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130 Ne prior Albinam et Modiam collega salutet?
Divitis hic servi claudit latus ingenuorum

Filius alter enim, quantum in legione Tribuni
Accipiunt, donat Calvinæ vel Catienæ,

free bom.

Ut semel atque iterum super illam palpitet: at tu, 135 Quum tibi vestiti facies scorti placet, hæres

Et dubitas alta Chionen deducere sella.

Da testem Romæ tam sanctum, quam fuit hospest,

Numinis Idæi: procedat vel Numa vel qui
Servavit trepidam flagranti ex æde Minervam:

130. Should be before-hand in paying his respects;' which, being the greater compliment and the greater proof of friendship, LU. would be likely to supplant less attentive rivals in the wills of these rich dowagers. cf. i. 117. PR. The two prætors here meant are probably the Urbanus who judged causes between citizens, and the Peregrinus who was the judge in causes between foreigners. M.

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131. Hic at Rome;' 160. 180. 232. Claudere latus is to walk on the left side of a person and give him the wall.' FE. Hor. II S. v. 18. PR. cf. Mart. II. xlvi. 8. VI. lxviii. 4. R.

132. The pay of a military tribune,' forty-eight pieces of gold, put for an indefinitely large sum. The foot-soldier received twelve pieces, the centurion double, the horse-soldier treble, and the tribune quadruple. LI. GRO. The Roman army first received pay A. U. 347. Liv. iv. PR.

133. Junia Calvina and Catiena were celebrated courtezans. The former is mentioned, Suet. Vesp. GR. Tac. A. xii. 4. 8. (LI.) R.

134. To enjoy her once or twice: whereas thou,' i. e. Juvenal. M.

135. Well dressed.' BRI. Or clad in the toga;' see i. 96. i. 70. FE. Or ordinary,' and therefore thoroughly dressed' as having no beauty to show. cf. Hor. I S. ii. 83 sqq. Mart. III. iii. PR. Hærere to hesitate.' VS.

136. These females used to sit in 'high chairs' in order to be seen the better by those who were looking after them. cf. Sen. Ben. i. 9. Plaut. Pœn. I. ii. 54 sqq. Hor. I S. ii. 101 sqq. Hence are derived the terms sellarius, sellularius, sellariola popina and sellaria; Tac. A. vi. 1. Mart. V. lxxi. 3. Suet. Tib. 43. VS. FE.

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The Sibylline books being consulted (A. U. 548.) for the proper expiation of many alarming prodigies, it was found that the evils might be averted by bringing Cybele from Phrygia. The five deputies who were sent to fetch this protectress (a rude and shapeless stone) from Pessinus, were directed by the oracle to place her at their return in the hands of the most virtuous man in the commonwealth, till her temple should be prepared. The senate unanimously declared P. Corn. Scipio Nasica to be the man; and with him the goddess was lodged. G. VS. Liv. xxix. 10. PR. and 14. xxxv. 10. Plin. vii. 34. Thus the ark was received into the houses of Abinadab and Obed-Edom; 1 Sam. vii. 1. 2 Sam. vi. 10 sqq. R.

138. Cybele is called Idea parens; Virg. Æ. x. 252 sqq. Ov. F. iv. 182, LU. This Ida was in Phrygia, there was another in Crete. ibid. 207. PR.

Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, the chief founder of their religion. FA. 12. Liv. i. 18. PR.

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139. L. Cæcilius Metellus, chief pontiff, (who had been consul twice, dictator, &c.) saved the palladium from the temple of Vesta when in flames,' but lost his eye-sight in consequence. VS i. 265. R. The people conferred on him the singular privilege of riding to the Senatehouse in a chariot. Plin. vii. 43. PR.

