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line stine, 20 Herba nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum! Leave

Hic tunc Umbricius “Quando artibus” inquit “ honestis
Nullus in Urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum,
Res hodie minor est, here quam fuit, atque eadem cras

Deteret exiguis aliquid: proponimus illuc 25 Ire, fatigatas ubi Dædalus exuit alas,

Dum nova canities, dum prima et recta senectus,
Dum superest Lachesi, quod torqueat, et pedibus me
Porto meis, nullo dextram subeunte bacillo.

Cedamus patria: vivant Artorius istic
30 Et Catulus: maneant, qui nigrum in candida vertunt,

Quîs facile est ædem conducere, flumina, portus,

155 sqq. Numen aque

'the sacred fount:' recta, 65 till death senectus ultima or R. or the Naiad of the spring. M. decrepita. HO.

20. Ingenuum 'native. The tophus 27. Dum res et ætas et sororum fila was 'a coarse lime-stone,' which was trium patiuntur utra ; Hor. II Od. ii. now supplaced by “ a marble basin.' R. 15 sq. The respective offices of the Art' does violence' to nature : nullo vio- three Destinies is described in the followlatus Jupiter auro; xi. 116. violuverit ostro ing verse : Clotho colum gestat, Lachesis ebur; Virg. Æ. xii. 67. Mart. I. liv. 6. net, et Atropos occat. The name of μιαίνειν ελέφαντα φοίνικι: Ηom. II. Δ141.R. Lachesis is derived from λαγχάνειν. LU.

21. The word honestis is emphatic. M. cf. Cat. lxiv. 312 sqq. Torquere and versare This passage is an imitation of Plautus (Tib. II. i. 64.) signify' to spin.' R. Mlerc. V. i. 7 sqq. GR.

28. Sener, gravatus annis, totus in 22. Emolumentum, from e and mola, baculum pronus et lassum trahens vestiwas properly 'the profit got by grist.”. gium; Apul. LU. Compare the riddle

23. “My fortune is growing Iess, daily.' of the Sphinx. PR.

29. Cf. ii. 131. Artorius and Catulus Here is an ancient form of heri. PR. were two knaves who, by disreputable

24. ^ Will file down somewhat.' dam- arts, had risen from the dregs of the nosa quid non imminuit dies. Hor. III people to affluence. VS. Od. vi. 45. GR. Strictly speaking, res 30. Qui facere assuerat, patrie non deteritur and not deterit. R. degener artis, candida de nigris et

* I and my family propose.' M. de candentibus atra; Ov. M. xi. 314 sq.

25. Fatigatus applies to the body, White' and 'black' the ancients often fessus to the mind. Fatigued with his used for “good' and 'bad:' hic niger est ; long flight from Crete. Virg. Æ. vi. 14 hunc tu, Romane, caveto; Hor. I S. iv. $99. If Dædalus, who had the choice of 85. Pers. v. 108. His præmium nunc est, all the world before him, fixed upon qui recta prava faciunt; Ter. Phor. V.ü.6. Cumæ, it must indeed be a lovely spot LU. Pers. ii. 1 sq. Mundana sapientia (since he was both rúgos and sides. cor muchinationibus tegere, sensum cf. Arist. Rh. I. vii.2.). LU, i. 54. PR. verbis velare, quæ falsu sunt vera ostendere, Šil. xi. 89 sqq. R.

quæ vera sunt falsa demonstrare; Greg. 26. · Before the infirmities of old age Mag. Mor. PR. grow upon me:' LU. cf. Cic. Sen. 26. 31. Who have the means of getting 60. PR. donec virenti canities abest contracts for lucrative public works. M. morosa; Hor. I Od. ix. 17 sq. R. Phi- These contractors were generally of the losophers divided man's life thus : from Equestrian order. R. The building of birth to 3 or 4 infantia, 3 or 4 to 10 a temple;' for this is (almost without pueritia, 10 to 18 pubertas, 18 to 25 adoles- exception) the signification of aedes in centia, 25 to 35 or 40 juventus, 35 or 40 to the singular. Sỹ, onòr pesobriobau Her. 50 atas virilis, 50 to 65 senectus prima or v. 62. See note on vi. 597.


Siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver,
Et præbere caput domina venale sub hasta,

Quondam hi cornicines et municipalis arenæ con
35 Perpetui comites notæque per oppida bucca,

Munera nunc edunt et verso pollice vulgi

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• The clearing the mud from rivers with such entertainments was one of the and harbours,' or else · the fisheries, fer- readiest roads to power. Cicero first ries, and harbour dues.' FA. BRI. Or checked this abuse by a law prohibiting * the construction and reparation of har- candidates from so doing. Augustus debours.' GR.

creed that they should be given but 32. The cleansing of the public twice a year. Caligula removed every sewers.' VS. cf. Arist. Eth. iv. 1.

restriction : Domitian gave them every • The furnishing of a funeral.' G. encouragement : and even Trajan exScipio's funeral was performed by con- hibited the horrid spectacle of 10,000 tract, the sum being raised by subscrip- victims, on his triumph over the Dacians ! tion: Plin. H. N. xxi. 3. PR.

There were other checks of a secondary na33. • To speculate in a drove of slaves' ture : among these a decree of the senate, by buying the whole cargo, and then dis- ne quis gladiatorium munus ederet posing of them by auction in separate cui minor. quadringentorum millium res; lots. GR. Pers. vi. 76 sq. M.

Tac. An.iv.63. and he was also required
• A spear' used to be stuck up as the to be a free citizen; for Harpocras, the
sign of a public auction. It was called freedman of Claudius, exhibited them by
• the mistress-spear' as implying the the emperor's special indulgence. This
dominion over the person and life of the will account for the indignation which
slave, which was then and there vested the poet feels, when such purse-proud
in the purchaser. BR. M. Tib. II. iv, upstarts presumed to trifle away the lives
54. dominus and domina are often used of their fellow-creatures at the caprice of
as adjectives : Ov. Her. ii. 100. H. an unfeeling rabble. Constantine sup-

34. • They once used to blow the horn pressed these barbarous shows; which
at the provincial theatres, and attend the were finally abolished by Arcadius and
strolling company of prize-fighters from Honorius. cf. Suet. Cæs. 10. Tac. An.
town to town.' T. PR. The horn' was xiii. 49. G. T. R.
sounded to call the people together, Vertere pollicern was a sign of con-
as at the shows in our country fairs. M. demnation, premere pollicem of favour. cf.

Municipium was 'a borough-town, Hor. I Ep. xviii. 66. LU. Plin. xxviii. 2.
which had the privileges and freedom of PR. The brutalization, resulting from
Rome, and at the same time was governed the frequent sight of these massacres, ren-
by laws of its own, somewhat like our dered instances of compassion but rare.
corporations. M.

If any where, we might have anticipated
35. Their faces were known;' for such pity would be found in the breasts of
which Juvenal says 'their cheeks,' the the Vestals: 0 tenerum mitemque animum!
most prominent part of their faces while consurgit ad ictus: et, quoties victor ferrum
they were puffing their horns. PR. M. jugulo inserit, illa delicias ait esse suas !

36. Now they give shows to the people.' pectusque jacentis virgo modesta jubet con-
From the occasional practice of putting verso pollice rumpi ; ne lateat pars
prisoners of war to death at the grave of ulla animæ vitalibus imis, altius impresso
a favourite chief who had fallen in battle, dum palpitat ense secutor! Prud. adv.
as the readiest way to appease his manes, Sym. 1095. No war or pestilence ever
arose that of exhibiting combats of gladi- swept away such myriads of the human
ators in Rome, at the funerals of eminent race, as these barbarous sports. In some
persons; to which they were for some months, twenty or thirty thousand were
time restricted. The magistrates were the slaughtered in Europe alone : Nero and
first to break through this restriction, by Caligula put to death some hundreds in
producing them at festivals for the amuse the course of their reigns : and even pri-
ment of the citizens. Ambitious men

vate citizens frequently butchered a thou-
soon found that to gratify the people sand in a day! G.

Quem libet occidunt populariter: inde reversi
Conducunt foricas; et cur non omnia?. quum sint,

Quales ex humili magna ad fastigia rerum 40 Extollit, quoties voluit Fortuna jocari.

