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Quum primum pavido custos mihi purpura cessit Bullaque succinctis Laribus donata pependit; Quum blandi comites, totaque impune Subura Permisit sparsisse oculos jam candidus umbo: Quumque iter ambiguum est et vitæ nescius error 35 Diducit trepidas ramosa in compita mentes, Me tibi supposui. Teneros tu suscipis annos

30. Boys might feel' timid' (Juv. xvi. 3. M.) at first laying aside the dress of their early years, and assuming the garb of manhood. LU. Cat. Ixviii. 15 sqq. Ov. Tr. IV. x. 27 sqq. Prop. III. xiii. 3 sqq. K.

The prætexta was intended to be a protection' to those who wore it. CAS. (Macr. S. i. 6. SCH. Plin. ix. 36. prætexta infirmitatem pueritia sacram fieri et venerabilem, non secus ac sacerdotes vestibus suis; Quint. Decl. 340. cf. imberbis juvenis tandem custode remoto; Hor. A. P. 161. PR.) In the general corruption of manners, however, its sacred character was utterly disregarded. Cic. Cat. ii. 2. 10. Phil. ii. 18. Juv. x. 308. Mart. sep. For better security the boys were always accompanied to and from school by a pedagogue. Hor. I S. vi. 81 sqq. Juv. x. 114 sqq. Mart. XI. xl. cf. Prop. II. iii. 10 sq. Petr. 85. V. Max. iii. 1. iv. 1. Plin. Ep. iii. 3. K. per hoc inane purpuræ decus precor; Hor. Ep. v. 7. DŃ.

31. Bulla; Juv. v. 164, note. PR. Petr. 60. K. Boys consecrated their bulla, as girls did their dolls: cf. ii. 70, note. A, v. 18. PR. This dedication was a private ceremony; the putting on of the toga was a public one. If the latter was performed at Rome, the youths repaired immediately afterwards to some temple (generally to the Capitol) to complete the ceremony by offering the customary sacrifices. Being an act of great solemnity, it frequently formed, among the youths who changed their gown at the same time, a bond of fellowship which subsisted unbroken through life. G. Hor. I Od. xxxvi. 9.

Succinctis. cf. cinctutis; Hor. A. P. 50. These domestic deities, who were rather regarded as palladia or amulets than as gods of power, were probably represented in the same homely garb which they wore before Rome became a city. A kind of affectionate home-bred

superstition forbade all attempts at innovation in their costume. G. They were dressed, after the Gabinian fashion, with their toga twisted over the left shoulder, leaving the right arm bare. VS. cf. Ov. F. v. 129 sq. (BU.) Prop. IV. i. 131. (BK. VU.) K.

32. When I had indulgent companions, who would let me go my own way; instead of an uncle to thwart me and a pedagogue to curb me.' PR. M.

Subura; Juv. iii. 5, note. PR. Anth. L. t. i. Ep. xli. p. 514. (BU.) K.

33. Ov. F. iii. 771-778. K. postquam excessit ex ephebis, liberius vivendi fuit potestas: antea vero ætas, metus, magister prohibebant; Ter. And. I. i. 24 sqq. oculi sunt in amore duces; Ov. PR. Their white gown, having the gloss of newness on this momentous occasion, would be candidus. G.

The toga was so arranged as to be gathered into many plaits on the left shoulder; the centre, where all these folds met, was called the umbo or 'boss.' CAS. T. cf. Tert. de Pall. p. 373 sqq. palla nigerrima, splendescens atro nitore, quæ circumcirca remeans, et sub dextrum latus ad humerum lævum recurrens, umbonis vicem dejecta parte laciniæ multiplici contabulatione dependula; Apul. xi. LI. From this boss, the extremity of the lappet fell down before, and was tucked into the girdle, forming the sinus, (an apology for a pocket,) in which papers and other light articles were carried; and it is far from improbable that some affected display was made of it, in the pride of recent manhood. G.

34. Cf. iii. 56, note. PR. Juv. ii. 20,


35. Οἱ νέοι τὰ ἤθη εἰσὶν εὐμετάβολοι Arist. Rh. II. xiv. 2.