The epithet trepida is here applied to Minerva: which would more properly belong to the Romans; heu quantum

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140 Protenus ad censum, (de moribus ultima fiet

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Quæstio,)" Quot pascit servos? Quot possidet agri
Jugera? Quam multa magnaque paropside cœnat?"
Quantum quisque sua nummorum servat in arca,
Tantum habet et fidei. Jures licet et Samothracum
145 Et nostrorum aras; contemnere fulmina pauper
Creditur atque Deos, Dîs ignoscentibus ipsis.
Quid, quod materiam præbet causasque jocorum
Omnibus hic idem, si fœda et scissa lacerna,
Si toga sordidula est et rupta calceus alter
150 Pelle patet; vel si consuto vulnere crassum

Atque recens linum ostendit non una cicatrix? Crack,
Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se,

timuere patres, quo tempore Vesta arsit!
attonita flebant demisso crine ministra:
abstulerat vires corporis ipse timor. (Ves-
tales Metellus) dubitare videbat et pavidas
posito procubuisse genu; Ov. F. vi. 437.
&c. G.

140. Quærenda pecunia primum est,
virtus post nummos; Hor. I Ep. i. 53 sq.
R. Thus they quite reversed the order of
things, for sit omne judicium, non quam
locuples, sed qualis quisque sit; Cic. Off.
ii. 20. GR.

141. A person's fortune is estimated by the establishment he keeps.' LU. vii. 76. 93. ix. 67. 136. xii. 28. R.

142. Jugerum was as much land as could be ploughed in a day by one yoke of oxen. LU.

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Hagopis a dish.' T. • What sort of
table he keeps.' PR.

143. Quia tanti, quantum habeas, sis;
Hor. I S. i. 62. in pretio pretium nunc
est, dat census honores, census amicitias,
pauper ubique jacet; Ov. F. i. 217 sq.
LU. aurum atque ambitio specimen virtu-
tis utrique est, tantum habeas, tantum ipse
sies, tantique habearis; Lucil. VS." Men's
honesties," says Barnaby Rich,
now measured by the Subsidie Book; he
that is rich is honest; and the more a
man doth abounde in wealth, so much he
doth exceed, and that as well in honestie
as in wit;" Irish Hubbub. G.


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Minerva. LU. Virg. Æ. iii. 12. PR. see
Cumberland, Orig. app. de Cabb. G.

145. To swear by the altars,' i. e. laying your hands on the altars, and swearing by the deities to whom the altars were consecrated.' GR. Hor. II Ep. i. 16. M. xiv. 219. Tib. IV. xiii. 15. Sil. viii. 105. R. St Matt. xxiii. 18 sqq.

To despise,' as if the poor were beneath the notice of the gods. BA. cf. Hor. 11 Od. x. 11 sq. Or as if the deities would forgive perjury, when it originated in necessity and not in wilfulness. VS.

146. The sentiment in these lines seems borrowed from a Greek comedy; πρόσεστιν ἄρα καὶ τῷ πένητ ̓ ἀπιστία· καν σοφὸς ὑπάρχῃ, κἂν λέγῃ τὸ σύμφορον, δοκεῖ

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φράσειν τοῖς ἀκούουσιν κακῶς, τῶν γὰρ πενήτων πίστιν οὐκ ἔχει λόγος· ἀνὴς δὲ πλουτῶν, κἂν ἀγὰν ψευδηγορῇ δοκεῖ τι gáσuv cois àxovovo' àœqaλís· Phil. fr. G.

147. See 86. "Men of all sorts take pride to gird at him;" as Falstaff says; K. H. iv. pt. ii. A. I. sc. ii.


148. Hic idem pauper. LU. cf. Theoph. Ch. xix. 3. Sen. Ep. 93. Suet. Aug. 73. R.

Lacerna; i. 62. PR.

149. Somewhat shabby and soiled.* PR. Cf. Hor. I S. iii. 31 sq. Mart. I. civ. 5 sq. R.

Calceus; vii. 192. R.

150. Vulnus 'a rent;' V. Flac. i. 480. R. 151. Cicatrix a seam.' LU.


152. Paupertas fecit, ut ridiculus forem; Plaut. Stich. I. iii. 20 &c. huic quantum adjiciunt stultitiam,negligentiam,somnium, et gulum; Id. Quer. magnum pauperies opprobrium jubet quidvis facere et pati; Hor.