Quid Romæ faciam? Mentiri nescio: librum,
Si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere: motus
Astrorum ignoro: funus promittere patris

Neć volo nec possum: ranarum viscera numquam 45 Inspexi. Ferre ad nuptam, quæ mittit adulter,

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37. When the vulgar spectators have “But how may I this honour now attaine, notified their wishes, he gives the death- That cannot dye the colour black a lyer ? signal which was waited for, to curry My Poynes, I cannot frame my tune to favour with the rabble;' LU. GR. and fayn, To cloke the truth, for praise withtherefore might be said to kill' the out desert, Of them that list all vice for gladiator : cf. 116. R. upon the prin- to retayne.” Hence he cannot prefer ciple qui facit per alium, facit per se. Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas to his Pa

From these magnificent exhibitions, læmon and Arcite : he cannot “ Praise they start off to the Ædiles to get some Syr Topas for a noble tale, And scorne lucrative contract, no matter how sordid.' the story that the Knight tolde. Praise ACH.

him for counsell that is dronke of ale; 38. They farm the jakes,' built for, Grinne when he laughes that beareth all the accommodation of the public, upon' the sway, Frowne when he frownes, and payment of a trifle. R. conducere to grone when he is pale; On others’ lust contract for;' vi. 597. R. see note on 13. to hang both night and day.” G. cf. Arist. Eth. iv. 1.

Librum : cf. Hor. A. P. 419 sqq. 40. The elevation of such low people Pers. i. FA. quod tam grande" dopās!is solely attributable to a frolic of the clamat tibi turba togata, non tu, Pomponi, blind goddess.' x. 366. Hor. I Od. cæna diserta tua est; Mart. VI. xlvü. xxxiv. 14 sqq. xxxv. 1 sqq. III Od. xxix. M. 49 899. M. vii. 197 sq. Stat. Th. iii. 42. Poscere 'to say I should be de179." Claud. in Eut. i. 23 sqq. Hence lighted to have a copy.' FA. she is called improba ; vi. 605 sqq. lvoti

no astrologer.' FA. vi. 553 δε και τών της Τύχης αγαθών καταφρονείν, εφg. xiv. 248 εφ. R. δρώντα, ώσπερ εν σκηνή και πολυπροσώπη 43. Spondere ; vi. 548. 'to the proδράματι, τον μεν εξ οικίσου δεσπότην προϊ- digal and expectant heir' (vi. 565 sqq.), όντα, τον δ' αντί πλουσίου κίνητα, τον δε R. φui filius ante diem patrios inquirit σατράπην έκ πένητος και βασιλέα τούτο γάρ η αηηος, Ον. Μ. 1. 148. . του και το δεινότατον έστιν, ότι, καίτοι 44. “Though a soothsayer, I never μαρτυρουμένης της Τύχης παίζειν τα των explored the entrails of a toad, for the ανθρώπων πράγματα και ομολογούσης μηδέν purpose of extracting poison. Eα range aúrūv sivai Babaloy, opew psotoi Tipicos rubela visceribus, id est, linguu, osFráveis ou yeyropévwo iazidwr. Luc. in siculo, liene, corde, mira fieri posse constat, Nig. 20. R.

sunt enim plurimis medicaminibus re41. Vir bonus et pauper linguaque et ferta; Plin. FA. i. 70. PR. yi. 658. pectore verus, quid tibi vis, Urbem qui, 563 sqq. M. Ov. M. xv. 577. R. Either Fabiane, petis? qui nec leno potes nec our toad' is not the rana rubeta, or it comissator haberi, nec pavidos tristi voce has lost its noxious qualities in this citare reos; nec potes uxorem cari cor- country. The compounders of poisons rumpere amici, plaudere nec Cano plaudere might pretend to extract venom from nec Glaphyro. Unde miser vives? homo toads, in order to conceal their secret, fidus, certus amicus. hoc nihil est ; num- which more probably was some vegequam sic Philomelus eris; Mart. IV. v. table or mineral poison. G. Wyatt, in his Epistle to his friend Poynes, 45. Quæ mittit, . billets doux and preshows that he had this Satire before him: sents.' GR.