Ramosa cf. Aus. Id. xv. PR.

36. The metaphor may be taken from an animal placing its neck under the yoke: Ov. Am. III. x. 13. or from a

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Socratico, Cornute, sinu. Tunc fallere solers
Apposita intortos extendit regula mores

Et premitur ratione animus vincique laborat
40 Artificemque tuo ducit sub pollice vultum.
Tecum etenim longos memini consumere soles
Et tecum primas epulis decerpere noctes.
Unum opus et requiem pariter disponimus ambo
Atque verecunda laxamus seria mensa.

45 Non equidem hoc dubites, amborum fœdere certo
Consentire dies et ab uno sidere duci.

calf sucking; Varr. R. R. V. ii. 5. 17. K.

37. The Stoics traced their philosophy from Socrates by the following line of succession: (1) Socrates, (2) Antisthenes, (3) Diogenes, (4) Crates, (5) Zeno, (6) Cleanthes, (7) Chrysippus : cf. Plut. Laert. Cic. PR. vade, hos paterno, ut genitor, excipiam sinu; Sen. Med. 384. Socratica fide: Petr. 129. cf. Quint. i. 9. ii. 2. K.

'You corrected me with such skill and address, that I insensibly amended: so gradually was your discipline revealed, that I was happily cheated, as it were, into reformation. CAS. M. Hor. I Ep. xvii. 10. K. cf. Lucr. i. 935-949. "Così all' egro fanciul porgiamo, aspersi Di soave licor, gli orli del vaso: Succhi amari, ingannato, intanto ei beve, E dall' inganno suo vita riceve ;" Tasso, G. L. I. iii.

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38. A metaphor from workmen. SCH. Extends,' and consequently 'straightens.' PR.

39. Animum rege; qui, nisi paret, imperat: hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce catena; Hor. I Ep. ii. 62 sq. homo cum animo inde ab ineunte ætate depugnat suo... tu si animum vicisti potius, quam animus te, est quod gaudeas; Plaut. Trin. II. ii. 24 &c. cf. Cic. Off. i. 28, fin. efficiendum est autem, ut appetitus rationi obediant, &c. ib. 29. As the horse is broken in by the rider, so is the mind to be managed by reason: Plato. PR. Virg. Æ. viii. 81. (HY.) Prop. II. i. 10. Arist. R. 868. K. The imperfect habit of continence is here pictured: where the passions are not yet brought to acquiesce without reluctance in the supremacy of reason, as is the case in the perfect character of temperance. cf.

Arist. Eth. vii. (where he treats of self-
control,) and i. 13.

40. Artificem sometimes signifies 'a
finished piece of workmanship.' Ov. A. A.
iii. 555 sq. V. Flac. vi. 465. cf. Prop. I.
ii. 8. (BU.) Id. II. xxiii. 8. (BK.) K.
Juv. vii. 237 sq, notes. PR. Stat. S.
IV. vi. 27. K.

41. Sæpe ego longos cantando puerum memini me condere soles; Virg. E. ix. 51 sq. PR. Id. Æ. iii. 203. Nemes. Ec. ii. 25. Æl. V. H. xiii. 1. K.

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42. By the first nights,' is meant the first part of the night' i. e. an hour or two after sunset.' SCH." Of the night Have borrow'd the first hours, feasting with thee On the choice dainties of philosophy." HO.


Decerpere is contrasted with consumere.

43. Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus idem; Virg. G. iv. 184. PR.

44. Cf. Athen. Macr. vii. 1. Gell. xiii. 11. PR. There seems to be a peculiar beauty in Persius's talking all along in the present tense: he recollected with so much pleasure those days which were past, that he seemed to live them over again. DN.

45. Fœdere certo: Virg. Æ. i. 62. Sil. xv. 75. K. magnus erit Geminis amor et concordia duplex; quosque dabunt Chelae et quos dat Aquarius ortus, unum pectus habent, fideique immobile vinclum ; Man. ii. PR. It was believed that this unanimity did not subsist between such as were born under every sign. at quibus in lucem Pisces venientibus adsunt, his non una manet semper sententia cordi; commutant animos interdum et foedera rumpunt ac repetunt; Manil. ii. MAR.