"Exeat," inquit,


Quam quod ridiculos homines facit.
"Si pudor est, et de pulvino surgat equestri,
155 Cujus res legi non sufficit et sedeant hic"-

Lenonum pueri quocumque in fornice nati.

Hic plaudat nitidi præconis filius inter auctioneer.

gladiator Pinnirapi cultos juvenes juvenesque lanista. forcing

Sic libitum vano, qui nos distinxit, Othoni.

160 Quis gener hic placuit censu minor atque puellæ
Sarcinulis impar? Quis pauper scribitur heres?
Quando in consilio est Edilibus? Agmine facto
Debuerant olim tenues migrasse Quirites.,
Haud facile emergunt, quorum virtutibus obstat

III Od. xxiv. 42 sq. LU. xi. 2 sq. v. 157
sq. οὐκ ἔστι πενίας οὐδὲν ἀθλιώτερον ἐν τῷ βίῳ
σύμπτωμα· καὶ γὰρ ἂν φύσει σπουδαῖος ἦς,
tívns dì, xaráyɛaw; on Crat. in Stob.
See the Comm. on St Matt. v. 3. R.

153. Quid turpius quam illudi? Cic.
Am. PR.

They used to sit promiscuously in the theatres, till L. Roscius Otho, the tribune, introduced a law, (A. U. 685.) by which the fourteen rows with cushions, next to the senators' seats, were reserved for knights exclusively. The elder Africanus had obtained the like privilege for the senators, about 130 years before. Both these regulations were extremely unpopular; and the distinction was growing obsolete, when Domitian revived it, and appointed overseers of the theatres to enforce it. Suet. Dom. 8. Lectius, one of these functionaries, was very officious; perhaps he may be the speaker here. (x. 291. R.) ef. Mart. V. viii. xxv. LU. PR. G. xxvii.

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Et sedeant hic-the theatre-keeper's
speech is taken up by Umbritius and
continued with indignant irony. LU.

156. Men of the vilest origin or cha-
racter take the equestrian seats, if they
have but the requisite income, no matter
how it may have been acquired.' Hor.
Ep. iv. 15 sq. PR. M.
a vaulted cellar, a low bro-
thel;' xi. 171. Hor. I S. ii. 30. R.

157. Not only was applause given to
the performers; but the emperors and

men of popularity were received with
plaudits on their entrance. Hor. I-Od.
xx. 3 sq. LU. R.

Plaudat implies spectet. PR.

Nitidus and cultus 'sleek, spruce, smart,' the consequence of opulence. M. R.

158. The Samnite gladiator wore a
crest of peacock's feathers, his adversary
the retiarius endeavoured to throw his net
over the plume. T. LI. Cum septem in-
columis pinnis redit ac recipit se; Lucil.
VS. cf. ii. 143. PR.

Lanista was
the fencing-master' who
taught the gladiators laniare' to mangle'
each other. PR.


159. Such was the whim and caprice.'

160. Of less fortune than the bride.' Themistocles showed more sense, saying that he preferred, for his daughter, a man without money to money without a man. Plut. LU.

161. To the dowry;' VS. rather le trousseau,' ACH. the wardrobe or outfit of the bride.'

Quis? nemo. LU. 160. 208. &c.

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162. Curia pauperibus clausa est, dat census honores; Ov. Even the lowest magistrates would never think of consult ing them.' T. The ædiles were of two sorts, curule and plebeian. PR. cf. AD. Agmine facto; Virg. G. iv. 167. Æ. i. 86. M. cf. x. 218. R.

163. He alludes to the secession of the Plebeians to the Sacred Mount. Flor. i. 23. LU. Liv. ii. 32 sq. iii. 50 sqq. PR. Tenues poor.' PR.

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164. Cf. vii. 61 sq. et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga est; Hor. II S. v.