"I am


Quæ mandat, norunt alii: 'me nemo ministro
Fur erit atque ideo nulli comes exeo, tamquam
Mancus et exstinctæ corpus non utile dextræ.

Quis nunc diligitur, nisi conscius et cui fervens
50 Astuat occultis animus semperque tacendis?

Nil tibi se debere putat, nil conferet umquam,
Participem qui te secreti fecit honesti.
Carus erit Verri, qui Verrem tempore, quo

Accusare potest. Tanti tibi non sit opaci
55 Omnis arena Tagi quodque in mare volvitur aurum,
Ut somno careas ponendaque præmia

Tristis et a magno semper timearis amico.

Quæ nunc divitibus gens acceptissima nostris
Et quos præcipue fugiam, properabo fateri
60 Nec pudor obstabit. Non possum ferre, Quirites,

Græcam Urbem:. quamvis quota portio fæcis Achæi?

· I am

46. Quæ mandat, “messages.' GR. umquam, commissumque tegas, vel vino

47. • I will never be an accessary to tortus et ira; Hor. I Ep. xviii. 37 sq.
peculation, or lend myself as an agent to

extortion; therefore no governor, when Æstus serenos aureo frunges Tago,
departing for one of the foreign pro- obscurus umbris arborum ; Mart. I. 1.
vinces, would receive me into his train. 15 sq. PR.
cf. 53 sq.

55. Now 'the Taio.' R. arena aurum-
48. A cripple.' exstinctæ dextræ is que (iy dià duoiv) golden sands.'
a Grecism for exstincta deatra.

65. Some confound ponenda with pro-
not dexterous enough in knavery to posita: (Virg. Æ. v. 292. 486.) it is
be made any one's right-hand man.' rather equivalent to deponenda, especially

49. Quis? i. e. nemo, ‘none, but the in juxta-position with sumus ; R. as in
confidant of a guilty secret.’ FA. vis Hor. III Od. ii. 19. M. q. 66.
fieri dives, Bithynice? conscius esto; Mart. 57. To your sorrow,' ov xaipwr.
VI. 1. 5. R.

Cf. 113. i. 33. M. vi. 313. R. poßspór
50. Animo estuante reditum ad rada έστι φόβος των δυναμένων τι ποιήσαι, εν
retulit; Cat. a metaphor from the sea παρασκευή γαρ ανάγκη είναι τον τοιούτον:

raging and boiling' under the influence Arist. Rh. 11. vi. 2. See the history of
of a storm: fervet vertigine pontus; Pausanias in Thuc.i. 132 sqq.
Ov. M. xi. 549. Maura semper aestuat 59. Nec sequar aut fugiam, quæ dili-
unda; Hor. II Od. vi. 3 sq. “The git ipse vel odit; Hor. I Ep. i. 72. GR.
wicked are like the troubled sea, when it 60. Pudor : Umbricius blushed for his
cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire country.
and dirt. There is no peace, saith my Quirites! is said in bitterness of spirit,
God, to the wicked ;" Isa. lvii. 20 sq. M. and as a contrast to Græcam. vi. 16. 185

Raging waves of the sea, foaming sqq. 291 sqq. xi. 169 sqq. xv. 110 sqq.
out their own shame;" Jude 13.

Pers. vi. 38. K. Sil. iii. 178. xii. 41. 49. 51. ' To be under no obligation.' M. 69. Cic. pro Flac. Luc. Nig. 15. R. Nil tibi, vel minimum, basia pura da- 61. “A Grecian Rome. (xv. 110. R.) bunt; Mart. VI. 1. 6. R.

Yet when I see what a deluge of Asiatics 53. Caef. ii. 26. PR. Tac. A. vi. 4. the Orontes has disgorged into the Tiber, Amm. Marc. XXVIII. vi. 20. R. See I must own that the filth of Greece bears 47.

but a small proportion to the inundation 54. Arcanum neque tu scrutaberis ullius of impurity with which

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Jam pridem Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes
Et linguam et mores et cum tibicine chordas

Obliquas nec non gentilia tympana secum
65 Vexit et ad Circum jussas prostare puellaş.