46. Scit Genius natale comes qui temperat astrum; Hor. II Ep. ii. 187.

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Nostra vel æquali suspendit tempora Libra
Parca tenax veri, seu nata fidelibus hora

Dividit in Geminos concordia fata duorum 50 Saturnumque gravem nostro Jove frangimus una : Nescio quod, certe est, quod me tibi temperat, astrum. Mille hominum species et rerum discolor usus : Velle suum cuique est nec voto vivitur uno. Mercibus hic Italis mutat sub sole recenti

55 Rugosum piper et pallentis grana cumini: Hic satur irriguo mavult turgescere somno :

MAR. sic placitum Parcis seu Libra seu me Scorpios adspicit formidolosus, pars violentior natalis horae seu tyrannus Hesperia Capricornus unde; utrumque nostrum incredibili modo consentit astrum; te Jovis impio tutela Saturno refulgens eripuit, &c. Hor. II Od. xvii. 15 sqq. (JA.) VS. PR. Juv. vii. 194 sqq, notes. K.

47. The balance' is a symbol of equality. When the sun enters this sign (which is about the 20th of September), the autumnal equinox commences. felix @quatæ genitus sub pondere Libræ; Man. v. PR.

48. Parca non mendax; Hor. II Od. xvi. 39. The Fate' of the Stoics is here meant. LU. cf. Juv. iii. 27, note. Virg. E. iv. 47. PR.

50. Cf. Juv. vi. 569 sq, note. felicesque Jovis stellas Martisque rapacis et grave Saturni sidus in omne caput; Prop. IV. i. 83 sq. PR. Macr. S. i. 19. Ptol. in FAB, B. Gr. t. vi. 14. p. 449. Gell. xiv. 1. Cic. Div. ii. Sext. Emp. v. Petr. 39. K. 51. Nescio quid certe est; Virg. E. viii. 107. Ov. Her. xii. 212.

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Astrum is properly a constellation.' LU.

52. Quot capita, tot sententiæ; suus cuique mos; Ter. Ph. II. iii. 14. Cassiod. quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum millia; Hor. II S. i. 27. VS. PR. inque aliis rebus multis differre necesse est naturas hominum varias, moresque sequaces; Lucr. iii. 315 sq.

53. Trahit sua quemque voluptas; Virg. E. ii. 65. VS. quod tibi magnopere cordi est, mihi vehementer displicet; Lucil. PR. cf. Ov. A. A. i. 759 sq. Hor. I Od. i. and I S. iv. 25 sqq. 54. Hic mutat merces surgente a sole


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ad eum quo vespertina tepet regio; Hor. I S. iv. 29 sq. VS. impiger extremos currit mercator ad Indos; I Ep. i. 45. The word mutat properly belonged to a period, when commerce consisted in barter. utinam totum e vita posset abdicari aurum, sacra fames, ad perniciem vitæ repertum. quantum feliciore avo, quum res ipsæ permutabantur inter se, sicut et Trojanis temporibus factitatum, Homero credi convenit. ita enim, ut opinor, commercia victus gratia inventa, &c. Plin. xxxiii. 1. The invention of commerce is attributed to the Phoenicians: Id. vii. 56. A, iv. 15. PR. cf. Ar. Eth. v. 5.

55. Ha (i. e. the pods of pepper'), priusquam dehiscant decerpte tostæque sole, faciunt quod vocatur piper longum ; paullatim vero dehiscentes maturitate, ostendunt candidum piper; quod deinde tostum solibus colore rugisque mutatur; Plin. H. N. xii. 7 s 14. and again, quæ piper gignunt juniperis nostris similes; ib. PR. v. 136. Juv. xiv. 293. 'The cumin,' which is a mere dwarf in our gardens, grows to the height of eight or nine feet in hot countries. It is much cultivated by the Maltese, with whom it forms an article of commerce. DD. It seems to have been used at common tables as a substitute for 'pepper,' which was very expensive. G. cuminum pallorem bibentibus gignit. ita certe ferunt Porcii Latronis, clari inter magistros dicendi, affectatores similitudinem coloris studiis contracti imitatos, &c. Plin. xx. 14 s 57. xix. s 47. xv. 29. quod si pallerem casu biberent exsangue cuminum; Hor. I Ep. xix. 17 sq. PR. K.