165 Res angusta domi; sed Romæ durior illis
Conatus magno hospitium miserabile, magno
Servorum ventres, et frugi cœnula magno.
Fictilibus cœnare pudet, quod turpe negavit
Translatus subito ad Marsos mensamque Sabellam
170 Contentusque illic veneto duroque culullo.


basin. Pars magna Italiæ est, si verum admittimus, in qua Nemo togam sumit, nisi mortuus. Ipsa dierum Festorum herboso colitur si quando theatro Majestas tandemque redit ad pulpita notum 175 Exodium, quum personæ pallentis hiatum

8. M. pigra extulit arctis haud umquam sese virtus; Sil. xiii. 773. ad summas emergere opes; Lucr. ii. 13. R. adúvatov γὰρ ἢ οὐ ῥᾴδιον τὰ καλὰ πράττειν ἀχορήγητον ὄντα· πολλὰ γὰρ πράττεται καθάπερ δι ̓ ὀργάνων, καὶ διὰ φίλων καὶ πλούτου καὶ TOLITIKUS duváμEWS Arist. Eth. i. 8. PR. Claudian insinuates that things were changed for the better in his days; non obruta virtus paupertate jacet: lectos ex omnibus oris evehis, et meritum, non quæ cunabula, quæris; et qualis, non unde satus; Stil. ii. 121 sqq. G.

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166. Magno understand constat pretio. LU.

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167. Servants' appetites,' i. e. keep of servants.' VS. xiii. 162 168. Magnus ille est qui fictilibus sic utitur, quemadmodum argento; nec ille minor est, qui argento sic utitur, quemadmodum fictilibus; Sen. LU.

Negabit; GR. FE. HO. negabis; VA. negarit; cf. xiv. 134. G. but no alteration is necessary, for the verb is put indefinitely, 'which no one would be ashamed of.' LU. See notes on arißn, Her. iii. 82. and ἐφθάρησαν, Her. vii. 10.

169. Cf. xiv. 180. Frugality was not yet exploded in these parts of Italy. BE. At Rome every thing is extravagantly dear, and yet we dare not retrench for fear of being despised; in the country we should have none of these prejudices to encounter; we might be poor without becoming the objects of scorn, and frugal without being thought ridiculous.' G.

170. Veneto of common blue ware.' culullo a bowl or great handled cup,' properly of earthen ware.' Schol. on Hor. I Od. xxxi. 11. A. P. 434. Vene

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tum lutum; Mart. III. lxxiv. 4. cf. VIII. vi. 2. XIV. cviii. 2. Tib. I. i. 40. R.

172. The toga was the dress of ceremony, worn by the poor, when they paid their respects to the rich : it was also the dress of business. In the country the tunic was the usual dress, which was less cumbersome, 179. Martial says of Spain ignota est toga; XII. xviii. 17. cf. IV. lxvi. 3. X. xlvii. 5. li. 6. Pliny of his villa, ibi nulla necessitas toga; Ep. ix. 1. vii. 3. both of them regarding this circumstance as a comfort. But the Romans always dressed the remains of their deceased friends with the most punctilious care. Mart. IX. lviii. 8. G. LI. PR.

173. It was many ages before the Romans could boast of a permanent theatre; the first was built by Pompey, of hewn stone: Tac. A. xiv. 20. The temporary country theatres were constructed of turf. LU. Virg. Æ. v. 286 sqq. M. in gradibus sedit populus de cespite fuctis; Ov. A. A. i. 107 &c. R. Prop. IV. i. 15. Our word SCENE is derived from exǹ a shady bower.' PR. 174. The solemnity.' LU.

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Tandem at the expiration of the year,' or at the conclusion of the serious play.' Redit for rediit has its last syllable long. Pulpita 'the stage.' viii. 195. FE. LU. xiv. 257. R. Notum; in Rome some novelty was produced. PR.

175.The farce' acted after the tragedy, to dispel melancholy impressions. T. vi. 71. PR. The sivodia were performed at the beginning, and the boλa interludes' in the middle of the drama. principio exitus dignus exodiumque sequetur ; Lucil. VS. Liv. vii. 2. R.