Ite, quibus grata est pictâ lupa barbara mitrâ.
Rusticus ille tuus sumit trechediprra, Quirine,
Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo. a prires,
Hic alta Sicyone ast hiç Amydone relicta,


whelmed.' G. cf. xiii. 157. The depra- ix. 616. Id. Cop. 1. Ov. M. xiv. 654.
vity of the Greeks we learn from 1 Cor. Claud. Eut. ii. 185. R.
vi. 9-11. and elsewhere in the New Tes- 67. The Romans were reduced to the
tament. M. nec và iovmn ibgóws aúról (at level of prize-fighters ; while foreigners
Rome) συνώκισται, ως το Καππαδοκών και were worming themselves into every post
Σύρων και Ποντικών και άλλων πλειόνων" of power and proft. LU. To mark his
Ath. i. 36. BO.

contempt the more, the poet crowds his
62. The inhabitants of the East, and description with Greek words. G. of.
especially of Antioch, which was on the Hor. II Ep. i. 32 sq. R.
Orontes, (Julian. Misop. Herodian II. Rusticus ; cf. ii. 74.127. viii. 274 s

sq. vü. 15. HN.) were scandalously de- M. bauched in their morals, (viii. 158 sq.) It is not agreed what part of the dress and introduced quite new fashions ; (vii

. is meant by agezédeitya. It may be the 14 sqq. viii. 198 sqq.) Mart. III. iv. v. same as ivdgopeds, ' a gymnastic dress,' 103. lvi. Suet. Ves. 19. For a similar me- vi. 245. T. or “the succinct vest of the taphor, see vi. 295. Claud. Eut. i. 434. Greek wrestlers,' G. or 'a suit of livery, Isa. viii, 6-8. R.

cf. v. 143. RU. or 'a cloak in which, 63. Luauriæ peregrinæ origo ab exer- they ran for their supper or dole,' citu Asiatico invectu in urbem est; tum 127 sq. LU. PR. HO. or 'Grecian psaltria sambucistriæque et convivialia shoes,' VS. SA. HN. or the same as urna ludionum oblectamenta addita epulis; Liv. Tugiu, i.e. ' prizes worn round the neck," xxxix. 6. the Sambucum was a triangular which served as badges to distinguish lyre. The “harp and flute' were very such as were entitled to partake of the generally played together; cf. Hor. E, suppers provided at the public expence.' ix. 5 sq. and elsewhere. SP.

JS. RI. VO. 64. ‘National tambourines.' VS. Quirinus, a surname of Romulus, deLucr. i. 618. R.

rived from curis a Sabine word signi65. There were several Circuses at fying a spear;' or from Cures, after the Rome. The Circus Maximus is here admission of the Sabines into Rome. meant, which was first built by Tarquinius Mars was called Gradivus when incensed, Priscus, PR. and by subsequent alter- and Quirinus when pacified. Ov. F. ii. ations was able to accommodate 260,000 475 sqq. PR. cf. ii. 128. spectators, KE. being more than three 68. Cf. ii. 143. ACH. Ceroma was an furlongs in length, and one broad ; Plin. ointment made of oil, wax, and clay; Xxxvi. 15 8 24. BRI. See 223.

LU. (Mart. VII. xxxii. 9. PR.) Plin. * To stand for hire.' vi. 123. R. i. 47. xxviii. 4 s 13. xxxv. 12 sq. R. with Puellas, et quas Euphrates et quas mihi which they besmeared their neck and misit Orontes ; Prop. II. xxii. 21. R. breast, and that profusely; for Seneca, 66. Hie thither.' G.

telling his friend Lucilius of a journey he * The barbarian harlot with had taken, says, the roads were so bad broidered' (understand acu) turban.' that he rather swam than walked, and, These women were termed lupæ from before he got to his inn, was plastered their rapacity; and the houses where over with ceroma like a prize-fighter.' G. they lodged, lupunaria. The Greeks Mart. IV. iv. 10. xix. 5. and Romans called all foreigners · bar- 69. Cf. vii. 14 sqq. Sicyon, in Achaia, barians. M. See note on Her. i. pr. was ini aópor igupevóv. Strab. viii. p. 587,

Cf. ï. 84. PR. Virg. Æ. iv.* 216. R.


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