56. Fessos sopor irrigat artus; Virg. Æ. iii. 511. ib. i. 691. (HY.) Lucr. iv. 908. The metaphor is taken from plants

Hic campo indulget: hunc alea decoquit: ille

In Venerem est putris: sed quum lapidosa chiragra
Fregerit articulos, veteris ramalia fagi,

60 Tunc crassos transîsse dies lucemque palustrem, Et sibi jam seri vitam ingemuere relictam. At te nocturnis juvat impallescere chartis. Cultor enim juvenum purgatas inseris aures Fruge Cleanthea. Petite hinc, juvenesque senesque, 65 Finem animo certum miserisque viatica canis.

which become more succulent from frequent watering. CAS. cf. Tib. II. i. 44. Hence also obesus somnus; Sulpicia 56.


57. The Campus Martius; Hor. I Od. viii. 4. Suet. Aug. 83. K.

Decoquit is a metaphor from a liquor which is boiled quite away. CAS. quem damnosa Venus, quem præceps alea nudat; Hor. I Ep. xviii. 21. PR. 'boils to rags.'

58. Wanton.' omnes in Damalim putres deponent oculos; Hor. I Od. xxxvi. 17 sq. (JA.) PR. vivunt in Venerem; Claud. x. 65. K.

Lapidosa full of chalk-stones.' LU. nodosa; Hor. I Ep. i. 31. PR.

Chiragra, yga rus xugós: PR. when it affected the feet, it was called podagra. LU.

59. Postquam illis justa chiragra contudit articulos; Hor. II S. vii. 16 sq. PR.

Ramalia; cf. i. 97. M. The dead branches of the beech' very soon decay. Pallad. Nov. xv. 2. Plin. H. N. xvii. s 79. K.

60. Of gross sensuality.' M. cf. Cic. for Sext. 9. K.

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38. G. 66 Anger and grief doe then begin a strife Within them, for their base and durtie life Now spent: when now, but now too late, they looke Upon the life they wretchedly forsooke." HO.

62. Vos exemplaria Græca nocturna versate manu, versate diurna; Hor. A. P. 268 sq. LU.

63. Quod enim munus reipublicæ afferre majus meliusve possumus, quam si doceamus atque erudiamus juventutem? Cic. Div. ii. 4. cultura animi philosophia est, qua extrahit vitia radicitus, et præparat animos ad satus accipiendos, eaque mandat eis et (ut ita dicam) serit, quæ adulta fructus uberrimos ferant; Id. T. Q. ii. 13. nemo adeo ferus est ut non mitescere possit, si modo culturæ patientem commodet aurem. virtus est vitium fugere et sapientia prima stultitia caruisse; Hor. I Ep. i. 39 sqq. PR.

64. Of Cleanthes,' the son of Phanes. LU. cf. Laert. vii. 174. (MEN.) Cic. N. D. i. 37. V. Max. viii. 7. PR. Cic. Ac. iv. 41. Claud. xvii. 87 sq. He was the preceptor of Chrysippus. K. Juv. ii. 7, note.

Eque pauperibus prodest, locupletibus aque; æque neglectum pueris senibusque nocebit; Hor. I Ep. i. 25 sq. PR.

65. Certum voto pete finem; Hor. I Ep. ii. 56. LU. dei äravтa ròv dvváμevov ζῆν κατὰ τὴν αὑτοῦ προαίρεσιν θέσθαι τινὰ σκοπὸν τοῦ καλῶς ζῆν, πρὸς ὃν ἀποβλέπων ποιήσεται πάσας τὰς πράξεις, ὡς τό γε μὴ συντετάχθαι τὸν βίον πρός τι τέλος ἀφροσύνης πολλῆς σημεῖον ἔστι· Arist. Εth. Eud. ii. vita sine scopo vaga. scire debet, quid petat ille, qui sagittam vult mittere, et tunc dirigere et moderari telum; errant consilia nostra, quia non habent, quo dirigantur; Sen. Ep. 71. K.