The masks' were painted of a

In gremio matris formidat rusticus infans;
Equales habitus illic similesque videbis

Orchestram et populum: clari velamen honoris,
Sufficiunt tunicæ summis Ædilibus albæ.

180 Hic ultra vires habitus nitor: hic aliquid plus,
Quam satis est, interdum aliena sumitur arca.
Commune id vitium est. Hic vivimus ambitiosa
Paupertate omnes. Quid te moror? Omnia Romæ
Cum pretio. Quid das, ut Cossum aliquando salutes?
185 Ut te respiciat clauso Veiento labello?

Ille metit barbam, crinem hic deponit amati.

ghastly colour' and had wide mouths' to allow free scope to the voice of the actor. FA. LU. στόμα κεχηνὸς πάμμεγα ὡς καταπιόμενος τοὺς θεατάς· Luc. ex 27. cf. Hor. A. P. 277. Plaut. Rud. II. vi. 51. R.

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176. That women used to carry children to the theatre appears from the following passage; nutrices pueros infantes, minutulos domi ut procurent, neve spectatum afferant, ne et ipsa sitiant, et pueri peritent fame; neve esurientes hic quasi hædi obvagiant; Plaut. Poen. pr. PR.

177. Illic in country towns.

178. The orchestra' was the space next the stage, where the senators were accommodated with chairs; vii. 47. The rustic theatre had no such orchestra; the word here denotes the place next the performers, where the most consequential country-gentlemen sat. FE. PR. G.

179. For the very highest personages, the ædiles, it is distinction enough to wear a white tunic;' LU. FE. which would have been no distinction at Rome. Mart. IV. ii. PR.

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180. Beyond their means.' BRI. vii. 138. R.

181. And this extravagance is at the expence of others;' vi. 351 sqq. by either hiring, borrowing, or pilfering. LU.

182. ii. 46. LU.

Ambitious of living beyond our income,' in order to be thought richer than we really are. LU. vi. 352. (vii. 50.) Theoph. Ch. xxi. R.

183. Why should I detain you? whence the form of adjourning the senate "Nil vos moror, Patres Conscripti;" LU. Ne te morer, audi quo rem deducam; Hor. I S. i. 14 sq. M.



lays aside,


You pay dearly for every thing at
Rome; cf. 166 sq. LU.

184. What does it not cost you to
bribe the domestics of Cussus to admit
you to his morning levee?' LU. Dif
ficiles aditus primos habet. "Haud mihi
deero: muneribus servos corrumpam: non,
hodie si exclusus fuero, desistam;" &c.
Hor. I S. ix. 56 sqq. PR. zò vewea
κακῶς συρίζοντι καὶ ὀνομακλήτορι Λιβυκῷ
ταττόμενον καὶ μισθὸν τελοῦντα τῆς μνήμης
ro ivóμaros Lucian . T. iTi motã
συνόντων R. We may suppose Aurelius
Cossus to have been a wealthy nobleman
of the day. M.

185. Fabricius Veiento; iv. 113. vi. 82 sqq. T. Tac. xiv. 50. Plin. iv. 22. PR. Mart. X. x. 5. Suet. Ner. 37. Seneca de Br. Vit. 2. R.

Clauso labello 'without once deigning to open his lips.' PR.

186. The wealthier Romans, on arriving at manhood, dedicated the first shavings of their beard and pollings of their hair to some deity: many to the Pythian Apollo, others to Esculapius, others to the river gods of their country: Mart. I. xxxii. IX. xvii. xviii. Nero enclosed his in a golden pix adorned with pearls, and offered it with great state to Capitoline Jove. Dio. Suet. 12. The day of dedication was kept as a festival, and complimentary presents were expected from friends and clients, as on birthdays. Here the poor client has to pay the same compliment to the patron's minions, in order to gain the ear of their lord. Ille and hic are two patrons. LU. FA. PR. G. See Hom. II. 141 sqq. and Schol. on Pind. P. iv. 145.

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