virg. E. i. 42.
G. i. 10. E. ix. 404. GR. H. R.

19. Our poet here is indebted to Ovid: vallis erat, piceis et acuta densa cupressu; cujus in extremo est antrum nemorale recessu, arte laboratum nulla: simulaverat artem ingenio natura suo: nam pumice vivo et levibus tophis nativum duxerat


Fons sonat a dextra tenui perlucidus unda, margine gramineo patulos incinctus hiatus; Öv. M. iii.

[ocr errors]
« PredošláPokračovať »