Animo is the dative. K.
Bias used to say that virtue was the

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"Cras hoc fiet." Idem cras fiet. "Quid? quasi magnum, Nempe diem donas." Sed quum lux altera venit, Jam cras hesternum consumsimus. Ecce aliud cras Egerit hos annos et semper paullum erit ultra. 70 Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub uno Vertentem sese frustra sectabere canthum, Quum rota posterior curras et in axe secundo. Libertate opus est, non hac, qua, ut quisque Velina

best provision for life's journey:' LU. Laert. i. aptissima omnino sunt arma senectutis, artes exercitationesque virtutum quæ in omni ætate culta, cum multum diuque vixeris mirificos afferunt fructus, non solum quia numquam deserunt, ne extremo quidem tempore atatis (quamquam id maximum est) verum etium quia conscientia bene actæ vitæ, multorumque benefactorum recordatio jucundissima est; Cic. Sen. 9. PR.

'Miserable' would they be without such provision. LU.

66. Cf. S. Aug. Conf. viii. 10 sq. cras te victurum, cras dicis, Postume, semper; dic mihi, cras istud, Postume, quando venit? quam longe cras istud? ubi est? aut unde petendum? numquid apud Purthos Armeniosque latet? jam cras istud habet Priami vel Nestoris annos. cras istud quanti dic mihi, possit emi? cras vives: hodie jam vivere, Postume, serum est. ille sapit, quisquis, Postume, vixit heri; Mart. V. lviii. PR. qui non est hodie, cras minus aptus erit; Ov. R. A. 94. CAS. "Be wise to day, 'tis madness to defer: Next day the fatal precedent will plead. Thus on, till wisdom is push'd out of life. Procrastination is the thief of time; Year after year it steals, till all are filed, And to the mercies of a moment leaves The vast concerns of an eternal scene;'

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Young, N. Th. i. DN. To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day, To the last syllable of recorded time; And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death;" Shaksp. Macb. V. v. M. "To-morrow didst thou say! Methought I heard Horatio say To-morrow! Go to-I will not hear of it: &c." Cotton. Cowley has translated the text thus: 'Our yesterday's to-morrow now is gone, And still a new to-morrow does come on. We by to-morrows draw out all our

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69. Egerit, not from agere, but from egerere; CAS. ' consumes, exhausts.' M. tota querelis egeritur questuque dies; V. Flac. viii. 453 sq. K. truditur dies die novæque pergunt interire lunæ; Hor. II Od. xviii. 15 sq. PR.

70. The temo is the perch,' its continuation forms the pole; to the extremity of which is attached the yoke. The opposite end is connected at right angles to the hind axle,' parallel to which, where the perch and pole meet, is the fore axle.

71. Canthus the felloe:' a word, which Quintilian objects to as a barbarism, being either an African or Spanish word. i. 3. 5. (BU.) [One of those words, in all probability, which were domesticated in Spain, owing to its long subjection to Carthage: as we find in the modern language many remains of the Arabic, which were engrafted on it during the dominion of the Moors: see Weston's Treatise on this subject.] inducenda rota est, das nobis utile munus. iste trochus pueris, at mihi canthus erit; Mart. XIV. clxviii. PR. avru· Hom. E 728. K. the tire of the wheel.' LU. The Greek word has probably a common origin.

72. Cf. Virg. Æ. i. 156. (HY.) Hor. I Ep. ii. 41 sqq. Ov. M. xv. 179 sqq. K.

It was said of a naval officer, who was notorious through life for being behindhand in executing his duties and performing his engagements, that he had let a day slip by him when he was a midshipman, and had never since been able to overtake it.

73. He proceeds to expatiate on the favourite dogma of the Stoics, libertate opus est ad virtutem, inquit Persius, non eá qua servi donantur et ascribuntur uni

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